Presentation on theme: "Section 2: Africa in an Age of Transition 6. The Slave Trade A. 15th century: In Southwest Asia and Europe, African slaves had worked as domestic servants."— Presentation transcript:
Section 2: Africa in an Age of Transition 6. The Slave Trade A. 15th century: In Southwest Asia and Europe, African slaves had worked as domestic servants. B. 16th century: African slaves were shipped to the Americas to work on plantations – Indians had died of diseases.
C. Growth of Slave Trade: - 1518: First boatloads of Africans were sent directly to Americas. - triangular trade – Connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas between 16th – 19th century 10 million African slaves were brought to the Americas So many African slaves were brought to the Americas because of their high death rate on ships – known as Middle Passage - and disease after arrival
E. Effects of Slave Trade: - tragic effects for individuals and their family - led to depopulation - deprived many communities of their young, strong men and women - deterioration of art and culture - led to increased warfare in Africa
7. Political and Social Structures A. Traditional Political Systems: - By 16th century, a monarchy had become the common form of government throughout much of Africa. - Other African kingdoms consisted of small independent states linked together by kinship ties and subordinated to a king - Some lived in small political units – authority rested in a village leader
B. Foreign Influences: - European introduced new food products – sweet potatoes, corn, and peanuts. - Influenced African religious beliefs – Muslim beliefs become dominant
Section 3: Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade
8. Emerging Mainland States - 1500, Southeast Asia was relatively stable. Kingdoms developed their own ethic, linguistic, and cultural characteristics. - There were conflicts among some states and Muslim merchants had a big impact especially in Thailand where Melaka became the leading power in the region.
9. The Arrival of Europeans: A. In 1511, Portuguese seized Melaka and soon occupied the spice islands. Because of Portugal lack of military power, they set up small settlements or trading post en route to the Spice Islands (Moluccas). A Shift in Power: 1600s, the Dutch pushed the Portuguese and English out of the spice trade. The Dutch consolidated their political and military control over the entire area; brought the island of Java under their control – established fort there; dominated clove trade. Impact on the Mainland: The mainland states were better able to resist the Europeans than the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian as a distinct political entity; had strong monarchs that resisted foreign intrusion.
10. Religious and Political Systems: A. Between 1500 – 1800 religious beliefs changed in Southeast Asia. non-mainland states were being converted to Islam and Christianity. Mainland states Buddhism was the dominant religion traditional beliefs that survived and influenced the new religions
B. Four political systems evolved in Southeast Asia: Buddhist, Javanese, Islamic, and Vietnamese 1. Buddhist – chief form of government in Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia; king was considered superior; king served as the link between human society and the universe. 2. Javanese – rooted in Indian political traditions; like Buddhist kings, Javanese rulers were believed to have a sacred quality. 3. Islamic sultans were viewed as mortal but possessed special qualities. They were defenders of the faith and staffed the bureaucracy with aristocrats. 4. Vietnamese emperor ruled by Confusion principles. He was seen as a mortal appointed by Heaven to rule because of his talent and virtue; also seen as an intermediary between Heaven and Earth.