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Unit 4- Cells and Energy ATP, Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

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1 Unit 4- Cells and Energy ATP, Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

2 WHAT MAKES THESE CELLS SO IMPORTANT TO MANY OTHER ORGANISMS?????????
These diatoms are single celled algae that use the process of photosynthesis to store chemical energy in sugars. Animals eat photosynthetic organisms such as plants and algae to get this chemical energy. They also produce oxygen that is required to release much of the chemical energy in sugars.

3 Read the caption above or on the PowerPoint
Read the caption above or on the PowerPoint. What three things mentioned are critical to your life? Energy Sugar Oxygen

4 What is another name for carbon fixation?
Photosynthesis

5 Why does carbon need to be fixed?
Organisms can’t live off of carbon dioxide. We would die. Therefore photosynthetic plants / organisms turn the CO2 into organic compounds like carbohydrates. The plants process the CO2 and give us glucose!!!!!

6 What types of carbon based molecules or organic molecules are necessary for all life to exist on Earth? Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic Acids

7 How does a whale use the organic molecules it gets from feeding on diatoms?
Breaks them down for materials and energy needed to maintain life.

8 Energy………… Energy for living things comes from food. Originally, the energy in food comes from the sun.

9 Who are these people??????????? Organisms that use light and energy from the sun to make their own food are called autotrophs or producers. For example, plants and algae. Organisms that rely on other for food are called heterotrophs or consumers. For example, you, fish, whales, bears, etc….

10 Autotrophs

11 Heterotrophs

12 Chemosynthesis Some animals don’t need sunlight & photosynthesis as a source of energy. Chemosynthesis- process by which organisms use chemical energy to make their food. Example- Deep Ocean Hydrothermal Vents. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XotF9fzo4Vo

13 How does the food go from our mouths to giving our body energy?
ATP- Adenosine triphosphate Main energy currency ATP- molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes. Cells use ATP for building molecules and moving materials through active transport. ATP is made up of the sugar ribose, adenine, and three phosphates. file:///D:/data/nsmedia/visualconcepts/60028.htm

14 How does ATP work Exactly?????
Step 1- The energy carried by ATP is released when a phosphate group is removed from the molecule. The third bond is unstable and is easily broken. Step 2- Reaction takes place and the energy is released for cell functions, meaning the third phosphate fell off. Step 3- ATP (high energy) then becomes ADP (lower energy molecule) because it just lost a phosphate. Step 4-The molecules get broken down and energy gets added. Step 5- Phosphate is added and it’s back to ATP!

15 phosphate removed

16 Why is this important? The foods that you eat don’t contain ATP.
The food needs to be digested and broken down Everything that you eat has a different calorie amount (measures of energy) therefore different foods produce different amounts of ATP. The number of ATP produced depends on what you eat- Carbohydrate, protein, or lipid.

17 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are not stored in large amounts in your body because they are the most commonly broken down molecule. The breakdown of glucose yields 36 ATP. Carbohydrates DO NOT provide the body with the most ATP. Lipids do!

18 Lipids Store the most energy, about 80% of the energy in your body.
When they are broken down they yield the most ATP, 146 ATP

19 Proteins Store about the same amount of energy as carbohydrates, but they are less likely to be broken down to make ATP. The amino acids that cells can break down to make ATP are needed and used to build new proteins.

20 Fun Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V_xZuCPIHvk

21 Photosynthesis Defined as the process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy. Location- Chloroplast of plant cells. Chlorophyll- the molecule in the chloroplast that absorbs the energy from the sunlight. Two main types chlorophyll a and b that absorb mostly red and blue light. Other pigments absorb the green. Green color in plants comes from the reflection of light’s green wavelengths by chlorophyll.

22 Chloroplast Leaf Cell Leaf

23 Fall Foliage

24 Chloroplast Two main parts are:
Grana- stacks of coined shaped membranes. Thylakoid- Inside the grana and they are the little disks. They contain chlorophyll and other light absorbing pigments. Stroma- Fluid that surrounds the grana inside the chloroplast.

25

26 Calvin Cycle

27 Light Dependent Reactions
Rely / dependent on energy from the sun. Take place within and across the thylakoid membrane. Water and sunlight are needed here.

28 Light Independent Reactions
Uses the energy transferred from the light dependent reactions to make sugars. Reactions occur in the stroma Carbon dioxide is absorbed and used at this stage. Calvin Cycle- metabolic pathway found in the stroma of the chloroplast in which carbon enters in the form of CO2 and leaves in the form of sugar. ATP is produced as a final step and the enzyme ATP synthase is responsible for making ATP by adding phosphate groups to ADP.

29 The whole process………. Step 1- Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight. Energy is transferred along the thylakoid membrane, water molecules are broken down, and oxygen is released. Step 2- Energy carried along the thylakoid is transferred to molecules that carry energy, like ATP Step 3- CO2 is added and larger molecules are built. Step 4- A molecule of simple sugar (glucose) is formed.

30 Equation for photosynthesis
Carbon Dioxide Water Oxygen Glucose

31 Questions to review 1. Where do light- dependent reactions occur?
2. Where do the light independent reactions occur? 3. What two reactants are shown entering the chloroplast? 4. What two products are shown leaving the chloroplast? 5. What does the Calvin Cycle produce?

