Presentation on theme: "The Second Arab Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction Study on Hot-spots in Selected Disaster- Induced Displaced Communities in Egypt Dr. Magdy Alaam."— Presentation transcript:
The Second Arab Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction Study on Hot-spots in Selected Disaster- Induced Displaced Communities in Egypt Dr. Magdy Alaam
Areas That Are Vulnerable to drought Hazard The region is subject to frequent agriculture (soil moisture) droughts and rain fed crops are strongly affected by precipitation fluctuations; mainly in the areas were annual rainfall range between 120/150 – 400 mm, they are considered moderately to sever vulnerable areas to drought; figure (3.9) (Erian et al, 2006).
Area of the Study The study was carried out in area to the end of irrigation network to the north of the Delta that called Sugar Beet Zone and El Hamam “SBZ”. The studied area is located to the west of Maryut area between longitudes 30º 57’ 00’’ N and 30º 41’ 00’’ N; and latitudes 29º 55’ 00’’ E and 29º 25’ 00’’ E, as shows in the associated map. Area Map
Area and Geography The coastal zone west of Alexandria shows a succession of at least five limestone ridges at varying distances from each other, but all parallel to the present coastal line. According to (ULG, 19793) the most striking structural feature is the series of ridges and troughs, which run across the studied area. Essentially the geological section can be described as follows: Recent and Holocene – Aeolian sand and fluviatile loam. Most noticeable in the southern part of the area. Late Pleistocene – Lagoonal clays sometimes gypsiferous sometimes with sand. Generally found throughout the area although absent at high elevations such as the Alum Shaltut Ridge. They have been formed during a succession of high and low sea levels. Pleistocene – Deltaic sands and gravels sometimes with clay beds. The limestone ridges were formed during this period and were probably marine coastal beach ridges formed by successive high sea levels. Pliocene – Marine grey clays sometimes with calcareous sandstone beds. These are found throughout the area at varying depth.
Major community Challenges The surveyed communities’ faces complex impacts of drought which were extended at many economic sectors, as water is essential to households’ ability to produce goods and provide services. The drought impacts were directly and indirectly affected the communities at economic, environmental and social level. Shortage of water supplies comes through Toraa El Nasr and inadequate and poorly distributed rainfall lead to reduced crop production and Livestock. Usually, livestock sales act as a buffer in times of hardship, by selling these assets to purchase food and other families’ commitments. Farmers’ information about climate change events and its impacts on agriculture is limited. Increase in temperature lead to change in whit sowing dates by two weeks. Hence, limited knowledge, led farmers to continue white sowing as old routine which decreased the harvest.
Lacks of harvest machinery, to speed up harvesting process and increase productivity. Left out residuals could be assorted with soil to increase its fertility. Currently, farmers get rid of residuals by burning, harming the bio content of cultivation soil. Farmers are facing difficulties in marketing summer crops, such as tomato and watermelon. While they don’t have same problem with whit marketing, as the department of agriculture provide him with needed support in marketing it, as a strategic product. The area is realizing shortages in modern storage facilities for different crops, especially whit and maize. Farmers facing annoy complications in procurement of fertilizers, especially after assigning fertilizers disruptions to the general association instead of Agriculture Bank. Shortage in water quantities supplied via Toraa El Nassr, associated with lake of monitoring and controlling water embezzlement. Water is rarely reach water canal ends, especially sub-canal 15. This accompanied with shortage of rain fall quantities.
Unregularly maintenance of water canals along with augmented quantities of municipal and agriculture waste on water canals edges and nearby residential areas. The area is lacks vocational and after middle education Truncated health care services Deteriorated roads conditions
Communities Awareness of Climate Change and its Impact The present survey reflects that in general population in surveyed communities is aware about global climate change. The sources of information are usually non-scientific materials. The awareness regarding important agencies and protocol in the field of climate change was found to be poor. A majority of respondents support personal measures for mitigating climate change. However, t إ he levels of the area climate change awareness are still low amongst surveyed communities. This does not imply that the effects are not felt: the impacts are evident, but the link between lifestyle and climate change needs to be better interpreted to enable effective adoption of related approaches to adapt to the effects. There is need to conduct large survey to generate information. Proposed survey will form the basis to establish a foundation for decision makers for climate change mitigation activities. It is also recommended that awareness campaigns/programs regarding climate change and measures to combat to be introduced for better awareness.
