Presentation on theme: "FEM 3001 (INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT) F2F – 2, 31 MARCH 2012 INSTRUCTOR DR SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB JPMPK, FEM CONTACT NO PHONE: 03-89467088 E-MAIL:"— Presentation transcript:
FEM 3001 (INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT) F2F – 2, 31 MARCH 2012 INSTRUCTOR DR SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB JPMPK, FEM CONTACT NO PHONE: 03-89467088 E-MAIL: email@example.com
OUTLINE UNIT 6 – INDIVIDUAL ECOSYSTEM UNIT 7 – INTERACTIONS AND TRANSACTIONS WITHIN THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT UNIT 8 – INTERACTIONS AND TRANSACTION S WITHIN THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT UNIT 9 – INTERACTIONS AND TRANSACTION S WITHIN THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT UNIT 6 – INDIVIDUAL ECOSYSTEM UNIT 7 – INTERACTIONS AND TRANSACTIONS WITHIN THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT UNIT 8 – INTERACTIONS AND TRANSACTION S WITHIN THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT UNIT 9 – INTERACTIONS AND TRANSACTION S WITHIN THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT
UNIT 6 INDIVIDUAL’S ECOSYSTEM & THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESILIENT HUMAN BEINGS
INDIVIDUAL ECOSYSTEM 3 aspects of focus: Physical system Individual internal system - personality Interpersonal environment - communication These aspects interact with family environment to produce a healthy & productive environment or otherwise.
Individual who are positive, well nourished, physically healthy, can function effectively, using resources accordingly & can adapt to changes, stress & transitions These individuals may grow to become effective members of family, society and nation
INPUTS & OUTPUTS OF THE INDIVIDUAL SYSTEM INPUTS Oxygen Nutrients Water OUTPUTS THE INDIVIDUAL Self-worth Values, beliefs Perceptions Decision making Work Exercises Reproduction Wastes
INDIVIDUAL PHYSICAL SYSTEM 3 BASIC elements serve as inputs in individual physical system: Oxygen Nutrients Water These elements are important for functioning & generativity.
We need oxygen for breathing, our body contains water, we need food – carbohydrate, fat, proteins, vitamins & mineral to survive These elements exist in the natural environment Other environments may influence the availability / quality or continuous supply of them (i.e. – pollution (man built & socio cultural environments … lead to low air quality)
Who Is A Healthy / Fully Functioning Person? Refers to physical well-being = a balanced person is a healthy person Aristotle: concept of “The GOLDEN MEAN”; referring to moderation (mean); avoiding the extremes (too much or too little of anything - food, drinks & exercise or self control, courage & other virtues) can be harmful Homeostasis? Stability; centered TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE? Esp. in a family system Refers to physical well-being = a balanced person is a healthy person Aristotle: concept of “The GOLDEN MEAN”; referring to moderation (mean); avoiding the extremes (too much or too little of anything - food, drinks & exercise or self control, courage & other virtues) can be harmful Homeostasis? Stability; centered TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE? Esp. in a family system
INDIVIDUAL INTERNAL SYSTEM Comprises self concept & personality The development of self concept occur throughout individual’s socialization process; does not exist at birth Self concept = An organized set of perceptions of oneself, governing thoughts & feelings about one self as a person Self esteem is a sub of self concept; it refers to the emotional aspect (a feeling of) of self worth & dignity
An individual may have various perceptions about him/herself & his or her abilities; which will influence his/ her behaviour & personality Positive self concept leads to well/positive life functioning Individual personalities comprises a blend of characteristics that develop through out life Temperament, birth order, personality styles etc.. An individual may have various perceptions about him/herself & his or her abilities; which will influence his/ her behaviour & personality Positive self concept leads to well/positive life functioning Individual personalities comprises a blend of characteristics that develop through out life Temperament, birth order, personality styles etc..
Temperament (Natural Characteristics) 9 Basic Component Of Behaviour Based On Temperaments 1. Activity Level = frequency of spontaneous motor activities (“slow” vs. “very active”; constantly moving vs not moving much at all) 2. Rhythmicity = routines, organized, scheduled 3. Approach & withdrawal (ability to approach others or withdraw from social contact) 4. Adaptability
5. Response threshold – responsiveness; ability to respond based on senses = fast/slow; i.e some people can tolerate loud noise; some are quick to react 6. Intensity of reaction : how does one react to stress (adapt, withdraw or explode) 7. Quality of mood / mood swing 8. Distractibility = level of self control (impulse control) – to concentrate even with distraction 9. Attention span / Persistency: ability to continuosly / seriously focussing/ concentrating on any specific task
High Low LEVEL OF ACTIVITY RHYTHMICITY APPROACH /WITHDRAWAL ADAPTABILITY RESPONSE THRESHOLD INTENSITY OF REACTION MOOD DISTRACTIBILITY ATTENTION SPAN MOTOR ACTIVITY TIME SCHEDULE DISTANCE REGULATION FLEXIBILITY RESPONSIVENESS IMPULSE CONTROL HAPPY/SAD CONCENTRATION PERSISTENCE Temperamental Response Pattern
Goodness of Fit concept (Chess & Thomas; 1968) = an interaction that results when properties of the environment & its expectations & demands are in accord with the organism’s capabilities, motivations & styles of behaviour In harmony--- optimal development in a progressive direction Can be influenced by: the organism, its attributes, the relationships of the system elements & the environment
Babies develop personality characteristics based upon impulse & emotions hunger, sad, fear, discomfort Personality develops across life stages based on experiences & interactions esp. with the socio-cultural environment Different types of personality make people unique
Styles of interactions with family, friends & others are highly influenced by one’s personality preference According to Jungian Theory, each individual has 4 pairs of personality preferences
Extrovert vs. introvert Sensing vs. intuitive Thinking vs. feeling Judging vs. perceiving Extrovert vs. introvert Sensing vs. intuitive Thinking vs. feeling Judging vs. perceiving
P ersonality preference depicts genetic influences as well as earlier life experiences. It refers to the concept that ONE personality style is more prominent in a person.
