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CHAPTER 16 THE EAST ASIAN WORLD 1400 – 1800 A BYOD Moment Where is it?

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1 CHAPTER 16 THE EAST ASIAN WORLD 1400 – 1800 A BYOD Moment Where is it?
What is the name? How is it similar to the palace of Versailles in France? How would this symbolize the power of the leader? CHAPTER 16 THE EAST ASIAN WORLD 1400 – 1800 Opening Bell ringer- students guess where photo is located Questions Where is it? Beijing China What is the name? Imperial / forbidden city How is it similar to the palace of Versailles in France? Grand and elaborate How would this symbolize the power of the leader? It is very showy and impressive and would show the strength of the leader Fun facts about the city 178 acres Built 1400’s Walled with buildings and gardens Arranged going north to south Arranged to reflect imperial power Shows that imperial power is supreme Had to have special permission to enter the city Home to Ming and Qing Emperors Click on picture to show video 4:22 min

2 How did a policy of isolation affect the Chinese Empire?
A BYOD Moment Where is this water way located? This major water way flows south to north and is a specific canal. what is the name of this canal? Why is it critical to this country’s economic stability? Section 1 pages CHINA AT ITS HEIGHT How did a policy of isolation affect the Chinese Empire? BYOD Moment Answers China Great Canal Ships manufactured and produce to northern china Essential Question How did a policy of isolation affect the Chinese Empire? Answer- China’s isolation kept both positive and negative European influences from entering china. This section will focus on success and failures under the Ming and Qing Dynasties

3 China’s last native imperial dynasty!
We are first going to look at the Ming Dynasty under which china flourished and expanded. During this time they flourished in trade Manufacturing Cultural exchange with the west China’s last native imperial dynasty!

4 Zheng He The Ming Dynasty
Mongols replaced by Ming Hong Wu, who started the Ming dynasty. He extended the empire, strengthened the Great Wall. Ran an effective government using a centralized bureaucracy, using civil service tests. Voyages of Zheng He Ming built the Imperial City in Beijing and it became the capital. Yong Le also sent a series of naval voyages into Indian Ocean. Led by Zheng He –he brought great profit to China. First Contacts with the West 1514, The Portuguese fleet arrived off the coast of China. They were the first direct contact between the Chinese and Europe since Marco Polo. China was at it’s height of power. Emperors believed Europeans were barbaric. Portugal soon outraged the Chinese and was expelled from Guangzhou and now could only trade at the port of Macao. There was a good exchange of ideas between the 2 nations. Christian missionaries had also make long voyage to China. Chinese scholars were able to read better with European eyeglasses. Europeans were impressed with Confucius teachings. Zheng He Mongol dynasty is overthrown in 1368 Ming dynasty lasts until 1644 Ming Hong Wu is first leader Under Ming emperors the dynasty expands to include ( Mongolia, central Asia, and Mongolia) Strengthened the great wall to the north and made peace with northern nomadic tribes. Government Centralized Officials picked by civil service exam Set up a nationwide school system Manufactured goods in high numbers New crops – larger crops renovated Grand canal- ship grain south to north The voyages of Zheng He After Ming Hong Wu son Yong Lee became emperor Monuments to self to show power Strengthen great wall Restore Chinese Authority over Vietnam Begins Construction of Forbidden (Imperial) city in Beijing Created to show power and prestige Became capital Home of Emperors for 500 yrs Voyages to India and east Africa brought back untold goods and knowledge Led by Zheng He Giraffes were put in the imperial zoo Enormous profits Traditional officials of the Confucian beliefs became alarmed Felt trade was unworthy and Yong lee’s death the voyages will be halted never to start again. When he died he was buried with his wife and 16 concubines First contacts with the west Portuguese are the first to have actual contact with the Chinese by sea since the travels of Marco polo over land. China was height of power during this Ming Dynasty Viewed everyone else as china’s little brother ( Chinese leaders were called sons of Heaven) Viewed Europeans as unusual and Barbaric They were expelled from Guangxhou because of behavior Allowed to occupy Macao-port city in southeastern china Trade was not increase between the Chinese and Portuguese, but the exchange of ideas did. Christian missionaries –Jesuits- educated-brought new technologies-clocks- made china more excepting of western ideas Jesuits wrote back to europe about what they saw and the beliefs of the people which intrigue Europeans Eyeglasses were introduced to china

