Presentation on theme: "THE EAST ASIAN WORLD 1400 – 1800 A BYOD Moment 1.Where is it? 2.What is the name? 3.How is it similar to the palace of Versailles in France? 4.How would."— Presentation transcript:
THE EAST ASIAN WORLD 1400 – 1800 A BYOD Moment 1.Where is it? 2.What is the name? 3.How is it similar to the palace of Versailles in France? 4.How would this symbolize the power of the leader?
CHINA AT ITS HEIGHT How did a policy of isolation affect the Chinese Empire? A BYOD Moment 1)Where is this water way located? 2)This major water way flows south to north and is a specific canal. 1)what is the name of this canal? 2)Why is it critical to this country’s economic stability?
The Ming Dynasty Mongols replaced by Ming Hong Wu, who started the Ming dynasty. He extended the empire, strengthened the Great Wall. Ran an effective government using a centralized bureaucracy, using civil service tests. Voyages of Zheng He Ming built the Imperial City in Beijing and it became the capital. Yong Le also sent a series of naval voyages into Indian Ocean. Led by Zheng He –he brought great profit to China. First Contacts with the West 1514, The Portuguese fleet arrived off the coast of China. They were the first direct contact between the Chinese and Europe since Marco Polo. China was at it’s height of power. Emperors believed Europeans were barbaric. Portugal soon outraged the Chinese and was expelled from Guangzhou and now could only trade at the port of Macao. There was a good exchange of ideas between the 2 nations. Christian missionaries had also make long voyage to China. Chinese scholars were able to read better with European eyeglasses. Europeans were impressed with Confucius teachings. Zheng He
The Ming Dynasty 3. Fall of Ming Dynasty In the late 16 th century, internal struggles began. Followed by government corruption. In the 1630’s, a major epidemic reduced the population. Weak rulers, peasant unrest, and poor crop yields, contributed to the downfall of the Ming dynasty. Overthrow of the Ming led to Manchus, farm people from Manchuria, who created a new dynasty called Qing (Pure) Dynasty created in 1644 and remained in power until 1911.
The Qing Dynasty Some people resisted new rule; the Manchus prepared to attack the island of Taiwan. To identify rebels, Manchu troops ordered all males shaved their forehead and braid their hair into a pigtail called a Queue. Manchu fighting units were called banners. “Bannermen” were the chief fighting force of the empire, had separate units. Were gradually accepted as rulers. 1. Qing Adaptations Kept Ming political systems but Manchus were ethnically and culturally different. Deal with it in 2 ways: a) tried to preserves their distinct identity within Chinese society. Their nobility held large landholdings and received $ from treasury. b) dealt with the problem of ethnic difference by bringing Chinese into imperial administration, but Manchus held the higher posts. Sharing power did win them support from Chinese. 2. Reign of Kangxi Strongest emperor – Christian missionaries reached their height. Many Chinese converted. His successors began to suppress Christian activities. Kangxi
The Qing Dynasty Europeans in China Qianlong expanded China to its greatest physical size, but also the first signs of decay appeared. Why did this happen? The Emperor fell under the influence of destructive elements at court. Corrupt officials and higher taxes led to unrest. Population growth exerted pressure on land. Led to the White Lotus Rebellion(a peasant revolt) repressed but was expensive. Europe wanting more trade during this dynasty. Qing confined all European traders to a small island outside Guangzhou. Britain had an unfavorable trade balance with China, that is Britain imported more goods from China than it exported to the country. Led to debt owed to China.
Section 1 Review Reports from early Christian missionaries made who more curious about China? Europeans Active Christian missionaries in China Jesuits Dynasty founded by Ming Hong Wu Ming First Europeans to make contact with the Ming dynasty were the? Portuguese
Section 1 Review Accomplishments of the Ming emperors included renovating what? Grand Canal Leader of exploration and trading voyages Zheng He Weak rulers, peasant unrest, and poor crop yields contributed to the downfall of what dynasty? Ming Ruling dynasty from 1644-1911(after Ming) Qing The emperor Kangxi was generally tolerant of what? Christian missionaries Manchu fighting units banners
CHINESE SOCIETY AND CULTURE What was the main focus of Chinese society ? Challenge! Imagine that in your current home there are four generations of family living together. This includes aunts, uncles, cousins, siblings, parents and grandparents. How many people would you be living with in your household? Challenge! Imagine that in your current home there are four generations of family living together. This includes aunts, uncles, cousins, siblings, parents and grandparents. How many people would you be living with in your household?