EXTROVERTED (E)INTROVERTED (I) Talks first, think later Thinks & rehearse before speaking (“I’ll think about that” Knows many people, counts many as close friends Anjoys a small number of good friends Likes varieties & action; can tolerate noise, distraction Likes quiet for concentration; enjoys peace & quiet Dominates conversation A good listener, often feels Taken advantage of Apprachable & easily engaged By friends / strangers Appears quiet, reserved & reflective
EXTROVERTED (E)INTROVERTED (I) Likes to talk a lot; at any time Often gets suspicious if people praise them; or repeating things that have been said An individual may have both orientations; but one is > prominent
EXTROVERTED (E)INTROVERTED (I) Likes parties, enjoy talking to many people Likes 2 share special occasions with selected friends Prefers generating ideas with a group Thinks of ideas, reflects on them & wishes to get them out > forcefully Listening is > difficult than talking Likes to be “THE FOCUS” Likes to state ideas without interruptions Talks way through things; “I lost my books, has anyone seen them?” Thinks through where misplaced items & looks 4 them on own Needs affirmation; enjoys feedbacks about accomplishment “Recharges alone”
SENSOR (S)INTUITIVE (N) Prefers specific answers; details Thinks about several things at once; “absent minded” Concentrate on “the doings”; prefers doing than thinking Perceives the future as intriguing; Excited about his/her future than other’s Finds satisfying jobs that yield tangible results. Details are perceived as boring & redundant If s’thing is not broken, it does not have to be fixed Enjoys figuring out how things work
Prefers to work with concrete facts, not theories or concepts Does not engage in fantasies Reads from front to back Takes things literally See details easier than overall picture “Seeing is believing”; evidence is important Prefers to work with concrete facts, not theories or concepts Does not engage in fantasies Reads from front to back Takes things literally See details easier than overall picture “Seeing is believing”; evidence is important Tries to connect & interrelate things, do not things at face value Reflect, think, imagine; analyze “what does that mean” Reads anywhere interesting Sees the BIG PICTURE thinks about possibilities; What could be Time is relative; it is not late unless s’thing has started without you Tries to connect & interrelate things, do not things at face value Reflect, think, imagine; analyze “what does that mean” Reads anywhere interesting Sees the BIG PICTURE thinks about possibilities; What could be Time is relative; it is not late unless s’thing has started without you
THINKER (T) Do not show emotions; uncomfortable dealing with people’s feelings Calm, cool, collected when others are upset Settles disputes based on fairness, truth rather than what makes people happy Likes to proof a point; argues on both sides > firm minded; < gentle hearted > objective; “cold hearted” Makes difficult decisions THINKER (T) Do not show emotions; uncomfortable dealing with people’s feelings Calm, cool, collected when others are upset Settles disputes based on fairness, truth rather than what makes people happy Likes to proof a point; argues on both sides > firm minded; < gentle hearted > objective; “cold hearted” Makes difficult decisions FEELER (F) > aware of other’s feelings A good decisions is one that takes other’s feelings into account Over-extends self to others in considering Prefers harmony; avoid conflicts Can easily take back what has been said that offended s’one; indecisive Takes things personally FEELER (F) > aware of other’s feelings A good decisions is one that takes other’s feelings into account Over-extends self to others in considering Prefers harmony; avoid conflicts Can easily take back what has been said that offended s’one; indecisive Takes things personally
It is more important to be right than liked; it is unnecessary to like people in order to work with them & do a good job Impressed with scientific/logic things; remembers numbers & figures better than faces & names It is more important to be right than liked; it is unnecessary to like people in order to work with them & do a good job Impressed with scientific/logic things; remembers numbers & figures better than faces & names Wonders if people care; although it is not easily said Over extends self in meeting other’s needs People & feelings are more important Wonders if people care; although it is not easily said Over extends self in meeting other’s needs People & feelings are more important
JUDGER (J) Waits for others Puts everything in place “knows” that if people would do what they are supposed to when they are supposed to, things would be much better – Things are decided Does not like surprise, make this well known. Structured Keeps list & uses them. JUDGER (J) Waits for others Puts everything in place “knows” that if people would do what they are supposed to when they are supposed to, things would be much better – Things are decided Does not like surprise, make this well known. Structured Keeps list & uses them. PERCEIVER (P) Is distracted easily & gets “lost” between activities Loves to explore the unknown Does not plan tasks, waits 2C what the demands are; often perceived as disorganized; things are pending Very last minute Believes creativity, spontaneity & responsiveness are > important than order & neatness Turns work into play - FUN PERCEIVER (P) Is distracted easily & gets “lost” between activities Loves to explore the unknown Does not plan tasks, waits 2C what the demands are; often perceived as disorganized; things are pending Very last minute Believes creativity, spontaneity & responsiveness are > important than order & neatness Turns work into play - FUN
Thrives on order; has a system to keep everything in place States opinion emphatically; often accused of being angry when merely stating opinion – forcefully Completes things & get them out of the way - closure Thrives on order; has a system to keep everything in place States opinion emphatically; often accused of being angry when merely stating opinion – forcefully Completes things & get them out of the way - closure Does not have a system; changes conversation frequently on any topic Keep options open Does not like to be pinned down about most things; would rather keep options open Make things less than definite.. openness Does not have a system; changes conversation frequently on any topic Keep options open Does not like to be pinned down about most things; would rather keep options open Make things less than definite.. openness
Personality types constitute combinations of preferences (ways of perceiving & interacting with the environment) ISTJ = introvert, sensing & thinking, judging preference toward the outer world ENFP = extrovert, intuition & feeling; perceiver of the outer world There are many areas in life when personality types are considered important
Sensing = to establish facts Intuition = to suggest all possible solutions Thinking = to determine all probable consequences of actions Feeling = to weigh desirability of each outcome Variability in personality types is an advantage; learn to appreciate the differences
APPLICATION – ON CHOICE OF OCCUPATION OR PROFESSION PreferencesOccupations/Profession Thinkingjobs using inanimate objects Feelingdealing with people Sensing + judgingmore structured jobs with well defined procedures Intuitive + perceptiveLess structured; less initiative SensingDeals with facts IntuitiveLook for possibilities; creativity= architects; writers; mathematicians; research scientist
Interpersonal Environment - Communication Interpersonal Environment - Communication Communication is critical for family adaptability, cohesion & functionality There is a common communication pattern in each culture; each family develops its own communication pattern People develop communication skills within the family system; learning both the cultural patterns & the specific family styles & rules Communication is critical for family adaptability, cohesion & functionality There is a common communication pattern in each culture; each family develops its own communication pattern People develop communication skills within the family system; learning both the cultural patterns & the specific family styles & rules
A symbolic transactional process involving creating & sharing meaning through consistent patterns. Assumptions: COMMUNICATION is transactional (exchange of information/thought / ideas) It is impossible to not communicate
The structural elements of communication The communicator The message The medium The recipient Technology is an adjunct to one or more of these elements. More focus on the message & the medium; often neglecting the communicator & the reaction of the receiver.