5 The Ming Dynasty 3. Fall of Ming Dynasty
In the late 16th century, internal struggles began. Followed by government corruption. In the 1630’s, a major epidemic reduced the population. Weak rulers, peasant unrest, and poor crop yields, contributed to the downfall of the Ming dynasty. Overthrow of the Ming led to Manchus, farm people from Manchuria, who created a new dynasty called Qing (Pure) Dynasty created in 1644 and remained in power until 1911. After all the great territory and trade advancements the Ming dynasty began to fall into decline like all other great empires Internal power struggles developed Groups worked to make someone of their own emperor Weak rulers who were overpowered Children were often put on the throne who could be easily be manipulated Led to times of high corruption and taxes Peasant unrest Low crop production because of bad unfavorable weather. Epidemic Reduce human life Noted the buzzing of flies was all you heard instead of human life. Led to peasant revolt Led by Li Zicheng Invasion of capital Beijing Last Ming Emperor hangs himself in palace gardens Manchus from Manchuria in the north invade Beijing and put down Li Zichengs army Created the Qing (pure) dynasty

6 Kangxi The Qing Dynasty
Some people resisted new rule; the Manchus prepared to attack the island of Taiwan. To identify rebels, Manchu troops ordered all males shaved their forehead and braid their hair into a pigtail called a Queue. Manchu fighting units were called banners. “Bannermen” were the chief fighting force of the empire, had separate units. Were gradually accepted as rulers. 1. Qing Adaptations Kept Ming political systems but Manchus were ethnically and culturally different. Deal with it in 2 ways: a) tried to preserves their distinct identity within Chinese society. Their nobility held large landholdings and received $ from treasury. b) dealt with the problem of ethnic difference by bringing Chinese into imperial administration, but Manchus held the higher posts. Sharing power did win them support from Chinese. 2. Reign of Kangxi Strongest emperor – Christian missionaries reached their height. Many Chinese converted. His successors began to suppress Christian activities. Kangxi During the Qing Dynasty we will see how European influence on Chinese culture will lead to china closing its doors to the west. Empire last Some Chinese rejected the Manchu rule and seized the island of Taiwan Manchu government prepared to identify and attack the rebels Use a mandated order of unified Manchu dress for males Had to shave forehead and braid their hair into a pigtail “queue” Those who refused were seen as rebels and executed. Eventually the Manchu were excepted and the Qing dynasty flourished Corrected social and economic ills Qing Adoptions Kept Ming political system of officials chosen by civil service exam Qing were culturally different from the majority of their population Solutions To protect distinct cultural identity Only 2% of pop – Manchu Defined legally distinct from rest of china Manchu nobility Large landholdings Revenue from treasury other Manchu Organized into separate military units Banners – chief fighting force of the empire Ethnic differences Brought Chinese into the Manchu government Regular Chinese were 80% of lower posts Held a much smaller amount of top positions This won much support of the ruler populas Reign of Kangxi Reigned for 61 years Hard worker dawn till night Patron of the arts- gain support of artist and scholars Excepted Christian missionaries and the conversion of noble and 300,000 ordinary pop to Christian faith. This ceased after his death and Christian activities were suppressed

7 The Qing Dynasty Europeans in China Qianlong expanded China
to its greatest physical size, but also the first signs of decay appeared. Why did this happen? The Emperor fell under the influence of destructive elements at court. Corrupt officials and higher taxes led to unrest. Population growth exerted pressure on land. Led to the White Lotus Rebellion(a peasant revolt) repressed but was expensive. Europe wanting more trade during this dynasty. Qing confined all European traders to a small island outside Guangzhou. Britain had an unfavorable trade balance with China, that is Britain imported more goods from China than it exported to the country. Led to debt owed to China. Europeans in China Qianlong ( chee-uhn-lung) Ruled Great ruler Expanded china to its greatest size Reach great prosperity Start of eventual decline Why? Grew older=easier to influence by court officials Raised taxes Unrest in rural areas and economic hardship Pop growth strained the land =economic hardship Peasant rebellion “white lotus rebellion” Put down but broke Qing treasury Weekend power and European trade Sold rights to Europeans Restricted to island outside Guangzhou Reside there October to march Could only trade with certain European firms System was excepted but then pressure from Euro trader and Chinese to open up British import large amounts of tea and silk and pay debt with silver Lord George McCartney visited to seek more liberal policies Qianlong responded they did not need their goods- would regret

