2 Productive Teams Workshop Objectives Understand Belbin Team Role Theory and methods in order to be able to effectively apply this research based approach to obtain enhanced business resultsUnderstand your preferred, manageable and least preferred team rolesGain an appreciation of your self-perception and the perceptions of others of your team role profileLearn to use the Belbin methods in a team setting using a powerful team mapping exercise that highlights the strengths and weaknesses of a team and provides methods to improve business results
3 Workshop Agenda Agenda Review Introduction to Belbin Team Roles Belbin Review: Productive Teams & Team RolesIndividual Report InterpretationTeam MappingQuestions, Wrap Up and Bs & Cs
4 Belbin Team RolesDr. Meredith Belbin from Cambridge University devoted over 10 years of research into team effectiveness:The skill or individual excellence of the team members was not a predictor of a team’s results.The way that the individual members behaved contributed to or detracted from the team’s effectiveness.He identified nine predictable behavior patterns or “team roles.”He demonstrated that with a careful balance of technical skills and the optimal behavior patterns, we can select and develop teams with a predictably higher degree of success.
5 Belbin Team Roles Henley Management College (now known as The Henley Business School at the University of Reading –an English triple accredited business school and 3rd largest provider of MBAs in the world)Almost 10 Years – Intense Observational Research9 Distinct “Clusters of Behavior” or “Areas of Contribution” emergedA bit of back ground on Belbin Team Roles and the validity. Back in the late 60’s and early 70’s Henley Management College in England was the premier executive Management training. It was similar to an executive MBA. It was a business simulation, where they were put in teams and then measured results. Some teams did outstanding and stayed in touch with each other for years while other teams could hardly stand to be in the same room together – much less stay in touch! They were perplexed and brought in noted industrial psychologist Dr. Meredith Belbin to help them understand why this was so. Dr. Belbin was so intrigued that he began an intense 9.5 year observational research study. And what began to emerge is that there were 9 distinct - identifiable and predictable “clusters of behavior” or different areas of contribution. And it was in fact when you had all 9 of these “areas of contribution” or “clusters of behaviors” present that a team had a higher predictability to perform better. These became known as the Belbin 9 Team Roles.It is not a psychometrics test or personality test, it is about how you behave and contribute in a team setting.It is also not to be confused with your job function, like project manager
6 Predicting Team Performance A typical example of Belbin’s ability to predict the order of finish of teams in the Henley Management Simulations.Predicted Order of FinishActual Order of Finish12345PredictedActual54321XThe red X's on the graph represent the different teams participating in the simulation.Red X’s on the diagonal line represent where Belbin's predictions and the team's performance matched exactly.
7 What is a Team Role?A tendency to behave, contribute, and interrelate with others in a particular way -- when working in a teamBelbin’s research found that when all 9 “areas of contribution” – or team roles were covered (and balanced), that team had a higher predictability for success and high-performance.(versus a “Functional Role,” which refers to the job demands that a person has to meet by supplying the requisite technical skills and operational knowledge)So the official of a Team Role, is the tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way.
8 Team Roles Nine Roles Identified The team roles fall into three categories for each person:Manageable roles they can assumeLeast Preferred rolesNatural or Preferred rolesSo Belbin identified 9 Team Roles and that they fall into 3 catagories: Preferred Roles – most natural and easiest to do), Manageable Roles that are not quite as easy for us, be we can do it if required and Least Preferred roles – those areas that we really struggle with – we don’t enjoy doing it.Most people have 3 roles that are Preferred; 3 that are Manageable and 3 that are least preferred – or variations of that.As individuals differ greatly in personality & behavior, so too will their team role compositions vary.