Figure: Parts of communication process system The Communicator The Recipient The message The medium
THE MESSAGE Is the heart of communication Units of information transmitted between sender & receiver. May contain feelings, thoughts, ideas, suggestions or commands After preparing (encoding) the message, the sender decides whether the message needs to be: Explained, disguised, censored, or made appropriate to the receiver / situations. Message is sent to the receiver who will decode the info as an input for the individual system
Messages are thought of in terms of words Words are actually signs or symbols We are now in a more semiotic age == visual symbolic communication (image symbols) ？ &
THE MEDIUM Is the WAY a message is presented to the receiver Influences the “meaning” TV ads. Are costly; messages are short; aiming for quick impressions through sounds, colors, movements, images, few words which are normally “powerful”
THE RECIPIENT The receiver of the message. Communicator must understand the receiver & be aware of the context of the message being received. Different words or gestures can give different meanings to recipients who have different perceptions from those of the sender. “Interpretations” lead to reactions. Example: table manners; “specific jokes”, slangs etc Responses to communication are either visible physiological appearances or through technological devices (i.e. testing biofeedback - body temperature, brain waves, stress levels etc)
Our cultural background influences our perceptions; so do our socializations agents & contexts (family, friends, teachers) Place & space add to contextual meanings & influence our interpretations & understandings of a message (whispering = scared or shy?)
C OMMUNICATION P ATTERNS I NFLUENCE F AMILY M EANINGS Meanings come through continuous interpretations of and response to messages. The sensitivity of our basic senses serve as the first filters in communication. Our perceptions are also filtered through our family system & social system through: Language. Accepted ways of seeing & interpreting things. All socially-agreed upon conventions that standardized our world.
Through the filtering process we assign general meanings to verbal and nonverbal symbols. General experiences are shared with many people we encounter. Specific and unique experiences are gained within one’s family.
The language that we use often limits the shape and meanings we can ascertain. Individual characteristics can uniquely influence one’s interpretations. After functioning in a family system - comfortable with ability to handle the language symbols, can interpret them at all levels for their systems “pattern”
Communication pattern: Is both verbal and nonverbal Is specific to the relationship within the system Is reciprocal & interactive Is often predictable Contain both content & feeling messages Defines relationships May be changed by forces within the systems Mays stimulate changes in that system
Factors that influence the creation of meanings in communication: Family of origin influences. Family communication rules. Gender and communication. Communication framework.
F AMILY OF O RIGIN The family that we are “born into” – known as “family of orientation”. Family as our first socialization context - specific experiences within the family reflect a unique combination of personalities. Will influence later experiences in life - one’s own “family of procreation” i.e. “family secret”, “in the honor of the family”
F AMILY C OMMUNICATION R ULES Rules are relationship agreements that prescribe and limit a family’s behavior over time. Family system has its own “administrative” system that forms a structure which serves as guidance for the family.
We may not realize some of the rules since many are not told but are learned through repeated interactions (a range of explicit implicit rules). Family rules developed over time. It set predictable patterns that regulate behavior. It involved expectations. Unknown rules may create conflict. Communication rules: what, how, to whom
GENDER & COMMUNICATION GENDER may influence: the way people communicate meaning of the messages perceived and received by people involved. Socio-cultural influences dictate which behavior is gender appropriate. - big boys don’t cry.. Contextual influence: - office setting vs. non-formal setting - male-female in private vs. in public
FAMILY COMMUNICATION FRAMEWORKS Family members communicate in order to form a group that can share information. This is arranged through a communication framework. Family members establish certain channels for information flow, share the meanings through interactions & by a prescribes path through the family communication framework Vertical vs. horizontal communication
The family communication framework reflect power structure in the family. Some structures promote dominance, others encourage sharing. It helps to maintain the roles and rules operating within the system.
COMMUNICATION PATTERN Show flow of information and verbal exchanges within one’s family. All patterns have their strengths and weaknesses. may work well for one family at one specific time while for others it may not work at all Types of communication pattern: horizontal chain, vertical chain, Y pattern, wheel pattern, gap pattern and all channel network.
Chain pattern: Show hierarchy of power. There is an authority figure. Members rely on one person for information. The Y & Wheel patterns: There is one pivotal person who monitors the information flow Wheel allows more exchange of information. A gap pattern depicts lack of info exchange. All channel network pattern: Describes a 2-way communication channels between members. Communication flows in every direction. Members have equal chance to discuss issues.
U NIT 7 INTERACTIONS AND TRANSACTION WITHIN THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT
H UMAN D EVELOPMENT Family is the most critical system for human development (other systems are also important) Human development occurs through-out life cycle Can be influenced by & may influence the environment / other systems
F AMILY F ORM & S TRUCTURE Family form Refers to parts of the system that involves memberships of individuals Various forms Each form may function differently and has unique characteristics
Nuclear: parents & their children Conjugal: the forming of a nuclear family throug marriage Extended family parents, children, other family members (grandparents, uncles & aunts; may involve 3 generations or more)
Consanguines extended family that are based upon blood realtions Intact family = members are both parents & children. Single parent family led by a parent (father / mother) with children due to divorce, death, separation, never married Remarried families formed when one or both partners have been previously married
Step family one or both married partners have children from previous marriage; Blended family (both have children??) Family of orientation: the family that we were born into Family of procreation: the family that we form upon marriage
STRUCTURE The system perspectve defines family structure as the interrealtionships between the elements in the family It refers to the interactional patterns It involves positions as Husband, wife, children, sibling, parents Each of these positions govern specific roles that are expected to be fulfilled
F AMILY ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS 5 basic family functions that are common across cultural contexts: Reproductive Legalized sexual activities between married partners Socialization of children Establishing reciprocal economics activities with the community/society Provision of (unconditional) emotional support to members
Family functions for the development of individual family members: 1. Protection 2. Economic 3. Nurturance 4. Mediation 5. Education 6. Adaptation 7. Continuity
Family is known as an ecological system which governs individuals who are living organisms that interact with and within the environment. Individuals interact within the family --sharing values, resources, goals, responsibilities and commitments Family and individuals must interact to obtain resources, materials, energy and information to survive
1. Family ecosystem as a social system Every part of the family interacts with each other and with the environment forming an ecosystem Interrelated / interdependent Family fulfills physical and biological maintenance activities and reproductive activities Family tasks includes socializations of the off- springs Family well-beings may be influenced by the “world” well-being, vice versa
Family is a semi-open system, has its own goals, dynamic & adaptive Families respond, change, develop, grow, act, react and adjust in the environment Adaptation is a continuous process in any family system All parts of the environment are interrelated & influential of each other Family as a system, use materials and transform energy to: sustain and generate life function
2 sets of rules influence family – environment interactions: Natural physical and biological laws - such as thermodynamic rules of matter-energy transformation Values and rules that are constructed by the human beings
Factors that need to be considered in studying families: Components (size, age, gender, life cycle) Structure (intact, single-headed (divorce/ death/ never married) Environment (other living / non-living organism) Processes that take place between family & the environment studied as a system
The environment does not DETERMINE human behaviour: but it does provide boundaries or sanctions and opportunities for family growth. Families do have certain degree of controls & freedom over some interactional aspects in life Decision making process (DMP) i s a basic controlling mechanism DMP guides human behaviour towards achieving individual and family goals which in turn will influence the other environments.
