Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 16 THE EAST ASIAN WORLD 1400 – 1800 A BYOD Moment Where is it?"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 16 THE EAST ASIAN WORLD 1400 – 1800 A BYOD Moment Where is it? What is the name?How is it similar to the palace of Versailles in France?How would this symbolize the power of the leader?CHAPTER 16THE EAST ASIAN WORLD1400 – 1800OpeningBell ringer- students guess where photo is locatedQuestionsWhere is it?Beijing ChinaWhat is the name?Imperial / forbidden cityHow is it similar to the palace of Versailles in France?Grand and elaborateHow would this symbolize the power of the leader?It is very showy and impressive and would show the strength of the leaderFun facts about the city178 acresBuilt 1400’sWalled with buildings and gardensArranged going north to southArranged to reflect imperial powerShows that imperial power is supremeHad to have special permission to enter the cityHome to Ming and Qing EmperorsClick on picture to show video 4:22 min
2How did a policy of isolation affect the Chinese Empire? A BYOD MomentWhere is this water way located?This major water way flows south to north and is a specific canal.what is the name of this canal?Why is it critical to this country’s economic stability?Section 1 pagesCHINA AT ITS HEIGHTHow did a policy of isolation affect the Chinese Empire?BYOD MomentAnswersChinaGreat CanalShips manufactured and produce to northern chinaEssential QuestionHow did a policy of isolation affect the Chinese Empire?Answer- China’s isolation kept both positive and negative European influences from entering china.This section will focus on success and failures under the Ming and Qing Dynasties
3China’s last native imperial dynasty! We are first going to look at the Ming Dynasty under which china flourished and expanded.During this time they flourished in tradeManufacturingCultural exchange with the westChina’s last native imperial dynasty!
4Zheng He The Ming Dynasty Mongols replaced by Ming Hong Wu, who started the Ming dynasty. He extended the empire, strengthened the Great Wall. Ran an effective government using a centralized bureaucracy, using civil service tests.Voyages of Zheng HeMing built the Imperial City in Beijing and it became the capital. Yong Le also sent a series of naval voyages into Indian Ocean. Led by Zheng He –he brought great profit to China.First Contacts with the West1514, The Portuguese fleet arrived off the coast of China. They were the first direct contact between the Chinese and Europe since Marco Polo. China was at it’s height of power. Emperors believed Europeans were barbaric. Portugal soon outraged the Chinese and was expelled from Guangzhou and now could only trade at the port of Macao. There was a good exchange of ideas between the 2 nations. Christian missionaries had also make long voyage to China. Chinese scholars were able to read better with European eyeglasses. Europeans were impressed with Confucius teachings.Zheng HeMongol dynasty is overthrown in 1368Ming dynasty lasts until 1644Ming Hong Wu is first leaderUnder Ming emperorsthe dynasty expands to include ( Mongolia, central Asia, and Mongolia)Strengthened the great wall to the north and made peace with northern nomadic tribes.GovernmentCentralizedOfficials picked by civil service examSet up a nationwide school systemManufactured goods in high numbersNew crops – larger crops renovated Grand canal- ship grain south to northThe voyages of Zheng HeAfter Ming Hong Wu son Yong Lee became emperorMonuments to self to show powerStrengthen great wallRestore Chinese Authority over VietnamBegins Construction of Forbidden (Imperial) city in BeijingCreated to show power and prestigeBecame capitalHome of Emperors for 500 yrsVoyages to India and east Africa brought back untold goods and knowledgeLed by Zheng HeGiraffes were put in the imperial zooEnormous profitsTraditional officials of the Confucian beliefs became alarmedFelt trade was unworthy andYong lee’s death the voyages will be halted never to start again.When he died he was buried with his wife and 16 concubinesFirst contacts with the westPortuguese are the first to have actual contact with the Chinese by sea since the travels of Marco polo over land.China was height of power during this Ming DynastyViewed everyone else as china’s little brother ( Chinese leaders were called sons of Heaven)Viewed Europeans as unusual and BarbaricThey were expelled from Guangxhou because of behaviorAllowed to occupy Macao-port city in southeastern chinaTrade was not increase between the Chinese and Portuguese, but the exchange of ideas did.Christian missionaries –Jesuits- educated-brought new technologies-clocks- made china more excepting of western ideasJesuits wrote back to europe about what they saw and the beliefs of the people which intrigue EuropeansEyeglasses were introduced to china
5The Ming Dynasty 3. Fall of Ming Dynasty In the late 16th century, internal struggles began. Followed by government corruption. In the 1630’s, a major epidemic reduced the population.Weak rulers, peasant unrest, and poor crop yields, contributed to the downfall of the Ming dynasty.Overthrow of the Ming led to Manchus, farm people from Manchuria, who created a new dynasty called Qing (Pure) Dynasty created in 1644 and remained in power until 1911.After all the great territory and trade advancements the Ming dynasty began to fall into decline like all other great empiresInternal power struggles developedGroups worked to make someone of their own emperorWeak rulers who were overpoweredChildren were often put on the throne who could be easily be manipulatedLed to times of high corruption and taxesPeasant unrestLow crop production because of bad unfavorable weather.EpidemicReduce human lifeNoted the buzzing of flies was all you heard instead of human life.Led to peasant revoltLed by Li ZichengInvasion of capital BeijingLast Ming Emperor hangs himself in palace gardensManchus from Manchuria in the north invade Beijing and put down Li Zichengs armyCreated the Qing (pure) dynasty