8 Section 1 Review Reports from early Christian missionaries made who more curious about China? Europeans Active Christian missionaries in China Jesuits Dynasty founded by Ming Hong Wu Ming First Europeans to make contact with the Ming dynasty were the? Portuguese

9 Section 1 Review Accomplishments of the Ming emperors included renovating what? Grand Canal Leader of exploration and trading voyages Zheng He Weak rulers, peasant unrest, and poor crop yields contributed to the downfall of what dynasty? Ming Ruling dynasty from (after Ming) Qing The emperor Kangxi was generally tolerant of what? Christian missionaries Manchu fighting units banners

Challenge! Imagine that in your current home there are four generations of family living together. This includes aunts, uncles, cousins, siblings, parents and grandparents. How many people would you be living with in your household? Section 2 CHINESE SOCIETY AND CULTURE What was the main focus of Chinese society ? Essential question answer Chinese society revolved around family This section will focus on Chinese culture between , including economic changes, the role of women in society, and Chinese art and literature.

11 Economy and Daily Life 1. Economic Changes
First change for China was an increase in population. Causes – peace and stability, improvements in food supply. Population increase meant less land available for each family. Another change was a steady growth in manufacturing and increased trade between provinces. Did not develop the kind of commercial capitalism (private business based on profit) that was emerging in Europe. 2. Society and role of Women Chinese society was organized around the family. All family members were expected to sacrifice their individual needs to benefit the family. Based on Confucian ideals. Extended family and clans as well. Women were considered inferior to men. Only males could have a formal education and pursue a career in government. Feature of Chinese society that restricted the mobility of women was the practice of foot binding. Bound feet were a status symbol. Were more marriageable. Economic changes during the Ming and Qing dynasties , China’s pop grew and so did manufacturing Role of women remained restricted Arts and architecture flourished % of the population flourish agriculturally Changes Increase population 80 mil to 300 mil Peace under Qing dynasty Improvements in food supplies because of a faster growing rice in southwest Asia that would have been transported north on the Great Canal Increase pop led to land shortages and revolt Tried to fix by limiting how much the land owning aristocracy could own peace led to a boost in manufacturing More merchants with stable trade in in silk, porcelain, cotton goods, and other products They did not develop commercial capitalism) private business ownership (like us or Europe) Manufacturing and trade was under strict control of the government who looked down on trade and levied high taxes. This is the same as communist governments Because of confusion principles The Confucian idea of profits was double-edged. On the one hand, Confucius' disciple,Mencius, made it abundantly clear that it was immoral of rulers to concentrate on profits for their respective states. On the other hand, merchants were socially useful because their risk-taking trading activities could supply the people's diverse needs. In a compromise, ethics was deeply incorporated into business activities. Consequently, it was insisted that merchants' behaviors be governed by the ethical principles, which held that righteousness outweighs profits and that collective benefits and spiritual values outweigh individual benefits and material values respectively. Society and roles of women Organized around family Support all members needs – education, care of unwed daughters and the elderly All were expected to sacrifice for the well-being of all (Confucian ideals) Qing dynasty family Four generations under one roof Sons married they brought wives to live in family home Unmarried daughters stayed Parents and grandparents –elderly high regard care for by children Today china has less nursing homes than here Clan Extended family Dozen to hundred family members Linked by elders and common social practices (Buddhism and Confucianism ) Help for providing for poorer family members Men Pursue careers and formally educated Could divorce if not sons produced Could take a second wife Provide for family-even extended Women Strong family roles Subordinate to men Could not divorce or inherit property Foot binding Status symbol Not if you worked in a field Video 1:22min

12 Chinese Art and Literature
1. The Chinese novel Ming economic expansion increases standards of living. New innovations in paper manufacturing encouraged the growth of printing. Chinese novel began. 2. Ming and Qing Art Architecture – Imperial City – complex of palaces and temples, now known as Forbidden City. The city was closed to commoners. Decorative arts grew. Most famous of all the arts of the Ming Era was blue and white porcelain. During the Ming and Qing dynasties art and literature flourished Economic success meant more people had money and could buy books New paper increases printing. Culture & Art Increased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things: Literature. Painting. Ceramics. Opera. Golden Age of Chinese Art Moderation Softness Gracefulness