9 Team Role Categories Thinking Roles Action-oriented Roles People-orientedRolesPlantShaperCo-ordinatorSo we’re going to go through the 9 Team Roles – they are broken down into the 3 thinking roles: PL, ME and SP. 3 Action-oriented Roles: SH, IMP and CF and the 3 People-oriented roles: CO, TW & RI.A key point is – I said we tend to have 3 preferred roles, 3 managagle roles and 3 least-preferred – I want ot be clear it can be in any order at all. You don’t have to have 1 in each of these areas – it is like a fingerprint – everyone is unique in their Team Role make up.So I’m going to go through each Team Roles and explain what contribution it makes. So I’m going to pass out a sheet with Team role information and I’d like to ask each of you to think about yourself and which ones you really relate to. If the Team Role contribution sounds like your area of strength, make a note. Also if you think of people you know that behavior similar to the description, capture that. We are going to be doing an exercise later where I am going to ask you to identify which of the Team Roles you believe most reflect how you contribute. Alternatively, I will as you to identify which roles you least identify with.ImplementerTeamworkerMonitor EvaluatorSpecialistCompleter FinisherResource Investigator
10 Team Role Contribution The Nine Team RolesTeam Role ContributionThinkingPLPlantMEMonitor EvaluatorSPSpecialistCreative, imaginative, free-thinking.Generates ideas & solves hard problems.Sober, strategic and discerning. Seesall options and judges accurately.Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated.Provides rare knowledge and skills.Allowable WeaknessIgnores incidentals. Too pre-occupied to fully communicate.Lacks drive and ability to inspireothers. Can be overly critical.Contributes only on a narrowfront. Dwells on technicalities.Prone to provocation.Offends people's feelings.Somewhat inflexible. Slowto respond to new possibilities.Inclined to worry unduly.Reluctant to delegate.Indecisive in crunch situationsAvoids confrontation.Over-optimistic. Loses interestonce initial enthusiasm expires.Can be seen as manipulative.Offloads own share of the work.ActionSHShaperIMPImplementerCFCompleter FinisherChallenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure.Has drive to overcome obstacles.Practical, reliable, efficient. Turns ideasinto actions and organizes tasks.Painstaking, conscientious, anxious.Finds errors. Polishes and perfects.Each team roles makes a specific contribution but remember it is a “cluster of behaviors” and not all of the behaviors in the cluster actually contribute, but are still part of the cluster. Belbin calls this “Allowable weaknesses” And the behavior is allowable as long as it doesn’t negatively impact others and the team. If it does, then it becomes a “non-allowable” weakness and needs to be managed.PeopleTWTeam WorkerRIResource InvestigatorCOCoordinatorCo-operative, perceptive and diplomatic.Listens and averts friction.Outgoing, enthusiastic, communicative.Explores opportunities, develops contactsMature, confident, identifies talent.Clarifies goals. Delegates effectively.
11 Individual Characteristics Contribution to the Team Plant (PL)Individual CharacteristicsContribution to the TeamCreativeImaginativeUnorthodoxProblem solvingLateral thinkingInnovationGenerates new ideasPlants are innovators and inventors, and can be highly creative. They provide seeds and ideas from which major developments spring. Usually they prefer to operate by themselves and often work in an unorthodox way. They tend to react strongly to criticism and praise. Their ideas may often be radical, and may lack practical constraint. They are independent, clever and original, and may be weak in communicating with people who are on a different wavelength.Function:The main functions of a PL are to generate new proposals, and to solve complex problems. PLs are often needed in the initial stages of a project or when a project is failing to progress. PLs usually make their mark as founders of companies or as originators of new products.Too many PLs in one organisation, however, may be counter-productive as they tend to spend time reinforcing their own ideas and engaging each other in combat.