Economy and Daily Life 1. Economic Changes First change for China was an increase in population. Causes – peace and stability, improvements in food supply. Population increase meant less land available for each family. Another change was a steady growth in manufacturing and increased trade between provinces. Did not develop the kind of commercial capitalism (private business based on profit) that was emerging in Europe. 2. Society and role of Women Chinese society was organized around the family. All family members were expected to sacrifice their individual needs to benefit the family. Based on Confucian ideals. Extended family and clans as well. Women were considered inferior to men. Only males could have a formal education and pursue a career in government. Feature of Chinese society that restricted the mobility of women was the practice of foot binding. Bound feet were a status symbol. Were more marriageable.
Chinese Art and Literature 1. The Chinese novel Ming economic expansion increases standards of living. New innovations in paper manufacturing encouraged the growth of printing. Chinese novel began. 2. Ming and Qing Art Architecture – Imperial City – complex of palaces and temples, now known as Forbidden City. The city was closed to commoners. Decorative arts grew. Most famous of all the arts of the Ming Era was blue and white porcelain.
Section 2 Review Private business based on profit Commercial capitalism Private business-for-profit did not increase in China because why? Government control of manufacturing and trade Heavy taxes on manufacturing Chinese attitudes toward trade and manufacturing (looked down on, inferior to farming)
Section 2 Review The most famous of Ming Era arts? Blue and white porcelain Between 1500 and 1800, 85% of Chinese people did what for a living? Farming Painful practice for Chinese women Foot binding Walled compound inside Beijing Imperial City
Section 2 Review Group of many related families Clan The ideal family unit in Qing China consisted of what? The extended family Changes that occurred in China between 1500 and 1800 included: growth in manufacturing and trade, improvements in the food supply, and an increase in what? Population The Forbidden City was closed to who? commoners
TOKUGAWA JAPAN AND KOREA What changes took place in Japan after its political unification? 1)What is the social hierarchy of Union High School in your opinion? 2) What title would you give each group? 3) How would you describe each group?
Political Changes in Japan End 15 th century Japan was in chaos. Shogunate collapsed – Daimyo (heads of noble families) took control. Three Great Unifiers Late 16 th century unification starts Oda Nobunaga – seized capital of Kyoto and put shogun under his control. Toyotomi Hideyoshi – Osaka = capital. Persuade most of Daimyo to accept him. Tokugawa Ieyasu – powerful daimyo of Edo, (today Tokyo)completed the restoration of central authority. Brought in a long period called “Great Peace.”
Political Changes in Japan Europeans in Japan As Japan unifies, Europeans arrive. Portugal came first. At first were welcomed. Francis Xaiver, a Jesuit missionary, came. Japan fascinated by tobacco, clocks, eye glasses, and other European goods. Hideyoshi eventually prohibited Christianity because the Jesuits destroyed local shrines. Then merchants were forced to leave.
Political Changes in Japan 3. Tokugawa Rule Established control of feudal systems. 250 separate territories called HANS (Domains). Each ruled by a daimyo. Shogun used HOSTAGE SYSTEM whereby daimyo required to have 2 houses – one in own lands and one in Edo. If went to own lands family stayed in Edo and if went to Edo then family could go to own lands.
Japan Tokugawa Rule Hostage System Daimyo ruled a han or territory Family forced to stay in Edo Great Peace Samurai ceased to be a warrior class Society Rigid class system Emperor Imperial Court Families Warrior Class: Shogun, Daimyo, Samurai, Ronin Farmers, Artisans Merchants Eta
Tokugawa Era Major economic changes. Trade and industry grew. 1. Economic and Social change Japanese merchant class emerged, began to play a significant role. How about the peasants? Some benefit by exploiting the demand for cash crop. Most experienced declining profits and rising costs. Japans’ class system became rigid. Classes: warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchants. No intermarriages allowed. Page 523 discuss classes.