6Kangxi The Qing Dynasty Some people resisted new rule; the Manchus prepared to attack the island of Taiwan. To identify rebels, Manchu troops ordered all males shaved their forehead and braid their hair into a pigtail called a Queue. Manchu fighting units were called banners. “Bannermen” were the chief fighting force of the empire, had separate units. Were gradually accepted as rulers.1. Qing AdaptationsKept Ming political systems but Manchus were ethnically and culturally different. Deal with it in 2 ways:a) tried to preserves their distinct identity within Chinese society. Their nobility held large landholdings and received $ from treasury.b) dealt with the problem of ethnic difference by bringing Chinese into imperial administration, but Manchus held the higher posts. Sharing power did win them support from Chinese.2. Reign of KangxiStrongest emperor – Christian missionaries reached their height. Many Chinese converted. His successors began to suppress Christian activities.KangxiDuring the Qing Dynasty we will see how European influence on Chinese culture will lead to china closing its doors to the west.Empire lastSome Chinese rejected the Manchu rule and seized the island of TaiwanManchu government prepared to identify and attack the rebelsUse a mandated order of unified Manchu dress for malesHad to shave forehead and braid their hair into a pigtail “queue”Those who refused were seen as rebels and executed.Eventually the Manchu were excepted and the Qing dynasty flourishedCorrected social and economic illsQing AdoptionsKept Ming political system of officials chosen by civil service examQing were culturally different from the majority of their populationSolutionsTo protect distinct cultural identityOnly 2% of pop – ManchuDefined legally distinct from rest of chinaManchu nobilityLarge landholdingsRevenue from treasuryother ManchuOrganized into separate military unitsBanners – chief fighting force of the empireEthnic differencesBrought Chinese into the Manchu governmentRegular Chinese were 80% of lower postsHeld a much smaller amount of top positionsThis won much support of the ruler populasReign of KangxiReigned for 61 yearsHard worker dawn till nightPatron of the arts- gain support of artist and scholarsExcepted Christian missionaries and the conversion of noble and 300,000 ordinary pop to Christian faith.This ceased after his death and Christian activities were suppressed
7The Qing Dynasty Europeans in China Qianlong expanded China to its greatest physical size, butalso the first signs of decayappeared.Why did this happen?The Emperor fell under theinfluence of destructive elements at court. Corrupt officials and higher taxes led to unrest. Population growth exerted pressure on land. Led to the White Lotus Rebellion(a peasant revolt) repressed but was expensive. Europe wanting more trade during this dynasty. Qing confined all European traders to a small island outside Guangzhou. Britain had an unfavorable trade balance with China, that is Britain imported more goods from China than it exported to the country. Led to debt owed to China.Europeans in ChinaQianlong ( chee-uhn-lung)RuledGreat rulerExpanded china to its greatest sizeReach great prosperityStart of eventual declineWhy?Grew older=easier to influence by court officialsRaised taxesUnrest in rural areas and economic hardshipPop growth strained the land =economic hardshipPeasant rebellion “white lotus rebellion”Put down but broke Qing treasuryWeekend power and European tradeSold rights to EuropeansRestricted to island outside GuangzhouReside there October to marchCould only trade with certain European firmsSystem was excepted but then pressure from Euro trader and Chinese to open upBritish import large amounts of tea and silk and pay debt with silverLord George McCartney visited to seek more liberal policiesQianlong responded they did not need their goods- would regret
8Section 1 ReviewReports from early Christian missionaries made who more curious about China?EuropeansActive Christian missionaries in ChinaJesuitsDynasty founded by Ming Hong WuMingFirst Europeans to make contact with the Ming dynasty were the?Portuguese
9Section 1 ReviewAccomplishments of the Ming emperors included renovating what?Grand CanalLeader of exploration and trading voyagesZheng HeWeak rulers, peasant unrest, and poor crop yields contributed to the downfall of what dynasty?MingRuling dynasty from (after Ming)QingThe emperor Kangxi was generally tolerant of what?Christian missionariesManchu fighting unitsbanners
10Section 2 CHINESE SOCIETY AND CULTURE Challenge!Imagine that in your current home there are four generations of family living together. This includes aunts, uncles, cousins, siblings, parents and grandparents. How many people would you be living with in your household?Section 2CHINESE SOCIETY AND CULTUREWhat was the main focus of Chinese society ?Essential question answerChinese society revolved around familyThis section will focus on Chinese culture between , including economic changes, the role of women in society, and Chinese art and literature.
