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The East Asian World Chapter 9, Sections 1-3. Outline Rise of Ming Dynasty – Zheng He – Contact with Europeans – Culture/Society – Decline of Ming Rise.

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Presentation on theme: "The East Asian World Chapter 9, Sections 1-3. Outline Rise of Ming Dynasty – Zheng He – Contact with Europeans – Culture/Society – Decline of Ming Rise."— Presentation transcript:

1 The East Asian World Chapter 9, Sections 1-3

2 Outline Rise of Ming Dynasty – Zheng He – Contact with Europeans – Culture/Society – Decline of Ming Rise of Qing Dynasty – Kangxi – European influence – Culture/Society Tokugawa Japan – European influence – Economy and society Korea

3 Rise of the Ming Dynasty Ruler was Ming Hong Wu, or “Ming Martial Emperor” China grew to include parts of Mongolia, Central Asia, and Vietnam Ming improvements – Centralized government – School systems – Factories for producing goods – Public works projects like canals for shipping – Introduction of new, easier to produce, crops

4 Exploration and Invitation Voyages of Zheng He – Yong Le, son of Ming Hong Wu, begins voyages into Indian Ocean – Made an enormous profit through trade…but some did not agree with trade Confucius ideas condemned it – Voyages halted following Yong Le’s death (1424) Contact with Europeans – Portuguese arrive in 1514, first contact since Marco Polo Brought Christian missionaries Exchange of ideas was biggest gain (no trade) – Chinese saw themselves as superior to European “barbarians”

5 Fall of the Ming Dynasty Problems within the empire – Weak rulers, high taxes, and poor crop production all led to a downfall – Disease epidemic also killed thousands Li Zicheng’s peasant revolt – Sparked by epidemic – Capital city of Beijing taken in 1644 – Fighting over who would rule China ensued

6 Rise of the Qing Dynasty Manchu Dynasty – Came from Manchuria, area northeast of the Great Wall Made up 1% of Chinese population – Conquered Zicheng’s army, taking control of China Qing adaptations – All Chinese men had to shave heads and braid their hair into a pigtail called a queue – The Manchu people were made “distinct” from all other people Most were made nobles Some were made banners, the chief Chinese fighting force – Chose to share power with the Chinese 80% of government jobs owned by Chinese

7 Qing economy – Popularity of artwork like blue and white porcelain grows – Growth in business and jobs Higher population and food production – Did not see commercial capitalism, or private business based off profit, we see in Europe Government controlled business Agricultural jobs still the biggest employer

8 Reign of Kangxi Kangxi’s rule – – Ruled for longest period in the history of China Expansion – Stopped revolts within China – Gained territories in Taiwan, Vietnam, Russia, Mongolia, & Tibet Religion – 1692 – Issues Edict of Toleration allowing worship of Christianity, as well as missionaries Christians split on issue of ancestor worship – 1715 – Pope condemns ancestor worship in China Kangxi forbades missionaries, says they cause trouble

9 Role of Europeans Qianlong – Ruled – Weak ruler, corruption grows in China White Lotus Rebellion – – Launched in response to high taxes, weak rule, corruption – Rebellion is stopped, but at great cost to Qing dynasty European interference – See moment of weakness as opportunity – Chinese allow trade, but under strict rules – British request more open trade with the Chinese Told the Chinese do not need the British or their manufacturers

10 Family Life The Chinese family – Society revolves around the family – Individuals sacrificed their desires for benefit of family – Extended family – grandparents, parents, children, and children’s spouses under same roof – Clan – Up to hundreds of families sharing religious and social activities Role of women – Inferior to men – Could not be educated – Could not divorce or inherit property – If they did not produce a son, a second wife could be picked up

11 Tokugawa Japan Rise – 250 separate territories called hans – Daimyo, or heads of noble families, ruled and controlled their own lands Controlled by a hostage system in which their families are held under shogunate custody – Late 1500s, 3 leaders emerged to change this Oda Nobunga – Seized the capital, Kyoto, and began the change Toyotomi Hideyoshi – Inherited power from Oda – Persuaded many daimyo to surrender power Tokugawa Ieyasu – Inherited power from Toyotomi – Took complete control of Japan, creating central authority and beginning the “Great Peace”

12 European Influence Portuguese arrive in 1543 – Want to capitalize on Japanese trade with China Goods – Japanese impressed with European goods – Use guns to conquer enemies Religion – Francis Xavier is first missionary – Thousands converted Kicking out Europeans – Christian practice of destroying shrines upsets Japanese, Europeans booted – A small Dutch community is allowed to remain and trade

13 Economy and Society Trade – Like Chinese, Japanese reluctant to trade (Confucius) – Tokugawa rule encourages trade Class System – 4 classes Warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchants Below these are the eta, or Japanese outcasts – Marriage between classes is forbidden Role of Women – Parents arranged marriages, wife moved in with husband’s family – Valued for role of child bearers and homemakers Culture – Literature, theater, and art grew in popularity and importance

14 Korea Yi Dynasty Rulers patterned their economy and society after the Chinese Because of isolation, Korea known as “the Hermit Kingdom” 1630s – After being weakened by Japanese invaders, Koreans are conquered by Chinese

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