12 Plant (PL) Weaknesses Allowable Non-Allowable Out of touch with realityIgnores incidentalsStrong ownership of ideas when cooperation would yield better resultsDiscounts other peoples ideas
13 Monitor Evaluator (ME) Individual CharacteristicsContribution to the TeamDiscerning, objectiveQuestioningSees all optionsDefuses over- enthusiasmApplies reasonIdentifies problemsMonitor Evaluators are serious-minded, prudent individuals with a built-in immunity from being over-enthusiastic. They are slow to make decisions, preferring to think things over. Usually they have a high critical thinking ability. They have a capacity for shrewd judgements that take all factors into account. A good ME is seldom wrong.Function: MEs are best suited to analysing problems, and evaluating ideas and suggestions. They are very good at weighing up the pros and cons of options. To many outsiders the ME may appear as dry, boring or even over-critical. Some people are surprised that they become managers. Nevertheless, many MEs occupy strategic posts, and thrive in high-level appointments. In some jobs success or failure hinges on a relatively small number of crunch decisions. This is ideal territory for a ME, for the person who is never wrong is the one who scores in the end.
14 Monitor Evaluator (ME) Weaknesses AllowableNon-AllowableUninspiringScepticalCynical without logicOverly pessimistic
15 Individual Characteristics Contribution to the Team Specialist (SP)Individual CharacteristicsContribution to the TeamHas rare skills or knowledgeDedicated and professionalSingle-mindedIgnores factors outside own areas of competenceKeeps up to dateAccurate informationAware of new developmentsSpecialists are dedicated individuals who pride themselves on acquiring technical skills and specialized knowledge. Their priorities center on maintaining professional standards, and on furthering and defending their own field. While they show great pride in their own subject, they usually lack interest in other peoples interests. Eventually, the SP becomes the expert by sheer commitment along a narrow front. There are few people who have either the single-mindedness or the aptitude to become a first-class SP.Function: SPs have an indispensable part to play in some teams, for they provide the rare skill upon which the organization's service or product is based. As managers, they command support because they know more about their subject than anyone else, and can usually be called upon to make decisions based on in-depth experience.
16 Specialist (SP) Weaknesses Allowable Non-Allowable Contributes on only a limited frontDwells on specialized personal interestsIgnores factors outside own areas of competenceDoesn’t acknowledge wider company objectives
17 Individual Characteristics Contribution to the Team Shaper (SH)Individual CharacteristicsContribution to the TeamChallengingDriving and dynamicThrives on pressureEffective delegatorLeads in difficult situationsTakes hard decisionsOvercomes obstaclesShapers are highly motivated people with a lot of nervous energy, and a great need for achievement. Usually they are assertive (sometimes aggressive) extroverts, and possess strong drive. SHs like to challenge others, and their concern is to win. They like to lead, and to push others into action. If obstacles arise, they will find a way round. Headstrong and assertive, they tend to show strong emotional response to any form of disappointment or frustration. SHs are single-minded and argumentative, and may lack interpersonal understanding. Theirs is the most competitive team role. Function: SHs generally make good managers because they generate action and thrive under pressure. They are excellent at sparkling life into a team, and are very useful in groups where political complications are apt to slow things down. SHs are inclined to rise above problems of this kind, and forge ahead regardless. They are well suited to making necessary changes, and do not mind taking unpopular decisions. As the name implies, they try to impose some shape of pattern on group discussion or activities. They are probably the most effective members of a team in guaranteeing positive action.
18 Shaper (SH) Weaknesses AllowableNon-AllowableProvocativeAggressiveToo task-focusedInability to recover situation through humor or apologyAlways think they’re right!
19 Individual Characteristics Contribution to the Team Implementer (IMP)Individual CharacteristicsContribution to the TeamDisciplinedEfficient and organisedReliablePractical solutions from ideasFollows proceduresTurns concept into realityImplementers have practical common sense, and a good deal of self-control and discipline. They favor hard work and tackle problems in a systematic fashion. On a wider front the IMP is typically a person whose loyalty and interest lie with the Company, and who is less concerned with the pursuit of self-interest. However, IMPs may lack spontaneity and show signs of rigidity.Function: IMPs are useful to an organization because of their reliability and capacity for application. They succeed because they are efficient, and because they have a sense of what is feasible and relevant. It is said that many executives only do the jobs they wish to do, and neglect those tasks which they find distasteful. By contrast, an IMP will do what needs to be done. Good IMPs often progress to high management positions by virtue of good organizational skills, and competency in tackling necessary tasks.