11Economy and Daily Life 1. Economic Changes First change for China was an increase in population. Causes – peace and stability, improvements in food supply. Population increase meant less land available for each family. Another change was a steady growth in manufacturing and increased trade between provinces. Did not develop the kind of commercial capitalism (private business based on profit) that was emerging in Europe.2. Society and role of WomenChinese society was organized around the family. All family members were expected to sacrifice their individual needs to benefit the family. Based on Confucian ideals. Extended family and clans as well.Women were considered inferior to men. Only males could have a formal education and pursue a career in government. Feature of Chinese society that restricted the mobility of women was the practice of foot binding. Bound feet were a status symbol. Were more marriageable.Economic changesduring the Ming and Qing dynasties , China’s pop grew and so did manufacturingRole of women remained restrictedArts and architecture flourished% of the population flourish agriculturallyChangesIncrease population 80 mil to 300 milPeace under Qing dynastyImprovements in food supplies because of a faster growing rice in southwest Asia that would have been transported north on the Great CanalIncrease pop led to land shortages and revoltTried to fix by limiting how much the land owning aristocracy could ownpeace led to a boost in manufacturingMore merchants with stable trade in in silk, porcelain, cotton goods, and other productsThey did not develop commercial capitalism) private business ownership (like us or Europe)Manufacturing and trade was under strict control of the government who looked down on trade and levied high taxes. This is the same as communist governmentsBecause of confusion principlesThe Confucian idea of profits was double-edged. On the one hand, Confucius' disciple,Mencius, made it abundantly clear that it was immoral of rulers to concentrate on profits for their respective states. On the other hand, merchants were socially useful because their risk-taking trading activities could supply the people's diverse needs.In a compromise, ethics was deeply incorporated into business activities. Consequently, it was insisted that merchants' behaviors be governed by the ethical principles, which held that righteousness outweighs profits and that collective benefits and spiritual values outweigh individual benefits and material values respectively.Society and roles of womenOrganized around familySupport all members needs – education, care of unwed daughters and the elderlyAll were expected to sacrifice for the well-being of all (Confucian ideals)Qing dynasty familyFour generations under one roofSons married they brought wives to live in family homeUnmarried daughters stayedParents and grandparents –elderly high regard care for by childrenToday china has less nursing homes than hereClanExtended familyDozen to hundred family membersLinked by elders and common social practices (Buddhism and Confucianism )Help for providing for poorer family membersMenPursue careers and formally educatedCould divorce if not sons producedCould take a second wifeProvide for family-even extendedWomenStrong family rolesSubordinate to menCould not divorce or inherit propertyFoot bindingStatus symbolNot if you worked in a fieldVideo 1:22min
12Chinese Art and Literature 1. The Chinese novelMing economic expansion increases standards of living. New innovations in paper manufacturing encouraged the growth of printing. Chinese novel began.2. Ming and Qing ArtArchitecture – Imperial City – complex of palaces and temples, now known as Forbidden City. The city was closed to commoners. Decorative arts grew. Most famous of all the arts of the Ming Era was blue and white porcelain.During the Ming and Qing dynasties art and literature flourishedEconomic success meant more people had money and could buy booksNew paper increases printing.Culture & ArtIncreased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things:Literature.Painting.Ceramics.Opera.Golden Age of Chinese ArtModerationSoftnessGracefulness
13Section 2 Review Private business based on profit Commercial capitalismPrivate business-for-profit did not increase in China because why?Government control of manufacturing and tradeHeavy taxes on manufacturingChinese attitudes toward trade and manufacturing(looked down on, inferior to farming)
14Section 2 Review The most famous of Ming Era arts? Blue and white porcelainBetween 1500 and 1800, 85% of Chinese people did what for a living?FarmingPainful practice for Chinese womenFoot bindingWalled compound inside BeijingImperial City