Tokugawa Era 2. Society and role of Women In samurai class, rights of females were restricted. Women were generally valued for their role as child bearers and homemakers. 3. Literature and the Arts New set of cultural values – included the rise of popular literature. Was lighthearted and intended to please audiences. Theater – Kabuki which emphasized action, music and dramatic gestures. All male actors.
Korea: the Hermit Kingdom Yi dynasty under Yi Songgye. One of World’s longest lasting monarchies. 1. Distinctive Culture Patterned society on China. Did develop own unique alphabet – HANGUL. Still largely standard writing system. 2. Cultural Isolation Was invaded by Japan – in response Korean rulers sought to isolate Korea. Nicknamed “Hermit Kingdom.” Manchus attack early 17 th century – Korea surrenders and Yi Dynasty subject to China.
Section 3 Review Heads of noble families Daimyo Japanese social outcasts Eta Shogunates method of control Hostage system Territories or domains Hans Crops grown for sale Cash crops
Section 3 Review Warriors, peasants, artisans, merchants was the order of the 4 main classes during what Era? Tokugawa Much of the prose literature of this era was lighthearted and entertaining. Tokugawa Francis Xavier came to Japan in 1549 as what? Jesuit missionary Shogun, ronin, daimyo, made up what Japanese class? warrior
Section 3 Review True or False Hideyoshi prohibited Christian activities. True Dutch ships were limited to one visit per year. True Europeans were interested in buying Japanese weapons. False Initially, traders and missionaries were welcomed. true
SPICE TRADE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Why did Europeans struggle to control the spice trade in Southeast Asia? A DOK Moment ……. 1)What is this? 2)What is it used for? 3)What part of the world does it come from?
Emerging Mainland States 1. Conflict in Southeast Asia SE Asia mainland – conflicts – Thai vs. Burma. Vietnam had began “march to the south” – took control of Mekong Delta from Khmer. 2. Islamic trade network Malay Peninsula and Indonesian archipelago – Muslim merchants were attracted to the growing spice trade. They gradually create an Islamic trade network.
Emerging Mainland States 3. Religious and Political systems Beliefs were changing. Islam and Christianity began to draw interest. Political systems into 4 styles of monarchs: a) Buddhist kings – chief form – king considered superior and link between people and universe b) Javanese kings – rooted in political traditions of India – believed to have a sacred quality. c) Islamic sultans –ruled on the Malay Peninsula – Sultan was head, defender of faith, and staffed his bureaucracy with aristocrats(not elected officials) d) Vietnamese emperors – Chinese model, ruled according to Confucius teachings. Ruler appointed by Heaven to rule by talent and virtue.
Arrival of Europeans Spices highly valued – used as medicines and food preservers. Melake key or gateway to Spice Islands. Portugal controlled, then occupied Moluccas. (Spice Island to Europeans) 1. Shift in Power English and Dutch arrive, better financed. Dutch in particular consolidate power and military control. 2. Impact on the Mainland By early 17 th century other European countries arrive. Less impact of mainland SE Asia. Mainland states were able to unite and drive Europeans out. These areas had begun to define themselves as distinct political entities. They had strong monarchs that resisted foreign intrusion. Spice trade enormously profitable in non-mainland area, so Europeans gain control of the sources of the spices.
Section 4 review Why were spices highly valued and sought out so eagerly? They had medical uses and preserved meat for winter. The Islamic trade network developed in the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago because Muslim merchants wanted to trade what? Spices The Southeast Asian states evolved into four styles of monarchy, including: Vietnamese emperors, Islamic sultans, Buddhist kings, and Javanese kings.
Section 4 review What group of explorers first found the gateway to the Spice Islands? Portuguese The Vietnamese emperor ruled according to whose teachings? Confucius