Some basic concepts: Family: is a basic unit of the society comprises interacting organisms. By definitions, a family covers memberships of individuals who are blood related or related through marriage; or adopted as members. Members are: interdependent, and independent to certain extend share common goals & resources committed towards each other
Needs: Conditions that need to be fulfilled in order to survive and behave adaptively. 3 categories of individuals and family needs: The need to own/obtain resources (materials or information) The need to interact (sense of belonging, love & care, communicate) The need to exist (growth & development; to excel) Family needs must be considered based upon the socio-cultural contexts.
Values: Individual and family values must be understood May influence decision making process; actions & interactions within the socio-cultural environment
Goals: Individuals and the family share common goal(s) goal orientation Goals (and values) motivate family to function Goals are influenced by time: short term long term Families pursue goals; may be shifted depending upon situations
Resources Used by families to pursue goals, expectations & demands 2 types: human & materials (tangible & non-tangible) Human resources include personal characteristic (knowledge, skills, emotions, health, energy, time) Materials: natural or man-made (money, asset
Management: A comprehensive process that involve achievement, discovery, coordination & usage of resources to obtain goals & for values realization It covers interrelated processes of determining goals, planning & implementation It involves decision making process
DECISION MAKING Serves as family controlling system It reflects family interaction patterns; is based on values, goals & standards It helps family to adapt in the environment A decision situation exist when conflict & alternatives occur
C OMMON CHARACTERISITICS OF D ECISION M AKING Is considered to be universal Involves information processing Involves a choice among alternatives Involves conflict management Reflects family member’s perceptions, needs, values Reflects family dynamics (interactions, communication, power, authority) Reflects a style Past & future related Reflects a commitment to a course of actions Is basic to all family functions
Basic requirements in making a decision: 1. Aware that a decision is needed 2. Identifying & comparing alternatives 3. Making a choice from the alternatives
Family decision making is a complex process: Families make numerous decisions in life: social, technical, economics, legal, political. Most of the times decisions are made when families are faced with uncertainties / risks Some of the decisions involved group / whole family members
Outcomes of decision making: 3 kinds of decision making patterns: 1. Consensus, 2. Accomodation 3. Defacto
1. Consensus discuss the issue to be decided until agreement is reached; requires compromise, flexibility, negotiation. time consuming 2. Accomodation one person consents to a decision not because of total agreement, but because of the belief that further discussion will not resolve the issue; it encourages dominant behaviour; may disturb family connectedness
3. Defacto made without direct family agreement; only made to keep family functioning; may cause complaints by members; dominant members are victorious, others are suppressed.
FAMILY FORMATION - Choosing a life partner In Islam, marital partner is advised to be chosen based on 4 elements: wealth, beauty, family history/genetic factors, and on top of all: RELIGION Each individual may have different ideas of his/her IDEAL partner
C HOOSING A LIFE PARTNER 4 basic processes: 1. Know oneself 2. Know one’s potential partner (self observation or middle person) 3. Know his/her family background 4. Study the effect of the relationship supposed there is going to be a marriage
T HEORIES RELATED TO CHOOSING A LIFE PARTNER Homogamy vs. heterogamy People marry those of the same kind (similar characteristics) The concept of KAFAAH/ kufu (ethnic, SES, religion, values) Homogamy; more common Those who marry “outside” the similar territory or those of opposite characteristics are known as heterogamy; may face greater challenges endogamy: marrying within one’s own social group vs. exogamy – outside the group) “Complementary” = characteristics that complement each other
F ILTERING T HEORY F ILTERING PROCESS TO MINIMIZE THE SIZE OF THE ‘ POOL ’ OF THE POTENTIAL CANDIDATES (K ERCKHOFF & D AVIS, 1962) F ILTER 1 = PROPINQUITY ( DISTANCE, TIME FACTOR, PHYSICAL SPACE ; GEOGRAPHIC CLOSENESS ) F ILTER 2: S OCIAL BACKGROUND ( ETHNICITY ; SES) F ILTER 3: A TTRACTIVENESS ( SIMILAR OR MORE OR LESS ABOUT THE SAME ) F ILTER 4: M ATCHED ( PERSONALITY, INTEREST, VALUES ) F ILTER 5: “ BALANCED SHEET FILTER ” – ANALYZING BENEFIT & LOSS ; IF BALANCE ; PROCEED TO COMMITMENT STAGE MARRIAGE
A LL ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES F ILTER 1 – PROPINQUITY A LL ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES THAT ONE KNOWS OF F ILTER 2 – SOCIAL BACKGROUND C ANDIDATES THAT HAVE SIMILAR BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTIC F ILTER 3: A TTRACTIVENESS P ARTNERS GET ATTRACTED TO EACH OTHER F ILTER 4: MATCHING P ERSONALITY, INTEREST, VALUES F ILTER 5: BALANCE SHEET COMMITMENT
M ARITAL PREPARATION / READINESS Spiritual Faith, religion as way of life Knowing the rights/wrong; rights & responsibilities A clean start Physical Healthy: physical, mental, emotions Free from diseases Fertile Sexual
S OCIO - CULTURAL The Wedding Relationships with families of orientations; in-laws; neighbours; friends (yours, mine, ours) Work & family S OCIO - EMOTIONAL The importance of being in-love; staying in-love through-out; marital Q Parenting
S OCIO - ECONOMY Nafkah Responsibilities towards family of procreation Responsibilities towards families of orientation
F AMILY D EVELOPMENTAL T ASKS Basic family tasks; specific for each level of the family life cycle Involves responsibly, roles that are shaped and in accord with biological needs, cultural influences, values and family aspirations Occur simultaneously and parallel with individual development
