Presentation on theme: "Strategic Management on Development and Transfer of Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change: A Case in China Ji ZOU and Ke Wang Renmin University."— Presentation transcript:
Strategic Management on Development and Transfer of Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change: A Case in China Ji ZOU and Ke Wang Renmin University of China Tsinghua University
Contents Conceptual framework Challenges in China: general and specific in water resources Responses: Package of P&M options Prioritized needs for technology-related capacity building for adaptation in China Conclusion
Climate system Impacts on climate adaptation mitigation Impacts of CC P&M package-Response to climate change: Technologies: D&T Engineering projects Economic and financial Institutional and policies Behavior change Combined system –Human and natural Natural ecosystem Socioeconomic system GHG emission and concentration Impacts of response + - - - + “ – ” : negative effects; “ + ” : positive effects Fossil fuel use, Deforestation, etc Global warming Curbing global warming -, costs + Less negative impacts Water resources Food security Biodiversity Costal zones Public health, etc + + Noregret actions
Several concepts Cost: expense by adopting technologies and building/operating projects/plans/schemes; Benefits: avoided damage derived from climate change and response measures; Effectiveness: specified objectives to avoid some undesired impacts; Risk: probability multiplied by expected value of damage; and Damage: exposure of receivers ×unit loss
Progresses in China from perspectives of decision-making process for adaptation Assess physical impacts of climate change on specific sectors and stakeholders Assess damage, risk, and vulnerability in both physical and socioeconomic terms Identify candidate options of measures to adapt to impacts of climate change, including D&T&T Assess effectiveness, and benefits of the candidate options Assess costs of the candidate options Conduct CBA/CEA and identify options with largest net-benefit (CBA) or least cost (CEA) Set up goals/targets for adaptation and select measures incl. technologies Develop and implement strategies and action plans for adaptation to CC AA AAA some → less → nothing A In academic research stage In decision- making stage Degree In China:
General Challenges in China for Adaptation to Climate Change (1) Unbalanced and weaker knowledge, understanding, awareness, and consideration compared with mitigation; High population exposure to impacts of CC; Rising frequency and enlarging scale of extreme climate events (floods, drought in larger areas, increasing water shortage in north China);
General Challenges in China for Adaptation to Climate Change (2) High risk in food security for largest population in the world with limited farmland and low agricultural productivity; Long coastal line with high exposure of population and wealth; The vulnerable basis of ecosystem given uneven distribution of water resources, low coverage of vegetation/forest, intensive use of farmland, and increasing land use for fast urbanization (transportation and housing); and Knowledge on relevant risks in public health is still very limited.
Special Impacts of Climate Change: Water Resources as a Case unbalanced geographical distribution of water and population: they do not match each other; Uneven seasonal/temporal distribution of water (intensive rain in summer); Sudden flood: extreme weather event; and Limited storage of rainfall in areas with water shortage.
Prioritized Areas to adapt to impacts of CC on water resources in China Prevent from water-related disasters; and Make rational use of water resources to support long-term sustainable development in China.
Responses – package of P&M options It is a matter of a systematic arrangement, not a single technology. We need to design and implement a package of measures including major elements as follows: 1.Software 2.Hardware 3.Human resources 4.Financial resources
Software Concepts/knowledge, information, and awareness Integrated assessment (models, analytical tools) Information (appropriate frame and indicators, adequate collection and observation, reliable, easily shared, and in-time for decision-making) Early warning: technical support (models, etc) and institutional coordination Planning – optimal arrangement (based on CBA, CEA, RBA, DM and reliable information), and Institutional arrangement and policy instruments in place.
Hardware Technologies: IPR Equipment and devices; Engineering projects; and Other facilities of infrastructure
Human Resources With adequate knowledge or expertise: Policy makers (officials from governments, managers, engineers, and technicians from industries; policy analysts, …) Academia: researchers and teachers/trainers Project developers and market brokers; and Journalists from media.
Financial Resources Sources: Domestic fiscal budget/public expenditure; Domestic and international private investment; Insurance; international financial assistance: ODA and additional sources via multilateral and bilateral organizations. Coordination: How to organize and integrate them? How to assess effectiveness and efficiency of the use of financial resources?
Prioritized needs for capacity building identified by NCSA (1) Introduce to regional and multi-sectoral impact assessment techniques; Make models more powerful and applicable to support policy making (more decision making – oriented) ； Analytical techniques to separate impacts derived from climate change and other variable;
Prioritized needs for capacity building identified by NCSA (2) Improve monitoring and observation system, especially focusing on automatic and continuous observation and information-sharing; Enhance capacity in early warning of extreme weather events by better predicting modeling, information, and institutional coordination; Identify further technological and policy options for adaptation.
Prioritized needs for capacity building identified by NCSA (3) R&D in adaptive agriculture and forest technologies; Techniques for impact assessment on public health; Techniques for socioeconomic impact assessment;
Prioritized needs for capacity building identified by NCSA (4) Transfer of knowledge in insurance; Information management; and Transfer of technologies in telemetry, remote sensing, automatic monitoring instruments, atmospheric background assessment, and atmospheric chemical composition.
Conclusions High demands for P&Ms to adapt to climate change in China: very vulnerable; Capacity is still weak: knowledge, information, awareness, institution and policies, and technologies and facilities; Initial focuses may be on prevention from extreme climate events by enhancing early warning capacity (models, information, etc); and Integrated package should be applied in a coordinative manner.