Presentation on theme: "The Special Challenges of Neurological-Based Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Special Challenges of Neurological-Based Behavior
2 Use people first language Students are real people living with a condition, not defined by the condition.“A child with dyslexia”not“a dyslexic child”
3 Introduction to Neurological-Based Behavior All students misbehave at times; for some it is beyond their controlSome erratic or inconsistent behavior is inexplicable and unresponsive to standard discipline strategiesBehavior could be due to compromised cerebral functioning
4 Compromised Cerebral Function Can be due toChemical imbalance, congenital brain differences, brain injuries, or brain diseasesStudents can exhibit:High degree of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, emotionality, anxiety, inconsistent emotional responses, unpredictable mood swings, withdrawal, or episodes of rage
5 Identifying & diagnosing… Difficulties identifying typically cause lag between onset and diagnosisWithout formal diagnosis, students untreatedBrain, not background, causes difficulties
6 Major characteristics of Neurological-Based Behavior InconsistencyUnpredictability
7 What are some mental health diagnoses that are prominent in the literature ? Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorderAffective disordersAnxiety disordersXXXPosttraumatic stress disorderConduct disorderOppositional defiant disorderMiss 1Autism spectrum disorderMiss 2Miss 3Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
8 Students by the numbers… 1 in 5 have a mental health condition that affects behavior1 in 10 suffer from serious emotional disturbance1 in 5 who need help get treatment1 in 20 are diagnosed with ADHDSuicide is3rd leading cause of death in year olds6th leading cause of death in 5-14 year oldsTreatment can reduce symptoms by 70-90%
9 Brain Injuries Traumatic Nontraumatic Blows to the head from events SportingAccidentsAssaultsNontraumaticDisrupted blood flow to brain (stroke)TumorInfectionDrug overdoseOther medical condition
10 Indicators Behavior difficulties Language difficulties Can be atypical, inconsistent, compulsiveImmune to typical behavior managementLanguage difficultiesProblems in understanding, processing, or expressing information verballyAcademic difficultiesMemory can be compromisedCould have difficulties with motor skills, comprehension, language/math that add to problemNote what special teachers do and adapt for your classroom.
11 Sensory Integration Dysfunction the ability to take in information, organize it, interpret it, and react to itAny disruption is SIDSID could be a cause ofHyperactivityInattentionFidgetinessImpulsivityInability to calm downLack of self controlDisorganizationLanguage difficultiesLearning difficultiesExcess information is overwhelmingKeep room neat and tidy, quiet, minimize distractions, simplify.
12 Common pediatric/adolescent mental health diagnoses
13 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Characterized byShort attention spanWeak impulse controlHyperactivityCause is unknown3 to 5% school age populationXY > XX; XY also exhibit hyperactivityOften comorbid with other conditions
14 Oppositional defiant disorder Excessively uncooperative and hostileSymptomsFrequent temper tantrumsExcessive arguing with adultsActive defiance and refusal to complyBelligerent and sarcasticDeliberately annoy or upset othersBlame others for mistakes or behaviorTouch/ easily annoyedSpeak hatefully when upsetVengeful5-10% have ODD
15 Oppositional defiant disorder Use positive reinforcementEspecially when cooperating or show flexibilityUse earshot or indirect praiseDo not repeat unless neededTake a personal timeout to avoid conflict (model behavior)
16 Bipolar disorder Affective disorder Cyclic depression and mania Silly, goofy, giddy, or disruptiveIrritable, angry, and easily annoyedCause unknownOften misdiagnosed as ADHD, ODD, etc.Can be treated with drugs, therapy, and counseling
17 Bipolar disorder Students exhibit Hysterical laughter for no reason Belligerence and argumentation followed by recriminationJumping from topic to topic in rapid succession when speakingBlatant disregard of rules because they do not pertain to themArrogant belief in superior intellectBelief they are superhumanCan be tired from lack of sleep; sometimes performing better in afternoon
18 Learning Disabilities Neurobiological disordersAffect students of average or above average intelligenceDyslexiaDifficulty processing languageDysgraphiaDifficulty with handwriting and spellingDyscalculiaDifficulty with basic mathDyspraxiaDifficulty with fine motor skills
19 Learning Disabilities IndicatorsInability to discriminate between/among letters, numerals, or soundsDifficulty sounding out words, reluctance to read aloud, avoid writing or reading tasksPoor grasp of abstract concepts; poor memory; difficulty telling timeConfusion between left and rightDifficulty being disciplined; distractible; restless; impulsive; trouble following directionsSay one thing but mean another; respond inappropriately for situationSlow work; short attention span; difficulty listening and rememberingPoor eye-hand coordination; poor organizationSpecial testing is needed to confirm
20 Autism Spectrum Disorder Includes Autism, pervasive developmental disorder, and Asperger syndrome.Various abnormal development in verbal and nonverbal communication, impaired social development, restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interestsVaries in range of intelligence and language development~1.5M in US
21 Autism Spectrum Disorder IndicatorsSelf-stimulation, spinning, rocking, and hand flappingObsessive compulsive behaviors, such as lining up evenlyRepetitive odd play for extended periodsInsistence on routine and samenessDifficulty dealing with interruption of routine schedule and changeMonotone voice and difficulty carrying on social conversationsInflexibility of thought and language
22 Autism Spectrum Disorder Varies in intensity across spectrumSID often comorbidSome need around the clock care
23 Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Leading cause of mental retardation in western world, though most have normal intelligenceGroup of disordersFetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)Alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS)1% in US populationRanges from mild to severeBehavior can differ drastically even with same conditionCompromised social and adaptive skills
24 Rage Not neurological but behavioral Traumatic for all Exhibited by some NBB studentsTraumatic for allStudent has little controlRage cycle consists of five phases
25 Rage Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Phase V Precedes rage and triggerPhase IITriggering PhasePhase IIIEscalation – can be mild or rapidPhase IVRagePhase VPost-rage event
26 Rage-Phase IIRecognize rage is coming and you may not be able to preventUnderstand this is neurological, and is not intentional or personalStay calm, quiet, non-adversarialUse short, direct, and emotionless languageDo not question, scold, or be too wordyBe careful of body languageBe empathetic verbally, do not make it personalBe calm, quiet, and succinct – use logical persuasion to provide alternative
27 Rage-Phase III Stay calm Ensure safety of others If threatened, walk awayCalmly direct to safe placeUse short, direct languageUse care in body languageUse empathy to acknowledge students feelingCalmly provide student with alternativePraise student if they respondDo not address language or behavior for now.
28 Rage-Phase IV Allow student space Do not restrain unless threat Do not bully, question, or otherwise escalateDo not try to make student understandSupport other in room
29 Rage-Phase V Reassure the student that all is OK now Do not talk about consequencesWhen student is ready help to put language to eventHelp the student plan action plan for next eventTake care of yourself – this was stressful
30 Medications for Students with Behavioral Issues Most NBB are treatable with medicationBe aware of school policies on medicationVyvanseAdderall XRConcertaDaytranaFocalin XRMetadate CDRitalin LA
31 Summary Be proactive in dealing with NBB Establish positive and nurturing environmentModify environment to be more friendlyProvide calm structured environmentAdd structure where neededUse humorUse eye contact carefully; do not challenge or threatenThink before you reactAlways provide a choice
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