Success in fulfilling the tasks: satisfaction; happiness; recognition from society; ease the accomplishment of the subsequent tasks Failure??? May limit growth (various aspects) May interfere with later stages May create conflict
B ASIC FAMILY TASKS : Provision of basic needs: shelter, food, clothing, safety etc Fulfilment of living cost through distribution of resources (time, space, energy); & facilities Division of household tasks such as “breadwinner”; “family manager”; maintenance of home & family members Ensuring the “success” of the socialization process Provision of the “know how” of interactional processes (communication, expression of feelings, sexuality etc
G IVE BIRTH, NURTURE, BRING - UP THE CHILDREN, LAUNCH THEM E STABLISHMENT OF GOOD RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD ( NEIGHBOURS, FRIENDS, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY, RELIGIOUS INSTITUTION N URTURING VALUE SYSTEM ; MORALE BEHAVIOUR, MOTIVATIONS, POSITIVE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT ; STRATEGIZING LIFE GOALS AND HONESTY (“ BASIC LIFE SKILLS ) Every member holds specific tasks pertinent to his/her position in the family (husband/father; wife/mother; siblings; children)
F AMILY TASKS ACCORDING TO STAGES ACROSS THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Level I: Early stage Newly wed, lasts for 1 – 3 years; high marital Q Family life tasks: Forming roles both in marriage and family; discuss expectations; adapt to meet own, partner’s and marital needs; planning for children; parenting Provide emotional support for each other (love, emotions, self identity & “married person” identity; sexual responsibilities Establish interaction patterns, communication, expression of love & other emotions etc
P ERSONAL ADAPTATIONS – GIVE & TAKE, TOLERANCE OF PERSONAL HABITS / LIKES - DISLIKES / HOBBIES T OLERANCE OF GENDER ROLE IN ACCORD WITH PERSONALITIES, SKILLS, NEEDS, INTEREST, JUSTICE & FAIRNESS F AMILY FIRST – MANAGING WORK - FAMILY CONFLICT, BALANCING WORK / FAMILY GOALS ; RECOGNIZING UNPAID LABOUR ; SHARING OF HOUSEHOLD TASKS I MPROVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS ; SHARING OF PROBLEMS F INANCIAL MANAGEMENT ; SHORT VS. LONG TERM GOALS E STABLISH & STRENGTHEN FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS I NVOLVEMENT IN NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITIES ; MUTUAL FRIENDS, OWN FRIENDS S TRENGTHEN RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ; NURTURING MORALE VALUES
L EVEL II: C HILD BEARING / REARING STAGE F ORMING A FAMILY ; EXPECTING BIRTH OF A CHILD ; FAMILY WITH 1-2 CHILDREN ; DECREASED MARITAL Q T ASKS : A DAPTATION OF PARENTAL ROLES E STABLISH FAMILY STABILITY – ALL MEMBERS ARE LEARNING “ THE NEW ROLES ” L EARN ABOUT CHILD DEVELOPMENT – PRACTICE SMART REARING F INANCIAL MANAGEMENT ( CURRENT & FUTURE ) S TRENGTHEN RELATIONSHIPS WITH EXTENDED FAMILY MEMBERS – THE GRANDPARENTS A DJUST TO NEW ROLES AS COUPLES WITH CHILDREN ; FAMILY ROUTINES & RITUALS, HOLIDAYS & FESTIVALS
S AFETY FIRST – FOR THE LITTLE ONES ; ARRANGE HOME FURNITURE ACCORDINGLY F AMILY PLANNING S TRENGTHEN RELIGIOSITY ; NURTURING MORALE VALUES L EVEL III: F AMILY WITH PRE - SCHOOLER C HILD ’ S AGE – 2.5 – 6 YRS. OLD. N URTURING & SUBSEQUENT BIRTH ; TAKES ABOUT 3 – 4 YEARS T ASKS P ROVIDE ENOUGH & SUITABLE SPACE, FACILITIES, OTHER THINGS TO FIT THE EXPANDED FAMILY P REPARE FOR BOTH EXPECTED AND UNEXPECTED COST M ORE MATURED ; REMAIN “ WARM ”; N URTURE & RAISE CHILDREN WITH LOVE AND POSITIVE STIMULATION
S TRENGTHEN GOOD RELATIONSHIPS WITH EXTENDED FAMILIES I DENTIFY ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FROM OUTSIDE M OTIVATE FAMILY MEMBERS S TRENGTHEN RELIGIOSITY ; NURTURING MORALE VALUES L EVEL IV: F AMILY WITH SCHOOLING CHILDREN F IRST CHILD AGES 6-12; TAKES 6-7 YEARS TO COMPLETE T ASKS : P ROVIDE ENOUGH & SUITABLE SPACE, FACILITIES & OTHER THINGS FOR SCHOOLING CHILDREN ; MAINTAIN COUPLE ’ S PRIVACY F INANCIAL MANAGEMENT – TO MEET EXTRA DEMANDS E XPANDING FAMILY SOCIALIZATION PROCESS I MPROVING COMMUNICATION Q; S TRENGTHEN RELATIONSHIPS WITH OUTSIDE SYSTEMS ; S TRENGTHEN RELIGIOSITY ; NURTURING MORALE VALUES
L EVEL V: F AMILY & A DOLESCENT 1 ST. C HILD AGES 13-20; TAKES ABOUT 7 YEARS TO COMPLETE T ASKS : S PACE & FACILITIES F INANCIAL MANAGEMENT S HARING OF HOUSEHOLD RESPONSIBILITES R E - FOCUS ON MARITAL RELATIONSHIP I MPROVE INTERGENERATION COMMUNICATION Q S TRENGTHEN RELATIONSHIPS WITH EXTENDED FAMILIES & OTHER SYSTEMS OUTSIDE THE FAMILY I NVOLVE IN THE ADOLESCENT ’ S ACTIVITIES S TRENGTHEN RELIGIOSITY ; MORALE VALUES ; ETHICS
L EVEL VI: “L AUNCHING ” STAGE 1 ST CHILD LEAVES HOME ; ENDS WHEN THE YOUNGEST CHILD LEAVES. T AKES ABOUT 8 YRS. M ARITAL Q HAS HIGH POTENTIAL TO IMPROVE OR OR … FAIL T ASKS R EARRANGE HOUSEHOLD ARRANGEMENT P REPARING TO LAUNCH THE CHILDREN T RANSFER SOME RESPONSIBILITIES TO ADULT CHILDREN A DAPT TO NEW ROLES AS PARENTS OF THE ADULT CHILDREN M AINTAIN OPEN COMMUNICATION ; EXPAND RELATIONSHIPS THROUGH CHILD ’ S MARRIAGE ; S TRENGTHEN RELIGIOUSITY ; MORALE VALUES ; ETHICS
L EVEL VII: M IDDLE AGE F AMILY B EGINS WHEN THE YOUNGEST CHILD LEAVES HOME, ENDS WHEN COUPLES RETIRE – “E MPTY N EST STAGE ” OR THE BOOMERANG GENERATION STARTS T ASKS P REPARE FACILITIES FOR WELL - BEING ; COMFORT & HEALTH NEEDS D ISTRIBUTE RESOURCES TAKING INTO ACCOUNT RETIREMENT PLAN E STABLISH INTERACTION PATTERN OF “ MUTUAL FULFILMENT OF NEEDS ”; IMPROVE MARITAL Q I NCREASE MEANINGFUL SOCIAL ROLES ; FAMILY RELATIONSHIP R ELIGIOSITY, VALUES, ETHICS
L EVEL VIII: F AMILY DURING THE GOLDEN YEARS C OUPLES ARE ECONOMICALLY INACTIVE ; DEATH OF ONE OR BOTH PARTNERS T ASKS : A RRANGE FOR MEANINGFUL LIFE A DAPT FINANCIAL NEEDS WITH LIMITED RESOURCES S ET COMFORTING ROUTINES ; HEALTHCARE, STENGTHEN MARITAL RELATIONSHIP I NCREASE SOCIAL ROLE ; FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS R ELIGIOSITY, VALUES, ETHICS ; SEARCHING FOR MEANING OF LIFE ?