13 Section 2 Review Private business based on profit
Commercial capitalism Private business-for-profit did not increase in China because why? Government control of manufacturing and trade Heavy taxes on manufacturing Chinese attitudes toward trade and manufacturing (looked down on, inferior to farming)

14 Section 2 Review The most famous of Ming Era arts?
Blue and white porcelain Between 1500 and 1800, 85% of Chinese people did what for a living? Farming Painful practice for Chinese women Foot binding Walled compound inside Beijing Imperial City

15 Section 2 Review Group of many related families Clan
The ideal family unit in Qing China consisted of what? The extended family Changes that occurred in China between 1500 and 1800 included: growth in manufacturing and trade, improvements in the food supply, and an increase in what? Population The Forbidden City was closed to who? commoners

16 What is the social hierarchy of Union High School in your opinion?
2) What title would you give each group? 3) How would you describe each group? Section 3 pages TOKUGAWA JAPAN AND KOREA What changes took place in Japan after its political unification? Essential question answer Europeans brought new products and technology to Japan: a period of “ Great Peace” occurred Students will learn about the causes and effects of Japans unification

17 Political Changes in Japan
End 15th century Japan was in chaos. Shogunate collapsed – Daimyo (heads of noble families) took control. Three Great Unifiers Late 16th century unification starts Oda Nobunaga – seized capital of Kyoto and put shogun under his control. Toyotomi Hideyoshi – Osaka = capital. Persuade most of Daimyo to accept him. Tokugawa Ieyasu – powerful daimyo of Edo, (today Tokyo)completed the restoration of central authority. Brought in a long period called “Great Peace.” Through 17th-18th centuries Japan and Korea were unified under powerful leaders allowing both culture to culturally flourish. Political changes in Japan 15th century Japan was in Chaos with no centralized government and Daimyo ( nobles) controlled and warred over land Japan will unify because of 3 key men Oda Nubunaga ( oh- duh noh-boo-nan-gah) Took over Kyoto (capital) and put reigning shogun under his control Toyotomi Hydeyoshi ( toh- yoh –toh-mee Hee –day-yoh-shee) Succeeded Nubunga Military commander Changed capital to Osaka Persuaded Daimyo to except his authority tokugawa ieyasu ( tok-kuh-gah –wah ee-yah-soo) Powerful Daimyo of Edo ( modern Tokyo) Took control of Japan Title of shogun Restoration of central authority Time of great peace

18 Political Changes in Japan
Europeans in Japan As Japan unifies, Europeans arrive. Portugal came first. At first were welcomed. Francis Xaiver, a Jesuit missionary, came. Japan fascinated by tobacco, clocks, eye glasses, and other European goods. Hideyoshi eventually prohibited Christianity because the Jesuits destroyed local shrines. Then merchants were forced to leave. Europeans in Japan as Japan unified Europeans arrived Portuguese 1st 1543 Took part in the regional trade btw Japan, China, and Southeast Asia At first they were welcomed Fascination in European tobacco, clocks, eyeglasses, and firearms ( help unify Islands) Started producing firearms after introduction Jesuits Francis Xavier- 1549 Convert daimyo = thousands of Japanese will become Christian Destroy local shrines 2nd unifier hideyoshi will outlaw Christian activates in his lands loosely enforced 3rd unifier ieyasu Will strictly forbid Christian practices and persecute Christians Trade will be next to go Netherlands only allowed traders to stay Only allowed to dock at Nagasaki once a year 2-3 months

19 Political Changes in Japan
3. Tokugawa Rule Established control of feudal systems separate territories called HANS (Domains). Each ruled by a daimyo. Shogun used HOSTAGE SYSTEM whereby daimyo required to have 2 houses – one in own lands and one in Edo. If went to own lands family stayed in Edo and if went to Edo then family could go to own lands. Tokugawa Rule Established control of Japans feudal system Feudal system break down the state was broken into 250 providences (Hans) Ruled by daimyo Supported themselves and land through taxes In actuality the shogun controlled the Daimyo Hostage system Maintain two houses (1 on their land -1 in Edo capital where shogun was located ) When daimyo was away from home in Edo family was kept as insurance of his loyalty to the Shogun This became a time of great peace and the samurai become managers of Daimyo land