20 Implementer (IMP) Weaknesses AllowableNon-AllowableSlow to see possibilitiesSomewhat inflexibleObstructs change for no good reasonA barrier to progress
21 Completer Finisher (CF) Individual CharacteristicsContribution to the TeamConscientiousAttention to detailDelivers resultsPerfects existing systemsEradicates errorsCrosses the t’s, dots the i’sCompleter-Finishers have a great capacity for follow-through and attention to detail. They are unlikely to start anything they cannot finish. They are motivated by internal anxiety, yet outwardly they may appear unruffled. Typically, they are introverted, and require little in the way of external stimulus or incentive. CFs can be intolerant of those with a casual disposition. They are not often keen on delegating, preferring to tackle all tasks themselves. Function: CFs are invaluable where tasks demand close concentration and a high degree of accuracy. In management they excel by the high standards to which they aspire, and by their concern for precision, attention to detail and follow-through.
22 Completer Finisher (CF) Weaknesses AllowableNon-AllowableAnxiousReluctant to delegateUnreasonably obsessive behaviorProduces a Rolls-Royce instead of a Mini
23 Individual Characteristics Contribution to the Team Coordinator (CO)Individual CharacteristicsContribution to the TeamStrong sense of objectivesPromotes decision- makingDelegates readilyGood chairmanLeads through empowermentChairs meetingsPromotes team contribution.The distinguishing feature of Co-ordinators is their ability to encourage others to work towards shared goals. Mature, trusting and confident, they delegate readily. In interpersonal relations they are quick to spot individual talents, and to use them in the pursuit of group objectives. While COs are not necessarily the cleverest members of a team, they have a broad and worldly outlook, and generally command respect. Function: COs are well placed when put in charge of a team of people with diverse skills and personal characteristics. They perform better in dealing with colleagues of near or equal rank than in directing subordinates. Their motto might well be ‘consultation with control’, and they usually believe in tackling problems calmly. In some organisations COs are inclined to clash with Shapers due to their contrasting management styles.
24 Coordinator (CO) Weaknesses Allowable Non-Allowable Manipulates within reasonDelegates personal workloadTakes credit for the efforts of othersOver-reliance on team work
25 Individual Characteristics Contribution to the Team Teamworker (TW)Individual CharacteristicsContribution to the TeamCooperative and supportiveDiplomaticAverts frictionGood listenerPromotes team spiritBuilds peer relationshipsFacilitates communicationsTeam Workers are the most supportive members of a team. They are mild, sociable and concerned about others. They have a great capacity for flexibility, and adapting to different situations and people. TWs are perceptive and diplomatic. They are good listeners, and are generally popular members of a group. They operate with sensitivity at work but they may be indecisive in crunch situations. Function: The role of the TW is to prevent interpersonal problems arising within a team, and thus allow all team members to contribute effectively. Not liking friction, they will go to great lengths to avoid it. It is not uncommon for TWs to become senior managers especially if line managers are dominated by Shapers. This creates a climate in which the diplomatic and perceptive skills of a TW become real assets, especially under a managerial regime where conflicts are liable to arise or to be artificially suppressed. TW managers are not seen as a threat, and therefore the most accepted and favored people to work for. Team Workers have a lubricating effect on teams. Morale is better, and people seem to co-operate better when they are around.
