Presentation on theme: "Unit 4- Cells and Energy ATP, Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 4- Cells and Energy ATP, Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
2WHAT MAKES THESE CELLS SO IMPORTANT TO MANY OTHER ORGANISMS????????? These diatoms are single celled algae that use the process of photosynthesis to store chemical energy in sugars. Animals eat photosynthetic organisms such as plants and algae to get this chemical energy. They also produce oxygen that is required to release much of the chemical energy in sugars.
3Read the caption above or on the PowerPoint Read the caption above or on the PowerPoint. What three things mentioned are critical to your life?EnergySugarOxygen
4What is another name for carbon fixation? Photosynthesis
5Why does carbon need to be fixed? Organisms can’t live off of carbon dioxide. We would die. Therefore photosynthetic plants / organisms turn the CO2 into organic compounds like carbohydrates. The plants process the CO2 and give us glucose!!!!!
6What types of carbon based molecules or organic molecules are necessary for all life to exist on Earth?ProteinsCarbohydratesLipidsNucleic Acids
7How does a whale use the organic molecules it gets from feeding on diatoms? Breaks them down for materials and energy needed to maintain life.
8Energy…………Energy for living things comes from food. Originally, the energy in food comes from the sun.
9Who are these people???????????Organisms that use light and energy from the sun to make their own food are called autotrophs or producers. For example, plants and algae.Organisms that rely on other for food are called heterotrophs or consumers. For example, you, fish, whales, bears, etc….
12ChemosynthesisSome animals don’t need sunlight & photosynthesis as a source of energy.Chemosynthesis- process by which organisms use chemical energy to make their food.Example- Deep Ocean Hydrothermal Vents.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XotF9fzo4Vo
13How does the food go from our mouths to giving our body energy? ATP- Adenosine triphosphateMain energy currencyATP- molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes.Cells use ATP for building molecules and moving materials through active transport.ATP is made up of the sugar ribose, adenine, and three phosphates.file:///D:/data/nsmedia/visualconcepts/60028.htm
14How does ATP work Exactly????? Step 1- The energy carried by ATP is released when a phosphate group is removed from the molecule. The third bond is unstable and is easily broken.Step 2- Reaction takes place and the energy is released for cell functions, meaning the third phosphate fell off.Step 3- ATP (high energy) then becomes ADP (lower energy molecule) because it just lost a phosphate.Step 4-The molecules get broken down and energy gets added.Step 5- Phosphate is added and it’s back to ATP!
16Why is this important? The foods that you eat don’t contain ATP. The food needs to be digested and broken downEverything that you eat has a different calorie amount (measures of energy) therefore different foods produce different amounts of ATP.The number of ATP produced depends on what you eat- Carbohydrate, protein, or lipid.
17CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are not stored in large amounts in your body because they are the most commonly broken down molecule.The breakdown of glucose yields 36 ATP.Carbohydrates DO NOT provide the body with the most ATP. Lipids do!
18Lipids Store the most energy, about 80% of the energy in your body. When they are broken down they yield the most ATP, 146 ATP
19ProteinsStore about the same amount of energy as carbohydrates, but they are less likely to be broken down to make ATP.The amino acids that cells can break down to make ATP are needed and used to build new proteins.
21PhotosynthesisDefined as the process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy.Location- Chloroplast of plant cells.Chlorophyll- the molecule in the chloroplast that absorbs the energy from the sunlight. Two main types chlorophyll a and b that absorb mostly red and blue light. Other pigments absorb the green.Green color in plants comes from the reflection of light’s green wavelengths by chlorophyll.
24Chloroplast Two main parts are: Grana- stacks of coined shaped membranes.Thylakoid- Inside the grana and they are the little disks. They contain chlorophyll and other light absorbing pigments.Stroma- Fluid that surrounds the grana inside the chloroplast.
27Light Dependent Reactions Rely / dependent on energy from the sun.Take place within and across the thylakoid membrane.Water and sunlight are needed here.
28Light Independent Reactions Uses the energy transferred from the light dependent reactions to make sugars.Reactions occur in the stromaCarbon dioxide is absorbed and used at this stage.Calvin Cycle- metabolic pathway found in the stroma of the chloroplast in which carbon enters in the form of CO2 and leaves in the form of sugar.ATP is produced as a final step and the enzyme ATP synthase is responsible for making ATP by adding phosphate groups to ADP.
