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Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities ESE 380 February 12, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities ESE 380 February 12, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities ESE 380 February 12, 2009

2 Dyslexia Poor ability to discriminate visual likenesses or differences in words even though vision is normal Confusion in orientation of letters (p, d, b) or number (6, 9) Reversals of: concept (top for bottom), geographical orientations (west for east; up for down), or time (first for last; yesterday for tomorrow) Poor ability to copy, particularly from the blackboard or from the book to paper Omissions, insertions or substitutions in reading Poor ability to recall whole words or sounds within words Speech and language disorders such as delayed speech and poor sentence construction Difficulty with word retrieval, as in recall of people's names or objects Difficulty in following directions May work slowly and/or fail to finish their work Writing vocabulary may be meager because of difficulty in producing the letters or recall of correct spelling, or in organization of thoughts Delay in adequate use of arithmetic Organization is often a problem. Paperwork will often appear messy Inconsistency. The most consistent aspect of dyslexia is its inconsistency.

3 Dysgraphia Problems involving the steps of putting together a written document (such as difficulty with using an outline) Bad or illegible handwriting Awkward or cramped pencil grip Avoidance of tasks that involve writing Difficulty fleshing out ideas on paper (may write the minimum-or less-that the assignment requires) that is in contrast to their ability to discuss such ideas verbally Inconsistent in the way letters and words look (may print a certain letter different ways within the same document) Difficulty writing within the margins or line spacing and inconsistent spacing between words Home Back Next

4 Dyscalculia Difficulty with number sense Recognizing numbers and matching numbers with amounts) Difficulty with sorting and classifying (size, shape, color, etc.) Recognizing groups and patterns Comparing and contrasting Difficulty with basic arithmetic operations Difficulty with basic math facts Difficulty with metacognition Challenges with visual-spatial skills

5 General Cognitive Characteristics Average or above average intelligence Problems when attempting to process information Manipulating verbal skills, i.e., the ability to think and reason with words and/or nonverbal skills, the ability to think and reason with visual/manipulative data Difficulty in organizing and interpreting visual and auditory stimuli Distractibility/inattentiveness, impulsivity, and/or hyperactivity** **Does not equate with attention deficit disorder

6 General Academic Characteristics Significant discrepancy between ability and performance in the areas of reading, writing, spelling, mathematical calculations and reasoning, as well as listening, speaking, and language comprehension Lack of generalization skills Working slowly on tasks, especially paper and pencil assignments Lacks short and/or long - term memory Inconsistent performance

7 General Adaptive Behavioral Characteristics An inability to utilize compensatory strategies due to a learned helplessness

8 General Social Characteristics Poor self-esteem and reduced feelings of self-confidence Inability to read to feelings, emotions, interests, Inability to identify social space (stand too close or far away) Feelings of inferiority but desire acceptance of others

9 General Physical Characteristics Difficulty with organization and orientation skills Difficulty with eye-hand coordination (perceptual-motor integration) Incorrect pencil grip Awkwardness Fine motor difficulties, i.e., handwriting, working with manipulatives, puzzles, etc. Gross motor difficulties, i.e., running, jumping, skipping, hopping, etc.)

10 General Communication Characteristics Problems with expressive and receptive language Difficulty with processing language Problems with the mechanics of language Weakness in written and oral language Weakness in conversational skills

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