27 Resource Investigator (RI) Individual CharacteristicsContribution to the TeamExcellent communicatorRecognises opportunitiesExtrovertedEnthusiasticDevelops contactsExplores opportunitiesNegotiatesMakes external links.Resource Investigators are often enthusiastic, quick-off-the-mark extroverts. They are good at communicating with people both inside and outside the company. They are natural negotiators, and are adept at exploring new opportunities and developing contacts. Although not a great source of original ideas, the RI is effective when it comes to picking up other peoples ideas and developing them. As the name suggests, they are skilled at finding out what is available, and what can be done. They usually receive a warm reception from others because of their outgoing nature.RIs have relaxed personalities with a strong inquisitive sense, and readiness to see the possibilities in anything new. However, unless they remain stimulated by others, their enthusiasm rapidly fades.Function:RIs are good at exploring and reporting back on ideas, developments or resources outside the group. They are the best people to set up external contacts, and to carry out any subsequent negotiations.They have an ability to think on their feet, and to probe others for information
28 Weaknesses Resource Investigator (RI) Allowable Non-Allowable Can be over-optimisticLoses interest after initial stagesLets clients down by not following throughToo externally focused
29 Factors Determining Individual Behavior in a Team PersonalityMentalabilitiesRolelearningBEHAVIORValues andmotivationsExternalinfluencesExperience
30 The Complexity of Team Interaction 123456123456123456??123456??????123456123456123456
31 Team Roles Key Concepts – Individual Be aware of and manage your Allowable WeaknessesThis is the price to be paid for being good in your preferred roles, e.g., a strong Shaper is going to hurt some peoples feelings as they forge aheadEnsure that Allowable Weakness does not become “Disallowable”:Lose a Plant’s attention during a meeting because they are dreaming up a creative solution = OKPlant forgets to come to meeting because they are thinking about something else = NOT OK!
32 Team Roles Key Concepts – Individual Focus on what you do bestUnderstand and excel in your natural, preferred roles and manage, rather than struggle, to be good at your least- preferred roles
33 Team Roles Key Concepts – Team Diversity is essential –All 9 roles will be needed at some pointBelbin demonstrated that diversity is a key predictor of actual results, it provides a framework for constructive conflictDoesn’t mean a team needs 9 people (5-6 is typically the ideal)Each role should be represented within the teamSome roles will be more or less important at a given time or for certain tasks facing the team. Who plays each role may also evolve & change over time.
34 Team Roles Key Concepts – Team Beware of having too many of same role on teamToo many Plants – all brainstorming, no actionToo many Monitor Evaluators – analysis paralysisToo many Shapers – CONFLICT & !!***#%!!/!$!***#%!#$!/
35 Team Roles Key Concepts – Team BEWARE OF LABELLING PEOPLE!!Everyone has 3 to 6 roles that are preferred or manageable - they may need to switch among these different roles based on the circumstances.PlantShaper
37 Reading Your Report Key Questions to answer Is my report coherent ? Are my strongest roles consistent across observers and myself ?Are the weaknesses seen by the observers ‘allowable’ ?Are my top roles much more evident to the observers than my weaker roles ?The instructor will hand out everyone’s individual reports
38 Analysis of your Team Role Composition Example ReportWhat are my Top Roles ?The overall rank order on the bottom line is the weighted addition of the Self- Perception and the total of the Observers’ input. The weighting is 57-67% observers, depending on how many observers participated.
39 Team Role Overview Example Report 75 – 100 Clearly Projected Top Role RICO50 – 74 Strong RolesTWPLExample ReportSP0 – 49 Delegate to Others?SHMEIMPCFGenerally, you want to play to your preferred roles whenever possible. Pick the one best suited to the setting, set of tasks or other people you are with.Sometimes a role outside your top 3 is the one best suited to the situation; think of this as “flexing or stretching”, especially if the role has a lower score.Try to let others fill your weakest roles.
40 Comparing Self and Observer Perceptions This report is based on your Self-Perception plus 5 Observer AssessmentDifferences of 40 or moreCoherence is the alignment of self-perception and observers’ perceptions of what you do and are good at.It is important because it is correlated with being self-aware and effectively working with others (playing to your true strengths). Perfect alignment is impossible, but check for large gaps. Most people have some “disconnects” between the two.Example Report
41 Your Team Role Preferences In this example, the person feels they excel at three roles (RI, CO, TW), and have little aptitude for four roles (SH, ME, IMP, CF).The system also checks for consistency in the self-perception data and “drops points” when inconsistencies are found. This person had none, but scores of 5-15 are common.Example Report
42 Observed Team Role Strengths and Weaknesses Are these weaknesses allowable ?Some weaknesses are to be expected, especially on the strongest roles. They may occur when you play the role to its proper extent. They are allowable as long as they do not become too extreme.Having no weakness on a role, especially the stronger ones, may indicate a “hidden strength” (a role that could safely be played more if you choose to).?
