Presentation on theme: "Specific Learning Disabilities"— Presentation transcript:
1 Specific Learning Disabilities Jeff, Kelly, Adam, Luke
2 IntroductionDefinition: Specific learning disabilities are a group of disabilities in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) The IDEA defines specific learning disabilities as a group of disorders in one or more of these areas of learning:Learning disabilities of expressive language, also called oral expression;Learning disabilities of receptive language, also called listening comprehension;Learning disabilities of basic writing mechanics;Learning disabilities of written expression;Learning disabilities of basic reading decodingLearning disabilities of reading comprehension;Learning disabilities of basic math calculation skills; andLearning disabilities of applied math and problem solving.Learning disabilities may include several types of disorders. Dyslexia, for example, is included with learning disabilities in reading under the IDEA. Dysgraphia is included with learning disabilities in writing, and dyscalculia is included in learning disabilities in math.
3 Quick Facts on Dyslexia(most common of Dys LD’s) According to a Yale study, 1 out of 5 people suffer from Dyslexia.It is estimated that 70 to 85 percent of children with learning disabilities are dyslexic.Dyslexics are of average or above intelligence.Dyslexics do not “see” words backwards. A difficulty with reversals is mainly caused by deficits in interpreting left and right.Dyslexics oftentimes have more severe deficits in spelling than in reading.Dyslexics often have poor coordination, poor fine-motor control and poor hand-eye coordination.Dyslexia can’t be effectively treated using traditional reading or tutoring programs. Cognitive training is the most effective treatment for Dyslexia.
4 Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gwZLFTW4OGY
5 Dyscalculia Warning Signs A specific developmental disability affecting a person's ability to conceptualize and perform mathematics.Warning SignsGood at speaking, reading, and writing, but slow to develop counting and math problem-solving skillsGood memory for printed words, but difficulty reading numbers, or recalling numbers in sequencePoor long term memory of concepts-can do math functions one day, but is unable to repeat them the next dayConfusing signs (+, -, /, *)Reversing and/or transposing numbersReliance on counting strategies rather than “knowing”Difficulty with mental arithmetic & measurementsInability to grasp and remember math rules/formulas
6 Dyscalculia Treatment Examples Mild cases can often be compensated for with use of a calculator, but those with severe dyscalculia will need special education services.ExamplesHelp outside the classroomRepeated reinforcement and specific practice of straightforward ideasUse graph paper for students who have difficulty organizing ideas on paper.Work on finding different ways to approach math factsIntroduce new skills beginning with concrete examples and later moving to more abstract applications.
7 Dysgraphia Signs of Dysgraphia Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing abilities. It can manifest itself as difficulties with spelling, poor handwriting and trouble putting thoughts on paper.Signs of DysgraphiaGenerally illegible writing (despite appropriate time and attention given the taskInconsistencies : mixtures of print and cursive, upper and lower case, or irregular sizes, shapes, or slant of lettersUnfinished words or letters, omitted wordsInconsistent spaces between words and lettersCramped or unusual grip, especiallyholding the writing instrument very close to the paper, orholding thumb over two fingers and writing from the wristStrange wrist, body, or paper positionTalking to self while writing, or carefully watching the hand that is writingSlow or labored copying or writing - even if it is neat and legibleContent which does not reflect the student's other language skills
8 Dysgraphia How can we as teachers help? Accommodate -- reduce the impact that writing has on learning or expressing knowledge -- without substantially changing the process or the product.Modify -- change the assignments or expectations to meet the student's individual needs for learningRemediate - provide instruction and opportunity for improving handwriting
11 DyslexiaDespite success with other LD’s medication and counseling are not effective treatments.Combat frustration early on—studies show reading may never be truly easy for someone who suffers from dyslexia.Detail goals within an IEPDIFFERENTIATE!!Comprehensive educational studies have shown a combination of educational approaches is the most effective treatment.
12 DyslexiaIn the United States, Federal Law entitles children with dyslexia to specialized instruction in public schools.Encourage activities that focus and exhibit students creative and physical abilities and talents.Dyslexia does not equal dumb.Children will feel unintelligentInherited traits are not their fault.
14 Guest Speaker When did you realize you had Dyslexia? How were you officially diagnosed?Challenges you faced and continue to face?What strategies/skills work best for you in dealing with your Dyslexia?What are some signs we can watch for in our classrooms to recognize a student with Dyslexia?Any questions?