15Section 2 Review Group of many related families Clan The ideal family unit in Qing China consisted of what?The extended familyChanges that occurred in China between 1500 and 1800 included: growth in manufacturing and trade, improvements in the food supply, and an increase in what?PopulationThe Forbidden City was closed to who?commoners
16What is the social hierarchy of Union High School in your opinion? 2) What title would you give each group?3) How would you describe each group?Section 3 pagesTOKUGAWA JAPAN AND KOREAWhat changes took place in Japan after its political unification?Essential question answerEuropeans brought new products and technology to Japan: a period of “ Great Peace” occurredStudents will learn about the causes and effects of Japans unification
17Political Changes in Japan End 15th century Japan was in chaos. Shogunate collapsed – Daimyo (heads of noble families) took control.Three Great UnifiersLate 16th century unification startsOda Nobunaga – seized capital of Kyoto and put shogun under his control.Toyotomi Hideyoshi – Osaka = capital. Persuade most of Daimyo to accept him.Tokugawa Ieyasu – powerful daimyo of Edo, (today Tokyo)completed the restoration of central authority. Brought in a long period called “Great Peace.”Through 17th-18th centuries Japan and Korea were unified under powerful leaders allowing both culture to culturally flourish.Political changes in Japan15th century Japan was in Chaos with no centralized government and Daimyo ( nobles) controlled and warred over landJapan will unify because of 3 key menOda Nubunaga ( oh- duh noh-boo-nan-gah)Took over Kyoto (capital) and put reigning shogun under his controlToyotomi Hydeyoshi ( toh- yoh –toh-mee Hee –day-yoh-shee)Succeeded NubungaMilitary commanderChanged capital to OsakaPersuaded Daimyo to except his authoritytokugawa ieyasu ( tok-kuh-gah –wah ee-yah-soo)Powerful Daimyo of Edo ( modern Tokyo)Took control of JapanTitle of shogunRestoration of central authorityTime of great peace
18Political Changes in Japan Europeans in JapanAs Japan unifies, Europeans arrive. Portugal came first. At first were welcomed. Francis Xaiver, a Jesuit missionary, came. Japan fascinated by tobacco, clocks, eye glasses, and other European goods. Hideyoshi eventually prohibited Christianity because the Jesuits destroyed local shrines. Then merchants were forced to leave.Europeans in Japanas Japan unified Europeans arrivedPortuguese 1st 1543Took part in the regional trade btw Japan, China, and Southeast AsiaAt first they were welcomedFascination in European tobacco, clocks, eyeglasses, and firearms ( help unify Islands)Started producing firearms after introductionJesuitsFrancis Xavier- 1549Convert daimyo = thousands of Japanese will become ChristianDestroy local shrines2nd unifier hideyoshi will outlaw Christian activates in his landsloosely enforced3rd unifier ieyasuWill strictly forbid Christian practices and persecute ChristiansTrade will be next to goNetherlands only allowed traders to stayOnly allowed to dock at Nagasaki once a year 2-3 months
19Political Changes in Japan 3. Tokugawa RuleEstablished control of feudal systems separate territories called HANS (Domains). Each ruled by a daimyo. Shogun used HOSTAGE SYSTEM whereby daimyo required to have 2 houses – one in own lands and one in Edo. If went to own lands family stayed in Edo and if went to Edo then family could go to own lands.Tokugawa RuleEstablished control of Japans feudal systemFeudal system break downthe state was broken into 250 providences (Hans)Ruled by daimyoSupported themselves and land through taxesIn actuality the shogun controlled the DaimyoHostage systemMaintain two houses (1 on their land -1 in Edo capital where shogun was located )When daimyo was away from home in Edo family was kept as insurance of his loyalty to the ShogunThis became a time of great peace and the samurai become managers of Daimyo land
20Imperial Court Families Shogun, Daimyo, Samurai, Ronin JapanEmperorImperial Court FamiliesWarrior Class:Shogun, Daimyo, Samurai, RoninFarmers, ArtisansMerchantsEtaTokugawa RuleHostage SystemDaimyo ruled a han or territoryFamily forced to stay in EdoGreat PeaceSamurai ceased to be a warrior classSocietyRigid class system