43 List of Observer Responses Maximum score = 2 x number of observersExample ReportThis is the complete list of words your observers could choose from to describe your behavior.All words line up to a specific role as either a strength or associated weakness (italicized).
44 Team Role FeedbackThe data on this page is based on common themes for people like yourself.There are over 250 reports like this in the system. The report in your package was chosen based on what your top roles were and what your weakest role was.Example Report
46 Individual, Team, Organization Self-AwarenessAwareness of OthersTeam Maps & Pairs Analysis2Self-ManagementTeam Awareness & EffectivenessIndividual Team Role ReportsSelf-Mastery1Culture AnalysisOrganization Awareness & Change3
47 Team Role Mapping Exercise Use the OVERALL ranking(see page 3 of your report)PLMESPSHCFIMPCOTWRISusanDeniseMikeJohnBethTimRajxFor each Team Role:Surplus ?Void ?Tendencies?What adjustments will be required ?xThinkingActionPeople
49 Recognises opportunities Team Role OppositesMONITOR EVALUATORJudges impartiallyCO-ORDINATORGeneralisesPLANTTheorizesRESOURCEINVESTIGATORRecognises opportunitiesSHAPERDrivesSPECIALISTSpecifiesCOMPLETERFINISHERPerfects establishedsystemsIMPLEMENTERAppliesTEAMWORKERSupports
50 Famous characters and their possible Belbin team-roles RobinWilliamsMotherTheresaGeneralPattonWarrenBuffetSpockMarthaStewart
51 How can Belbin Team Roles help you and your team?
52 Unleashing the potential of each employee Identify natural talents and attributesDevelop these talents rather than dwell on shortcomingsWherever possible, realign the job demands with the natural talents.
53 How Effective Managers Behave No single combination makes a good managerBe a good example of who you areUnderstand why some people may annoy you and it’s OK
54 Tips for managers Be self aware Take an interest in others Adapt to the specific demands of your situationMake the most of the available resources
55 Reports currently available in: ChineseJapaneseCzechNorwegianDanishPolishDutchPortugueseEnglishRomanianEstonianRussianFinnishSlovakFrenchSlovenianGermanSpanishGreekSwedishItalianTurkish
56 Background DeeDee Smartt Lynch DeeDee is a Senior Consultant with 3 Circle Partners and contributes her deep expertise in Belbin Teams Roles, a scientifically proven system for designing, developing and improving teams. She currently provides sole source Belbin Accreditation for North America through 3Circle Partners.While living in the United Kingdom DeeDee launched a new regional market presence in Manchester, for a successful Scottish OD consulting firm.Prior to being a consultant DeeDee was Director of Economic Development in Andrews County, Texas, where she helped establish a regional energy initiative, attracting interest and investment from the nuclear, wind, geo-thermal and coal industries.She organized cross state collaborations with local and state entities (including Texas Governor Rick Perry’s Office of Economic Development) to establish and promote a regional nuclear zone.DeeDee owned a successful event management company in Austin, Texas specializing in corporate events and reunions, producing over 250 turn-key events. Prior to which DeeDee worked at the Texas State Legislature for three state representatives.DeeDee graduated from the University of Texas at Austin with a Bachelor of Science in Organizational Communications.DeeDee Smartt LynchWashington, D.C. Metro Areadeedeesmarttlynch@3circlepartners.com
57 The Crisis Team Instructions Make up a crisis Compose a Crisis Team Not on the basis of Functional RolesOn the basis of the “Pure” Team RolesWhat Team Role IN, why?What Team Role OUT, why?What numbers?What tasks?Optional: names of well-known people that match the descriptionsFull consensus, everyone has a vetoPrepare a presentation