V ARIATIONS IN FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Family life stages is experienced uniquely by each family; in accord with formation; time; duration; age of first child; subsequent children; family types Transitional from one to the next level produce changes that can influence family relationship; adaptation is need Various social changes influence the trends / form / functions of the family Examples: Post-poned marriages; postponed child-bearing, all other stages are being postponed Career first? Families without children? Adopted children?
Fewer children may shorten the span of life cycle Birth of special children D IVORCED FAMILIES ? S INGLE PARENT FAMILIES ; STEP – FAMILIES ? B LENDED FAMILIES ? Some singles -- adopted children (trendsetter = artist?) Pregnancy out of the wedlock; homosexual couples? The shoot off of the launching stage is debatable Improved life expectancy – demands for children to provide care for their elderly
T HINK TWICE … He who is unable to live in society or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a god Aristotle
UNIT 8 - INTERACTIONS & TRANSACTIONS WITHIN THE COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT
Individuals & the family are basic units of the society (community); influencing each other Society/community – the concept Society = a social community Community = all the people living in a specific locality (a Latin word = fellowship) More than 1 person interacting within one geographic location & have social bonding / relationship
INVOLVES LOCAL FUNCTIONS : SOCIAL CONTROL / SOCIAL SANCTIONS ; SOCIAL INVOLVEMENT ; SOCIALIZATION ; PRODUCTIONS ; DISTRIBUTIONS & ECONOMICS CONSUMPTIONS T HE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SOCIETY ARE HIGHLY INFLUENCED BY : historical & geographical factors; local authorities; its members & other macro influences (i.e., economic trends; weather; politics)
5 FUNCTIONS OF A COMMUNITY 1. Production, distribution, consumption. Community provides means to make a living for its members (agric, industry, services) 2. Socialization Through which norms & values are instilled (tradition, modelling, formal education) 3. Social control Means to enforce adherence to community values (group pressure or formal law)
4. Social participation (involvement) Community fulfills the need for companionship (neighbourhood, publlic place, religious institutions, business etc) 5. Mutual Support enables cooperation among & between members
S OCIAL CHANGE 1. I S A PRODUCT OF TRANSITIONS OF THE ERA == FROM THE PRE INDUSTRIAL TO POST INDUSTRIAL ERAS 2. T OFFLER (1980) CATEGORIZED THE SOCIAL CHANGE INTO 3 CLASSIFICATIONS : 1. 1 st wave 2. 2 nd wave 3. 3 rd wave Each wave has its own characteristics
D URING THE PRE INDUSTRIAL ERA : F AMILY DEPENDED ON THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT FOR FOOD Family ecosystem was highly adaptive doing agricultural activities & hunting Extended family; big size == free labour for the farms Family living pattern was based upon the patrilocal or matrilocal trend (living with one spouse’s family of origin) Arranged marriage; divorce was rare
D URING THE INDUSTRIAL ERA : T HE NUCLEAR FAMILY SYSTEM L IVE IN ONE ’ S OWN HOME ; OWN RULES & RESPONSIBILITIES Men were head of households, breadwinners; women were the home manageress Reduced family size – usage of contraceptive method by the women; women got involved in out of home economic activities Moderate divorce rate
P OST I NDUSTRIAL E RA Family at the junction of industry & info- techno era Existing of various family forms Smaller nuclear families Average number of children = 3 (vs 6 before) Later age of marriage ; divorce rate is high Many remain singles Vague gender roles (shared roles between H & W)
The role of childcare centers; maids = VERY important; esp. with > 50% involvement of women in the economic sector Family faces the issues related to caring for the elderly Life is centered around communication – information & technology (ICT)
C OMMUNITY & H UMAN D EVELOPMENT R ECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL ; FAMILY & THE COMMUNITY 1. C OMMUNITY E CONOMY H IGHLY INFLUENTIAL T YPES OF JOB ; CONSUMERISM ; HOUSING ; EMPLOYMENT ( I. E D AMANSARA HEIGHTS ; C OUNTRY H EIGHTS VS. S G B ESAR ; VS. K UALA P ILAH ; VS B ALING ; G UA M USANG ??) P OVERTY, R ECESSION ; INFRA - STRUCTURE ; POLLUTIONS ; MIGRATION “ SPECIFIC CULTURE ”; CLASS & STATUS
2. Geographic Locations U RBAN / RURAL / SUB - URBAN ; MARGINALIZED SOCIETY Q OF LIFE IS DETERMINED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL Q S EEN THROUGH THE NATURAL, HUMAN CONSTRUCTED & SOCIO - CULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS I. E U RBAN = NATURAL ENVIRONMENT HAS BEEN TRANSFORMED ; RURAL ? S UB - URBAN ?