32 Answers 1. thylakoid membrane 2. Stroma 3. water and carbon dioxide
4. oxygen and sugar 5. sugar- converts CO2 into sugar

33 Light Dependent Reactions Light Independent Reactions
Requires sunlight take place in thylakoids water and sunlight are needed chlorophyll absorbs energy energy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactions oxygen is released Makes sugars takes place in stroma needs carbon dioxide from atmosphere use energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions

34 Stage 1 in Detail Photosystems->Molecules that capture and transfer energy in the thylakoid.

35 Light Dependent Reactions
Sugars are not made yet Main function: capture and transfer energy Water molecules are broken down into hydrogen ions, electrons, and oxygen gas. Oxygen is a waste product and sugars are not made at this point. Energy is transferred to electrons. Electrons are used for energy during photosynthesis not for the cells general energy needs.

36 Light Dependent Cont. Like a special ticket at an amusement park that can only be used for a specific rollercoaster. Energy-> electrons->ATP and NADPH (transferred to the later stages) Arrows represent energy and enzymes! NADP= coenzyme that can accept hydrogen and acts as an enzyme

37 Lets put it all together
Step 1-> Energy is absorbed from sunlight Step 2-> Water molecules breakdown, electrons enter, and oxygen is released as waste. Step 3-> Hydrogen ions are transported across the thylakoid membrane Step 4-> Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight Step 5-> NADPH is produced when electrons are added to NADP+

38 Steps 6 and 7!!! Step 6-> Hydrogen ions diffuse through a protein channel Step 7-> ADP is changed into ATP when hydrogen ions flow through ATP synthase (enzyme).

39 Calvin Cycle Does not need sunlight Produces sugars
Energy sources are ATP and NADPH Energy that is needed for a series of chemical reaction is called the Calvin Cycle, named after a scientists- Melvin Calvin.

40 Steps 1. CO2 is added to the 5 carbons that are already there making a 6 carbon sugar 2. ATP and NADPH is used from LDR to split the six carbons into 2 groups of 3. 3. Three carbon molecules exit. After they both exit they bond together to form glucose. 4. Three carbon molecules are recycled and changed back to five carbon molecules by energy from ATP.

41 Light Independent / Calvin Cycle- insert into notes
Occur in the stroma A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight. carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle energy is added and carbon molecules are rearranged a high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle

42

43 Calvin Cycle Cont. A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight Two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugar Remaining molecules stay in the cycle

44 Videos

45 Cellular Respiration!! Releases chemical energy from sugars and other carbon based molecules to make ATP when oxygen is present.

46 By the time you reach 16 you have taken about 200 million breaths

47 Breathe in oxygen and the oxygen releases energy in sugars and other carbon based molecules
ATP

48 Animals use cellular respiration
Plants use photosynthesis Breakdown food-> ATP Aerobic-> Need Oxygen Anaerobic= no oxygen Takes place in the Mitochondria

49 After you eat and the food is broken down into glucose then the glucose needs to get broken down by glycolysis (2-3 carbon chains, ATP), which takes place in the cytoplasm and is anaerobic.

50 Glycolysis- Draw into notes

51 2 Stages Stage 1= Krebs Cycle Stage 2= Electron Transport

52 energy from glycolysis
Krebs Cycle Produces molecules that carry energy to the second part. Occurs in the matrix of mitochondria 6H O 2 6CO 6O mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed by inner membrane) inner membrane ATP energy energy from glycolysis 1 4 3 and

53 Step 1 2- 3 carbons from glycolysis through pyruvate enter the cells matrix Pyruvate is broken down before the Krebs cycle. carbon dioxide released NADH produced coenzyme A (CoA) bonds to two-carbon molecule

54 Energy carrying molecules transfer energy through the matrix.
Step 2 Energy carrying molecules transfer energy through the matrix.

55

56 Stage 3 Energy is transferred to the chain of proteins (electron transport chain)

57 Stage 4 Large # ATP is made. Heat and H2O are released as waste products.

58 End Result 38 ATP molecules are made from 1 glucose molecule-> 2 glycolysis and 34/36 come from cellular respiration.

59 Product created in the body via metabolism and is the end product of glycolysis
Pyruvate-> enzyme that speeds up the phosphates

60 What enzyme is directly associated with the Krebs Cycle?
Pyruvate and coenzyme a

61 What gets formed? Citric acid

62 Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Location Chloroplast Mitochondria Reactants CO2 and H2O C6H12O6 and O2 Products Electron Transport Chain Proteins within the thylakoid membrane Proteins within the inner mitochondrial membrane Cycle of chemical reaction Calvin cycle in the stroma of chloroplasts builds sugar molecules. Krebs cycle in matrix of mitochondria breaks down carbon based molecules.

63 Fermentation is an anaerobic process.
Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable. Fermentation is an anaerobic process. occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respiration does not produce ATP

64 Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells.
glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate molecules pyruvate and NADH enter fermentation energy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acid NADH is changed back into NAD+

65 Alcoholic fermentation is similar to lactic acid fermentation.
glycolysis splits glucose and the products enter fermentation energy from NADH is used to split pyruvate into an alcohol and carbon dioxide NADH is changed back into NAD+ NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis

66 Fermentation is used in food production.
Yogurt Cheese Bread


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