21Tokugawa Era Major economic changes. Trade and industry grew. 1. Economic and Social changeJapanese merchant class emerged, began to play a significant role. How about the peasants? Some benefit by exploiting the demand for cash crop. Most experienced declining profits and rising costs. Japans’ class system became rigid. Classes: warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchants. No intermarriages allowed. Page 523 discuss classes.Tokugwa EraEconomicsMany upper Confucian Japanese had considered trade under themTokugwa rule trade and industry began to flourish- especially in large citiesEdo – largest cities in the worldBanking, paper money became the norm for business transactionsMerchant class begins to emergePeasant classThese changes allowed some to make a profit from cash cropsMost experiences rising prices and taxesForced to become tenant farmers or hired handsThere were many revolts against the taxesSocial changesbecome rigidstrict legal distinctions btw warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchantsNo intermarriagesocial classEmperor and family- top of political structureWarrior class ( shogun, daimyo, samuri, and roninShogun was supreme ruler under emperor and distributor of the national rice cropDaimyo received rice from shogun in exchange for military serviceSamurai received rice from the Daimyo in exchange for their services as advisors, castle guards, government officialsFinally were the ronin ( warriors with no masters and traveled the country looking for jobs.Below warrior were the farmers, artisans, merchantsFarmers produced rice= privileged position = poorartisans=swords & carpentersMerchants bottom-distributed goods- made profit off of others laborBelow all were the eta or outcaste people still look down on
22Tokugawa Era 2. Society and role of Women In samurai class, rights of females were restricted. Women were generally valued for their role as child bearers and homemakers.3. Literature and the ArtsNew set of cultural values – included the rise of popular literature. Was lighthearted and intended to please audiences. Theater – Kabuki which emphasized action, music and dramatic gestures. All male actors.Society and role of womenSamuri houseMen head of household, property, marriage and divorceCommon peopleParents arranged marriageMove in with husbands familyDid not meet expectations then divorceValued as child bearers and home makersIn fields men did the heavier laborliterature and ArtsTokugawaRise in literature written for the people ( most was meant to lighten and please the people)Urban literatureIhara SailkakuFive Women Who loved lovesearch for love by five womenMerchant classWilling to die for love, all but one doesPoetry –serousStill considered serious businessMatsuo BashoWrote about natureTheater- KabukiAction, music and dramatic gesturesWorld of the teahouse and dance halls in citiesForbade women partake in such plays because of damage to societies moralsAllowed a new job for men as playing women in playsArtDaimyo fight to see who can build the most magnificent houseBorrowed ideas from Korea to make ceramic piecesStudiesStudied western medicine language and painting styles
23Korea: the Hermit Kingdom Yi dynasty under Yi Songgye. One of World’s longest lasting monarchies.1. Distinctive CulturePatterned society on China. Did develop own unique alphabet – HANGUL. Still largely standard writing system.2. Cultural IsolationWas invaded by Japan – in response Korean rulers sought to isolate Korea. Nicknamed “Hermit Kingdom.” Manchus attack early 17th century – Korea surrenders and Yi Dynasty subject to China.Korea also followed the same isolation route as china and japan.Yi dynasty was one of the longest lasting monarchies in the world 5 centuriesDistinctive cultureCapital Hanseong (modern Seoul) Yi rulers consolidated rule of KoreaModeled after china to the north but kept distinct cultureDeveloped the unique alphabet of HangulUsed one letter for each sound like the English language and is still used todayCultural isolationJapan invaded Korea as a way to have a route to china, but the conquest failedKorea was devastated and as a result Korean rulers limited contact with the outside world so that foreign countries would not take interestEventually the Manchus of China invaded and the Yi dynasty had to surrender to china
24Section 3 Review Heads of noble families Daimyo Japanese social outcastsEtaShogunates method of controlHostage systemTerritories or domainsHansCrops grown for saleCash crops
25Section 3 ReviewWarriors, peasants, artisans, merchants was the order of the 4 main classes during what Era?TokugawaMuch of the prose literature of this era was lighthearted and entertaining.Francis Xavier came to Japan in 1549 as what?Jesuit missionaryShogun, ronin, daimyo, made up what Japanese class?warrior
26Section 3 Review True or False Hideyoshi prohibited Christian activities.TrueDutch ships were limited to one visit per year.Europeans were interested in buying Japanese weapons.FalseInitially, traders and missionaries were welcomed.true
