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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology, 10e Tarbuck & Lutgens
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Rocks Earth, 10e - Chapter 7 Stan Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is a Sedimentary Rock? Sedimentary rocks are products of mechanical and chemical weathering. They comprise about 5% (by volume) of Earth’s outer 10 miles. Contain evidence of past environments: Provide information about sediment transport Often contain fossils
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is a Sedimentary Rock? Sedimentary rocks are important for economic considerations because they may contain: Coal Petroleum and natural gas Sources of Fe, Al, and Mn
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Sedimentary Rocks Sediment originates from mechanical and/or chemical weathering. Rock types are based on the source of the material. Detrital rocks—transported sediment as solid particles Chemical rocks—sediment that was once in solution
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Detrital Sedimentary Rocks The chief constituents of detrital rocks include: Clay minerals Quartz Feldspars Micas Particle size is used to distinguish among the various rock types.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Particle Size in Detrital Rocks
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Common detrital sedimentary rocks Shale – Mud-sized particles in thin layers that are called lamina – Most common sedimentary rock Sandstone – Sand-sized particles – Forms in a variety of environments – Predominant mineral = quartz
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Shale with Plant Remains
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Quartz Sandstone
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Conglomerate and breccia – Both are composed of particles greater than 2 millimeters in diameter. – Conglomerate consists largely of rounded gravels. – Breccia is composed mainly of large angular particles.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Conglomerate
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Gravel Deposits, if Lithified Would Become Conglomerate
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Breccia
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Consist of precipitated material that was once in solution Precipitation of material occurs by: Inorganic processes Organic processes (biochemical origin)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Common chemical sedimentary rocks Limestone – Most abundant chemical rock – Composed chiefly of the mineral calcite – Marine biochemical limestones form as coral reefs, coquina (broken shells), and chalk (microscopic organisms). – Inorganic limestones include travertine and oolitic limestone.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Coquina
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Oolitic Limestone
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Common chemical sedimentary rocks Dolostone – Typically formed secondarily from limestone. Chert – Microcrystalline quartz – Varieties include flint and jasper.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Agate
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Common chemical sedimentary rocks Evaporites – Evaporation triggers deposition of chemical precipitates. – Examples include rock salt and rock gypsum.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Common chemical sedimentary rocks Coal – Different from other rocks because it is composed of organic material. – Stages in coal formation (in order): 1. Plant material 2. Peat 3. Lignite 4. Bituminous
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Stages of Coal Formation
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Turning Sediment into Rock Many changes occur to sediment after it is deposited. Diagenesis—chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place after sediments are deposited Occurs within the upper few kilometers of Earth’s crust
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Turning Sediment into Rock Diagenesis Includes: – Recrystallization — development of more stable minerals from less stable ones. – Lithification — sediments are transformed into solid rock by: » Compaction and cementation » Natural cements, which include calcite, silica, and iron oxide
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the type of material. Two major groups 1.Detrital 2.Chemical
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Sedimentary Rocks Two major textures are used in the classification of sedimentary rocks: 1.Clastic – Discrete fragments and particles – All detrital rocks have a clastic texture. 2.Nonclastic – Pattern of interlocking crystals – May resemble an igneous rock
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Sedimentary Rocks
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Environments Geographic setting where sediment is accumulating Determines the nature of the sediments that accumulate (grain size, grain shape, etc.)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Environments Types of sedimentary environments Continental – Dominated by stream erosion and deposition – Glacial – Wind (eolian) Marine – Shallow (to about 200 meters) – Deep (seaward of continental shelves)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Environments Transitional (shoreline) – Tidal flats – Lagoons – Deltas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Environments Sedimentary facies Different sediments often accumulate adjacent to one another at the same time. Each unit (facies) possesses a distinctive set of characteristics reflecting the conditions of a particular environment. Merging of adjacent facies is a gradual transition.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Facies
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Structures Provide information useful in the interpretation of Earth’s history Types of sedimentary structures Strata, or beds (most characteristic of sedimentary rocks) Bedding planes that separate strata Cross-bedding
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cross-Bedding in Sandstone
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Structures Types of sedimentary structures Graded beds Ripple marks Mud cracks Fossils
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ripple Marks
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mud Cracks
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. End of Chapter 7
Chapter 3 Rocks. Rock – any solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter that occurs naturally as part of our planet –Usually solid mixtures of minerals.
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Classification of Rocks 4 Rocks are aggregates of minerals. Geologists divide rocks into three groups: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary.
Sedimentary Rocks Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks.
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Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements Including the Geological History of North Carolina!
Sedimentary Rocks. 1) Formation of Sedimentary Rocks- Sediments- loose materials such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of shell that have been.
Rocks Chapter 4. What is a rock? Rock Mixture of minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, organic material, or other natural materials.
Liz LaRosa 2010http://www.middleschoolscience.com Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted.
What is a Rock? Naturally-occurring mixtures of minerals, mineraloids (no crystals), or organic matter. Naturally-occurring mixtures of minerals, mineraloids.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow.
1 Lecture 9: Surface Processes: chemical and physical weathering and sedimentary rocks Questions –What is the rock cycle? How do rocks get destroyed and.
Chapter 8: Rocks and Minerals Section 2: Rocks Section 3: Rock Cycle.
Answer the following questions about the picture to the right: How and where did this rock cool? What minerals might it be made up of? Make sure to explain.
Geology Part II The Rock Cycle Rocks: –Igneous –Sedimentary –Metamorphic Geologic Profiles Geologic Time –Relative –Absolute –Radioactive Dating.
The Rock Cycle One kind of rock turns into another which turns into another which turns into another which turns into another.
GY1004 Principles of Physical Geography B Dr Mark Powell Room F44 DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY.
Elements in Earth Science Each element is made of atoms that are the same Each atom is made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
©2014-C26 The rules for B & C are the same What to expect There are 20 stations around the perimeter of the room. The students will rotate from station.
Chapter: Rocks and Minerals Table of Contents Section 3: Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock CycleMetamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle Section 1: MineralsEarths.
I. Minerals and Rocks A. Early Earth 1. Early surface was a violent place 2. Full of molten lava and no atmosphere; it took time for Earth to cool and.
1 T or F - Metamorphic rocks are formed deep in the crust.
Unit 3 Minerals and Rocks The Big Idea: Minerals and rocks are basic building blocks of Earth and can change over time from one type of mineral or rock.
Soil Characteristics. Soil a layer of natural materials on the earths surface containign both organic and inorganic materials and capable of supporting.
Summer School Geosciences Geology Lecture 4 Rocks and the Rock Cycle.
1 Lecture 8a: Stratigraphy, Paleomagnetism Questions –How is stratigraphy related to analysis of sedimentary environments? –What happens when sea-level.
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Earth Science, 6e The Ocean Floor Chapter - 9. A-The vast world ocean (page 260) Earth is often referred to as the blue planet 71% of Earths surface is.
Rocks and the Rock Cycle. Lets Review!! Grains Grains Texture Texture Extrusive Extrusive Intrusive Intrusive Porphyritic Porphyritic Sediment Sediment.
Rock Identification Rock Lab. Identification of all three rock groups is based on TEXTURE and COMPOSITION Identification of all three rock groups is based.
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