Rural: 1. Agric activities = small scale? Small scale industries” Food processing; improved facilities 2. Support system; family relationships; kinships system is still upheld. 3. Idle land; old folks are left behind
3. S OCIAL D ENSITY Community contains diversed roles for children to learn from & for parents to draw upon Homogeneity vs heterogeneiry (pluralism) Multi generations family provide > social density roles (homemaker; provider; organization officer) as compared to families with one adult generation
Parents in multi generations family have better chances to receive social support from the system Children who live within (smaller) environment with adults of various age groups are blessed with enriched “social environment” Social intensity of a given community determines the availability of support that can be received by the family
E NVIRONMENTAL S TABILITY S TABILITY OF A CONTEXT DETERMINES THE RICHNESS OF A CHILD ’ S AND PARENT ’ S SOCIAL EXPERIENCE I NSTABILITY : D IFFICULT TO RECREATE A SOCIAL LANDSCAPE THAT HAS BEEN RUINED BY WAR / DISASTER T OUGH TO REBUILD SOCIAL NETWORK
F AMILY -C OMMUNITY I NTERFACE Family-Local government Provision of enough & conducive space & infrastructure/amenities for human dev. Protection/ reservation Restoring, Licensing Rules / regulations - Legal / policy
F AMILY - WORKPLACE C OMMUNITY MAY HELP TO SENSITIZE THE NEEDS OF DUAL CAREER FAMILIES CHILD - CARE FACILITIES AT THE WORK PLACE T RANSPORTATION H OUSING E CONOMICS EFFECT U NEMPLOYMENT
F AMILY - S CHOOL A STRONG HOME - SCHOOL MESOSYSTEM WILL BENEFIT THE CHILD ( > ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT ) PTA C LASS SIZE ; TEACHING METHOD = CURRICULUM ? M ATHS & S CIENCE IN E NGLISH ( NO MORE … C AN ENCOURAGE & DISCOURAGE CHILD ’ S SUCCESS I SSUE OF DISSEGREGATION ? S TREAMING ? D EMOCRATIZATION OF EDUCATION ? V OCATIONAL TRAINING S CHOOL - RELATED ISSUES === GANGSTERISM ? T RUANCY ? W HAT IS EXCELLENCE???
C HILD CARE A N INDICATOR OF THE QUALITY & QUANTITY OF THE COMMUNITY SUPPORT I NFORMAL VS. FORMAL SETTINGS M ALAYSIANS ? L IVE - IN MAIDS ; NEIGHBOURS ; FAMILY MEMBERS ; NURSERIES ; PRESCHOOL ; AFTER - SCHOOL TRANSITS ; AT - WORK SETTINGS VS. HOME ALONE
T HE NEIGHBOURHOOD & SUPPORT SYSTEM 40 houses surrounding us Rights of neighbours Functions: the helper in times of need Happy vs sad occasions Maintain social control & standards Good neighborhood = one that provides positive learning context of life (strong & healthy)
C OMMUNITY E COLOGY & F AMILY S OCIAL P ATHOLOGY S OCIAL P ATHOLOGY = PROBLEMS & DYSFUNCTIONS RELATED TO Q OF SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT A T RISK VERSUS PROTECTIVE E NVIRONMENT M ORTALITY RATE OF INFANTS J UVENILE DELINQUENCY C HILD ABUSE / DOMESTIC VIOLENT P OVERTY ? C RIME RELATED INCIDENTS
UNIT 9 - INTERACTIONS & TRANSACTIONS WITHIN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT
According to the ecological perspective; the global environment is a macro system that serves as a mold for human behaviour Various family life style exist depending upon different geographical locations in the world Communication pattern, language, foods, custom, values, ideology etc differ accordingly Economic challenges, disaster, political climate etc that took place in various parts of the world may influence individuals & family all over the world Globalism = human’s membership in the global community where interactions between & among the global environment exist; thus impacting individuals & family
1.G LOBALISATION & H UMAN D EVELOPMENT T HE DIFFERENCES WILL ALWAYS EXIST ; - THE GEOGRAPHICAL BORDERS I SSUES & CHALLENGES FACED BY THE PEOPLE CUT ACROSS THE NATIONS W E NEED TO BE AWARE OF THE PROCESS & IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON OUR LIVES I T INFLUENCES THE FUTURE OF THIS WORLD I T IS A CHALLENGE TO NURTURE GLOBAL AWARENESS – THE NOTION THAT CONSIDERS THE IMPACT OF INDIVIDUAL ’ S DECISIONS & ACTIONS A NY DECISIONS MADE WILL DETERMINE THE EXTEND IN WHICH RESOURCES WILL BE CONSUMED, HOPEFULLY IN THE DIRECTION THAT PRESERVE & SUPPORTIVE OF THE ENVIRONMENT ECOLOGICALLY
2. POWER THAT PROMOTES CHANGE Exposure to knowledge & information produces power to change 3 types of powers that are interrelated in shaping the world: The fragile environment The balance between power & Control of weapon Population growth 2. POWER THAT PROMOTES CHANGE Exposure to knowledge & information produces power to change 3 types of powers that are interrelated in shaping the world: The fragile environment The balance between power & Control of weapon Population growth
P OPULATION GROWTH O VERWHELMING / UNCONTROLLED GROWTH WILL CREATE MANY PROBLEMS > DEMANDS FOR RESOURCES FOOD, PROTECTION, CLOTHING, SPACE & SAFETY C REATES COMPETITION / ABUSE OF POWER, A THREAT FOR SAFETY A LL 3 POWERS ARE INTERRELATED, MUST BE MANAGED PROPERLY O THER ISSUES THAT MAY PROMOTE CHANGES : BIOTECHNOLOGY, HEALTH, COMMUNICATION, CULTURAL BEHAVIOUR, JUSTICE, HUMAN RIGHTS, BELIEF SYSTEMS, GROUP IDENTITY & COLLECTIVE DECISION MAKING