Current Laws and Institutional Polices Compass Laws: Law 4, 1994 and its modifications (law 9 for 2009) Agriculture law Law 48/1982 for water resources and irrigation Law 93 for waste water Housing and municipality law 275 &273 Local administration law for 1976 Marine and ports law Fisheries and linked resources law Mineral resources and quarries Industry law Polices Development Plans, 2000-2005,2005-2010, 2010-2015 Environmental Plans, 2000-2005,2005-2010, 2010-2013 Natural Environmental Strategies 1986, 1992, 2000 and 2012
Organization Structure of Climate Change Central Department, EEAA CEO Environmental Affairs Agency Climate Change CD Risk & Adabtation GD Risk D Adaptation D Mitigation and CDM Mechanism GD Clean Development Mechanism D Mittegation D Technology and Research GD Technology D Climate Change D Technica Support for Technology Research D Climate Change Information D Secrtaiate & Follow-up D Promotion & Marketing of Carbon Certaficate D National Committee for Climate Change, To coordinate between different ministries Disaster Committee affiliated to Ministries Cabinet.
Preparedness for Crisis Economic Preparation Increase funding to expand current programs focusing on improved conservation and efficiency techniques and capital investment for all water use sectors. Provide incentives and programs to facilitate the rapid transfer of new knowledge and technologies to assist farmers in adapting to climate change. Additional Comments include the following: Evaluate Options to meet water demand (considering potential climate change effects). Fund the drought preparedness and emergency water supply projects accounts and modify the utilization requirements. Create appropriate national drought management strategies that account for evolving drought risks.
Health Preparation Traditional Treatments Health Care Units Referral Hospitals Private Clinics and Pharmacies Availability of Health Staff Health Awareness
Social Preparation It is important to draw on existing risk assessments, help agree coordinated action share important information about which climate impacts and parts of the system should be prioritized for adaptation and raise awareness across social care sector. Agree actions to take forward drawing on cost benefit analysis. In doing so, assess predicted impacts on vulnerable people, services, models of care and local infrastructures. Develop plans or actions that are embedded in the climate change and link to wider drought and control measures. Checklist of a good social preparation plan Embedded in national climate change adaptation strategies and plans Developed in partnership with Local Authority and other stakeholders Mechanism for review and updating Consider the following aspects as a minimum: - Infrastructure including buildings, transportation, supplies and supply chains, - Resource use, scarcity and continuity including energy, food and water It is also important to mapping future risks of climate change in the area and its surrounds, social and community impacts including vulnerable communities and potential migration
Institutional/ Administrative Enhancement Support greater role for institutional partnerships in facilitating adaptation Enhance local institutional capacities. Understand local institutional articulation and access patterns before providing resource support Improve institutional coordination across scales Implement an adaptive perspective on institutional development
Recommendations Communities’ Recommendations Consider the area as a hot-spot zone to monitor drought phenomenon and establish drought monitoring station at the area. Train agricultural climate laboratory staff, remote sensing section at agriculture research center and desert research center staff, to establish, support and develop processes to monitor impacts of drought on agriculture and production stability over times. Essential needs to establish integrated sanitation system for the area. Although, the area in not integrated in the national agency for bootable water and sanitation plan tell 2018, the current situation requires special attention. Demand to promote collective pre contracted marketing of crops. Establish adequate storage facilities for whit and maze in the area
Introduce solar energy techniques for power supply and heating and to provide support to enhance usage of renewable energy techniques in new land reclamation areas Plantation of green built surrounds the area for protection of desertification. Establish new and independent administrative system to secure area stability and problem immediate solving, could be a central modernization directorate, within the Ministry of Agriculture.
Team Recommendations Prepare agriculture drought maps based on satellites images at locations level and land degradation maps (1-250m) as well as, study SPEI standardized indicator to monitor rain falls and evaporation exertions to identify drought mitigation scheme at threatened spots. Implement a comprehensive socio-economic survey to evaluate stability level and community capability that affect integrated development of the area. As well as, putting stability indicators in cooperation with research agencies affiliated to Ministry of Agriculture, as well as other reputable research centers and in cooperation with AKSAD Establish political commitment includes, appropriate governmental entities, and strong scientific institutions, for integrating drought risk issues into a sustainable development and disaster risk reduction process. A bottom-up approach with community participation, both in decision making and implementation, is essential to move from policies to practices.
Design and implement a capacity building and knowledge development program to help build commitment, competent institutions, and informed population. Institutional enhancement, capabilities and coordination of governmental entities and departments concerned with climate change and disaster reduction. Establish a clear set of principles and operating guidelines to govern the management of drought and its impacts as well as to develop a preparedness plan that lays out a strategy to achieve these objectives. Policies and plans should emphasize mitigation and preparedness rather than relying solely on drought relief. Establish drought monitoring, risk assessment, and the identification of appropriate risk reduction measures mechanisms. Develop a sound long-term investment in mitigation and preparedness measures to reduce the effects of drought.
Develop appropriate procedures for disseminating early warnings of climate change and its potential impact. Develop and implement awareness campaign to disseminate climate change challenges, impact and appropriate mitigation instruments. While, policy makers and practitioners are tasked with improving ways to formulate messages that are "newsworthy" and attract the media. Government should develop a contingency plan and mobilize financial resources for the potential permanent replacement of severely affected communities, mainly most resource-poor, small-scale farmers and poorer households.