20 Imperial Court Families Shogun, Daimyo, Samurai, Ronin
Japan Emperor Imperial Court Families Warrior Class: Shogun, Daimyo, Samurai, Ronin Farmers, Artisans Merchants Eta Tokugawa Rule Hostage System Daimyo ruled a han or territory Family forced to stay in Edo Great Peace Samurai ceased to be a warrior class Society Rigid class system

21 Tokugawa Era Major economic changes. Trade and industry grew.
1. Economic and Social change Japanese merchant class emerged, began to play a significant role. How about the peasants? Some benefit by exploiting the demand for cash crop. Most experienced declining profits and rising costs. Japans’ class system became rigid. Classes: warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchants. No intermarriages allowed. Page 523 discuss classes. Tokugwa Era Economics Many upper Confucian Japanese had considered trade under them Tokugwa rule trade and industry began to flourish- especially in large cities Edo – largest cities in the world Banking, paper money became the norm for business transactions Merchant class begins to emerge Peasant class These changes allowed some to make a profit from cash crops Most experiences rising prices and taxes Forced to become tenant farmers or hired hands There were many revolts against the taxes Social changes become rigid strict legal distinctions btw warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchants No intermarriage social class Emperor and family- top of political structure Warrior class ( shogun, daimyo, samuri, and ronin Shogun was supreme ruler under emperor and distributor of the national rice crop Daimyo received rice from shogun in exchange for military service Samurai received rice from the Daimyo in exchange for their services as advisors, castle guards, government officials Finally were the ronin ( warriors with no masters and traveled the country looking for jobs. Below warrior were the farmers, artisans, merchants Farmers produced rice= privileged position = poor artisans=swords & carpenters Merchants bottom-distributed goods- made profit off of others labor Below all were the eta or outcaste people still look down on

22 Tokugawa Era 2. Society and role of Women
In samurai class, rights of females were restricted. Women were generally valued for their role as child bearers and homemakers. 3. Literature and the Arts New set of cultural values – included the rise of popular literature. Was lighthearted and intended to please audiences. Theater – Kabuki which emphasized action, music and dramatic gestures. All male actors. Society and role of women Samuri house Men head of household, property, marriage and divorce Common people Parents arranged marriage Move in with husbands family Did not meet expectations then divorce Valued as child bearers and home makers In fields men did the heavier labor literature and Arts Tokugawa Rise in literature written for the people ( most was meant to lighten and please the people) Urban literature Ihara Sailkaku Five Women Who loved love search for love by five women Merchant class Willing to die for love, all but one does Poetry –serous Still considered serious business Matsuo Basho Wrote about nature Theater- Kabuki Action, music and dramatic gestures World of the teahouse and dance halls in cities Forbade women partake in such plays because of damage to societies morals Allowed a new job for men as playing women in plays Art Daimyo fight to see who can build the most magnificent house Borrowed ideas from Korea to make ceramic pieces Studies Studied western medicine language and painting styles

23 Korea: the Hermit Kingdom
Yi dynasty under Yi Songgye. One of World’s longest lasting monarchies. 1. Distinctive Culture Patterned society on China. Did develop own unique alphabet – HANGUL. Still largely standard writing system. 2. Cultural Isolation Was invaded by Japan – in response Korean rulers sought to isolate Korea. Nicknamed “Hermit Kingdom.” Manchus attack early 17th century – Korea surrenders and Yi Dynasty subject to China. Korea also followed the same isolation route as china and japan. Yi dynasty was one of the longest lasting monarchies in the world 5 centuries Distinctive culture Capital Hanseong (modern Seoul) Yi rulers consolidated rule of Korea Modeled after china to the north but kept distinct culture Developed the unique alphabet of Hangul Used one letter for each sound like the English language and is still used today Cultural isolation Japan invaded Korea as a way to have a route to china, but the conquest failed Korea was devastated and as a result Korean rulers limited contact with the outside world so that foreign countries would not take interest Eventually the Manchus of China invaded and the Yi dynasty had to surrender to china

24 Section 3 Review Heads of noble families Daimyo
Japanese social outcasts Eta Shogunates method of control Hostage system Territories or domains Hans Crops grown for sale Cash crops

25 Section 3 Review Warriors, peasants, artisans, merchants was the order of the 4 main classes during what Era? Tokugawa Much of the prose literature of this era was lighthearted and entertaining. Francis Xavier came to Japan in 1549 as what? Jesuit missionary Shogun, ronin, daimyo, made up what Japanese class? warrior