27SPICE TRADE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA A DOK Moment …….What is this?What is it used for?What part of the world does it come from?Section 4SPICE TRADE IN SOUTHEAST ASIAWhy did Europeans struggle to control the spice trade in Southeast Asia?Essential Question AnswerIt was very profitable
28Emerging Mainland States 1. Conflict in Southeast AsiaSE Asia mainland – conflicts – Thai vs. Burma. Vietnam had began “march to the south” – took control of Mekong Delta from Khmer.2. Islamic trade networkMalay Peninsula and Indonesian archipelago – Muslim merchants were attracted to the growing spice trade. They gradually create an Islamic trade network.Emerging Mainland StatesSpices of the orient are what attracted Europeans to Asia, but the first to this trade were the Muslims through the Silk RoadConflicts in Southeast AsiaThai vs BurmaBurmese sack Thailand- Bangkok Thailand createdVietnamese then started their march Southeastern mainland taking over the Mekong deltaIslamic Trade networkMuslim traders attracted to the spice tradeThey gradually entered the areaAs a result trade and Islamic states increasedSultan Melaka =power in the strait of Malacca=became leading power because of being on the spice trade route
29Emerging Mainland States 3. Religious and Political systemsBeliefs were changing. Islam and Christianity began to draw interest. Political systems into 4 styles of monarchs:a) Buddhist kings – chief form – king considered superior and link between people and universeb) Javanese kings – rooted in political traditions of India – believed to have a sacred quality.c) Islamic sultans –ruled on the Malay Peninsula – Sultan was head, defender of faith, and staffed his bureaucracy with aristocrats(not elected officials)d) Vietnamese emperors – Chinese model, ruled according to Confucius teachings. Ruler appointed by Heaven to rule by talent and virtue.Religion began to change- Christianity and Islam ( in the non-mainland states)Buddhism advanced in the mainland statesThese religious beliefs helped to influence 4 new styles of monarchy ( all adopted foreign forms of government)Buddhist KingsSuperior to all other humansLink btw human society and the universeJavanese KingsRooted in Indian Buddhist traditionsacred qualityBalance btw sacred and materialRoyal palace was designed to represent center of the universeSultansIslamicWas head of stateSeen protector of faithStaffed bureaucracy with aristocratsVietnamese emperorsEmperor ruled according to the teachings of Confucius ( treat subjects with love and respect)Intermediate between heaven and earthAppointed by heaven to rule by his talents and virtues
30Arrival of EuropeansSpices highly valued – used as medicines and food preservers. Melake key or gateway to Spice Islands. Portugal controlled, then occupied Moluccas. (Spice Island to Europeans)1. Shift in PowerEnglish and Dutch arrive, better financed. Dutch in particular consolidate power and military control.2. Impact on the MainlandBy early 17th century other European countries arrive. Less impact of mainland SE Asia. Mainland states were able to unite and drive Europeans out. These areas had begun to define themselves as distinct political entities. They had strong monarchs that resisted foreign intrusion. Spice trade enormously profitable in non-mainland area, so Europeans gain control of the sources of the spices.Arrival of EuropeansPortugueseThe spice islands ( Melaka and the Moluccas)Took interest because of the preserving and flavoring qualities of the spicesLacked military power so English and Dutch pushed the Portuguese outEnglish had one trading fort (Sumatra)Dutch controlled trade throughout the spice islands and control of the island of JavaImpact of mainlandMainland southeast Asia ( Burma, Vietnam, and Thailand) defined themselves as distinct political entities.They were united politically unlike the islands off the mainlandThey could resist foreign intrusion .
31Section 4 reviewWhy were spices highly valued and sought out so eagerly?They had medical uses and preserved meat for winter.The Islamic trade network developed in the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago because Muslim merchants wanted to trade what?SpicesThe Southeast Asian states evolved into four styles of monarchy, including:Vietnamese emperors, Islamic sultans, Buddhist kings, and Javanese kings.
32Section 4 reviewWhat group of explorers first found the gateway to the Spice Islands?PortugueseThe Vietnamese emperor ruled according to whose teachings?Confucius