3. B IOTECHNOLOGY U SE OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY ( DEVICES ETC ) – FIBER OPTIC, TELECOMMUNICATION, COMPUTER, LASER TECHNOLOGY, NANO TECHNOLOGY ETC G EOGRAPHICALLY, NATURAL RESOURCES THAT AIDS IN DEVELOPING TECHNO DEVELOPMENT ARE AVAILABLE IN TROPICAL & SUBTROPICAL COUNTRIES H OWEVER, THESE COUNTRIES ARE LEFT BEHIND IN TERMS OF ADVANCEMENT IN INFO & KNOWLEDGE IN DEVELOPING THE BIOTECHNOLOGY
4. H EALTH, N UTRITION & W ELL - BEING F OOD & NUTRITION AS BASES FOR HEALTHY LIFE / WELL - BEING M AJOR PROBLEMS FOR MANY UNDER - DEVELOPED ( POOR ) COUNTRIES : POOR FOOD DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ; NOT ENOUGH DOMESTIC SUPPLY F OR SOME HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, THE ADVANCED MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY ARE VERY COSTLY ; MANY OF THE PEOPLE CAN NOT AFFORD IT H EALTH CARE MODEL FOR MANY COUNTRIES == STILL DEAL WITH TREATMENT / CURE ( AFTERMATH == SARS/ BIRD FLU ?) A MORE PRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IS THE ONE THAT FOCUSES ON HEALTHY LIFE STYLE TO PREVENT DISEASES & PROMOTE BALANCED & HEALTHY LIVING A DEQUATE & QUALITY FOOD INTAKE, STRESS MANAGEMENT, & PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES ARE NECESSARY TO PREVENT DISEASES. G LOBALLY, SHARING OF INFORMATION & KNOWLEDGE THROUGH RESEARCH, DISTRIBUTIONS OF SUPPLY, AVAILABILITY OF HEALTH CARE MAY IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE
5. C OMMUNICATION & C ULTURAL B EHAVIOR E LECTRONIC COMMUNICATION ENCOURAGES EXCHANGE & SHARING OF INFO & KNOWLEDGE ; PROVIDES OPPORTUNITIES & CHOICES FOR PEOPLE T HE PEOPLE CAN LEARN DIFFERENT LANGUAGE, THUS COMMUNICATE VERBAL & NON - VERBALLY ACROSS CULTURE T HE GOAL OF GLOBAL COMMUNICATION IS TO ESTABLISH A COMMUNITY THAT CAN COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER WITH THE AUTHORITY FOCUSES ON EDUCATION & WELL - BEING OF HUMAN LIFE
6. J USTICE & H UMAN R IGHTS J USTICE IS A FUNCTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS & DEVELOPMENT T HE BASIC GAP OF JUSTICE IS BETWEEN THOSE WHO HAVE ACCESSIBILITIES TO MODERN KNOWLEDGE & TECHNO AND THOSE WHO DON ’ T 7. B ELIEF S YSTEM / T RUST J USTICE DEMANDS BELIEFS ; A DIFFICULT CONCEPT TO NURTURE IN A GLOBAL COMMUNITY T HE INTERDEPENDENCE OF TRADING SYSTEM AMONG COUNTRIES DEMAND FOR THE BELIEF ELEMENT FROM ALL PARTIES INVOLVED TO GENERATE AN ECONOMIC STATUS THAT CAN BENEFIT ALL
B ELIEVING / TRUSTING IS NEEDED IN MANY ASPECTS OF INTERDEPENDENCE SUCH AS POWER AND WEAPON CONTROL T HE WAR BETWEEN THE BIG POWER MAY BE UN - ENDING DISPUTE WHICH IN TURN MAY BE HARMFUL FOR THE REST OF THE WORLD 8. G ROUP I DENTITY H IGH NUMBER OF WORLD POPULATION MAY CREATE THE FEELING OF “N O IDENTITY” UNLESS THEY HAVE A GROUP IDENTITY K NOWING ONE ’ S OWN ROOT AND CULTURAL IDENTITY MAY NURTURE THE SENSE BELONGING WITHIN ONE ’ S COMMUNITY G LOBAL TECHNOLOGY ATTRACTS PEOPLE TO REUNITE AS A HOMOGENEOUS GROUP, WHILE ALLOWING FOR INDIVIDUAL CULTURAL GROWTH & UNIQUENESS ( PRACTICES, LANGUAGES ETC )
THE HOMOGENOUS & HETEROGENOUS CHARACTERISTICS ( VARIABILITY & PLURALISM ) IF TAKEN POSITIVELY MAY SERVE AS A SOURCE OF ENERGY TO CREATE A PRODUCTIVE POWER LEADERSHIP THAT ARE BASED ON COLLECTIVE DECISIONS ( MUSYAWARAH ) ARE MORE ACCEPTABLE AS COMPARED TO AUTHORI TARIAN OR DICTATORSHIP LEADERSHIP STYLES. NEW MERGING LEADERS WHO HAVE GLOBAL VISIONS, THINKING ECOLOGICALLY & APPRECIATE DIFFERENCES OF THE COUNTRY NEEDS VS. ITS PEOPLE ; ABLE AT USING CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING METHODS ARE HIGHLY SOUGHT AFTER THESE LEADERS ENCOURAGE THE INVOLVEMENT OF PEOPLE IN ALL LEVEL TO PARTICIPATE IN DECISION MAKING PROCESSES ( INDIVIDUALS, FAMILY, COMMUNITY )
9. T HE I NTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN G LOBAL I SSUES & P ROBLEMS M AY DETERMINE SAFETY & QUALITY OF LIFE IN GENERAL S OME ISSUES CUT ACROSS NATIONS ; WHICH MAY ATTRACT OTHERS TO BE INVOLVED ESPECIALLY WHEN SAFETY & MANKIND ARE THE MAIN AGENDA - ISSUES PERTINENT TO CIVIL WAR, MAY ATTRACT MANY OUTSIDERS TO BE INVOLVED IN ENSURING HUMAN RIGHTS ARE TO BE PRESERVED ; HEALTH RELATED SERVICES ETC M EMBERSHIPS IN NUMEROUS BODIES SUCH AS THE U NITED N ATIONS, C OMMONWEALTH, ASEAN, NAM, OIC ETC WILL CREATE CONCERNS OF MANY OTHER MEMBERS OF THOSE BODIES ON EVENTS & ISSUES HAPPENING IN THE MEMBER COUNTRIES. M AJOR WORLD PROBLEMS MAY DISSOLVE A NATION, MAY IMPACT OTHER COUNTRIES, FAMILIES & INDIVIDUALS E COLOGICALLY, USING PREVENTIVE APPROACH IS HIGHLY APPLAUD, MORE ECONOMICAL IN ORDER TO MANAGE ANY PROBLEMS
Prevention of diseases through immunisation & health care at reasonable cost Encouraging / promoting healthy lifestyle through information & facilities – Poverty eradication / improve quality of life – Encourage students to obtain actual potential by providing resources for the needy Providing housing facilities - especially the needy Prevent children from getting infections/ malnourishment; provide rehabilitation programs; food & nutrition Maintaining healthy environment; clean from pollutions Managing any conflict strategically, for the benefit of the world