26 Section 3 Review True or False
Hideyoshi prohibited Christian activities. True Dutch ships were limited to one visit per year. Europeans were interested in buying Japanese weapons. False Initially, traders and missionaries were welcomed. true

A DOK Moment ……. What is this? What is it used for? What part of the world does it come from? Section 4 SPICE TRADE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Why did Europeans struggle to control the spice trade in Southeast Asia? Essential Question Answer It was very profitable

28 Emerging Mainland States
1. Conflict in Southeast Asia SE Asia mainland – conflicts – Thai vs. Burma. Vietnam had began “march to the south” – took control of Mekong Delta from Khmer. 2. Islamic trade network Malay Peninsula and Indonesian archipelago – Muslim merchants were attracted to the growing spice trade. They gradually create an Islamic trade network. Emerging Mainland States Spices of the orient are what attracted Europeans to Asia, but the first to this trade were the Muslims through the Silk Road Conflicts in Southeast Asia Thai vs Burma Burmese sack Thailand- Bangkok Thailand created Vietnamese then started their march Southeastern mainland taking over the Mekong delta Islamic Trade network Muslim traders attracted to the spice trade They gradually entered the area As a result trade and Islamic states increased Sultan Melaka =power in the strait of Malacca=became leading power because of being on the spice trade route

29 Emerging Mainland States
3. Religious and Political systems Beliefs were changing. Islam and Christianity began to draw interest. Political systems into 4 styles of monarchs: a) Buddhist kings – chief form – king considered superior and link between people and universe b) Javanese kings – rooted in political traditions of India – believed to have a sacred quality. c) Islamic sultans –ruled on the Malay Peninsula – Sultan was head, defender of faith, and staffed his bureaucracy with aristocrats(not elected officials) d) Vietnamese emperors – Chinese model, ruled according to Confucius teachings. Ruler appointed by Heaven to rule by talent and virtue. Religion began to change- Christianity and Islam ( in the non-mainland states) Buddhism advanced in the mainland states These religious beliefs helped to influence 4 new styles of monarchy ( all adopted foreign forms of government) Buddhist Kings Superior to all other humans Link btw human society and the universe Javanese Kings Rooted in Indian Buddhist tradition sacred quality Balance btw sacred and material Royal palace was designed to represent center of the universe Sultans Islamic Was head of state Seen protector of faith Staffed bureaucracy with aristocrats Vietnamese emperors Emperor ruled according to the teachings of Confucius ( treat subjects with love and respect) Intermediate between heaven and earth Appointed by heaven to rule by his talents and virtues

30 Arrival of Europeans Spices highly valued – used as medicines and food preservers. Melake key or gateway to Spice Islands. Portugal controlled, then occupied Moluccas. (Spice Island to Europeans) 1. Shift in Power English and Dutch arrive, better financed. Dutch in particular consolidate power and military control. 2. Impact on the Mainland By early 17th century other European countries arrive. Less impact of mainland SE Asia. Mainland states were able to unite and drive Europeans out. These areas had begun to define themselves as distinct political entities. They had strong monarchs that resisted foreign intrusion. Spice trade enormously profitable in non-mainland area, so Europeans gain control of the sources of the spices. Arrival of Europeans Portuguese The spice islands ( Melaka and the Moluccas) Took interest because of the preserving and flavoring qualities of the spices Lacked military power so English and Dutch pushed the Portuguese out English had one trading fort (Sumatra) Dutch controlled trade throughout the spice islands and control of the island of Java Impact of mainland Mainland southeast Asia ( Burma, Vietnam, and Thailand) defined themselves as distinct political entities. They were united politically unlike the islands off the mainland They could resist foreign intrusion .

31 Section 4 review Why were spices highly valued and sought out so eagerly? They had medical uses and preserved meat for winter. The Islamic trade network developed in the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago because Muslim merchants wanted to trade what? Spices The Southeast Asian states evolved into four styles of monarchy, including: Vietnamese emperors, Islamic sultans, Buddhist kings, and Javanese kings.

32 Section 4 review What group of explorers first found the gateway to the Spice Islands? Portuguese The Vietnamese emperor ruled according to whose teachings? Confucius

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