29The whole process……….Step 1- Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight. Energy is transferred along the thylakoid membrane, water molecules are broken down, and oxygen is released.Step 2- Energy carried along the thylakoid is transferred to molecules that carry energy, like ATPStep 3- CO2 is added and larger molecules are built.Step 4- A molecule of simple sugar (glucose) is formed.
30Equation for photosynthesis Carbon DioxideWaterOxygenGlucose
31Questions to review 1. Where do light- dependent reactions occur? 2. Where do the light independent reactions occur?3. What two reactants are shown entering the chloroplast?4. What two products are shown leaving the chloroplast?5. What does the Calvin Cycle produce?
32Answers 1. thylakoid membrane 2. Stroma 3. water and carbon dioxide 4. oxygen and sugar5. sugar- converts CO2 into sugar
33Light Dependent Reactions Light Independent Reactions Requires sunlighttake place in thylakoidswater and sunlight are neededchlorophyll absorbs energyenergy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactionsoxygen is releasedMakes sugarstakes place in stromaneeds carbon dioxide from atmosphereuse energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions
34Stage 1 in DetailPhotosystems->Molecules that capture and transfer energy in the thylakoid.
35Light Dependent Reactions Sugars are not made yetMain function: capture and transfer energyWater molecules are broken down into hydrogen ions, electrons, and oxygen gas. Oxygen is a waste product and sugars are not made at this point.Energy is transferred to electrons.Electrons are used for energy during photosynthesis not for the cells general energy needs.
36Light Dependent Cont.Like a special ticket at an amusement park that can only be used for a specific rollercoaster.Energy-> electrons->ATP and NADPH (transferred to the later stages)Arrows represent energy and enzymes!NADP= coenzyme that can accept hydrogen and acts as an enzyme
37Lets put it all together Step 1-> Energy is absorbed from sunlightStep 2-> Water molecules breakdown, electrons enter, and oxygen is released as waste.Step 3-> Hydrogen ions are transported across the thylakoid membraneStep 4-> Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlightStep 5-> NADPH is produced when electrons are added to NADP+
38Steps 6 and 7!!!Step 6-> Hydrogen ions diffuse through a protein channelStep 7-> ADP is changed into ATP when hydrogen ions flow through ATP synthase (enzyme).
39Calvin Cycle Does not need sunlight Produces sugars Energy sources are ATP and NADPHEnergy that is needed for a series of chemical reaction is called the Calvin Cycle, named after a scientists- Melvin Calvin.
40Steps1. CO2 is added to the 5 carbons that are already there making a 6 carbon sugar2. ATP and NADPH is used from LDR to split the six carbons into 2 groups of 3.3. Three carbon molecules exit. After they both exit they bond together to form glucose.4. Three carbon molecules are recycled and changed back to five carbon molecules by energy from ATP.
41Light Independent / Calvin Cycle- insert into notes Occur in the stromaA molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycleenergy is added and carbon molecules are rearrangeda high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle
512 StagesStage 1= Krebs CycleStage 2= Electron Transport
52energy from glycolysis Krebs CycleProduces molecules that carry energy to the second part.Occurs in the matrix of mitochondria6H O26CO6Omitochondrionmatrix (area enclosedby inner membrane)inner membraneATPenergyenergy from glycolysis143and
53Step 12- 3 carbons from glycolysis through pyruvate enter the cells matrixPyruvate is broken down before the Krebs cycle.carbon dioxide releasedNADH producedcoenzyme A (CoA) bonds to two-carbon molecule
54Energy carrying molecules transfer energy through the matrix. Step 2Energy carrying molecules transfer energy through the matrix.
62PhotosynthesisCellular RespirationLocationChloroplastMitochondriaReactantsCO2 and H2OC6H12O6 and O2ProductsElectron Transport ChainProteins within the thylakoid membraneProteins within the inner mitochondrial membraneCycle of chemical reactionCalvin cycle in the stroma of chloroplasts builds sugar molecules.Krebs cycle in matrix of mitochondria breaks down carbon based molecules.
63Fermentation is an anaerobic process. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.Fermentation is an anaerobic process.occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respirationdoes not produce ATP
64Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells. glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate moleculespyruvate and NADH enter fermentationenergy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acidNADH is changed back into NAD+
65Alcoholic fermentation is similar to lactic acid fermentation. glycolysis splits glucose and the products enter fermentationenergy from NADH is used to split pyruvate into an alcohol and carbon dioxideNADH is changed back into NAD+NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis
66Fermentation is used in food production. YogurtCheeseBread