2 Free Energy – ∆𝐺= ∆𝐻 −𝑇∆𝑆 Enthalpy (heat of reaction) is the amount of energy released or absorbed during a chemical reactionSymbol is ΔHThink of it as energy neededEntropy is a measure of randomness, tendency toward disorderSymbol is ΔSMore disorder = more entropyIf reaction leads to more disorder, the entropy change (ΔS) is positive, if it becomes more ordered, ΔS is negativeExample: melting ice, condensing water, cleaning your room (+,-,-)Temperature – T measured in K (273 + ºC)Free Energy – spontaneity of a reactionSpontaneous - ∆𝐺 is negativeNot spontaneous - ∆𝐺 is positive. Would be spontaneous if reversed.
3 Things in Common Both photosynthesis and respiration make ATP. Both involve, CO2, oxygen, sugar (C6H12O6), and water (H2O)Almost all cells go through respiration
4 ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions. Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed.ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added.phosphate removed
5 Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP. Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP.not stored in large amountsup to 36 ATP from one glucose moleculetriphosphateadenosinediphosphatetri=3di=2
6 Fats store the most energy. 80 percent of the energy in your bodyabout 146 ATP from a triglycerideProteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP.amino acids not usually needed for energyabout the same amount of energy as a carbohydrate
7 The light-dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight. take place in thylakoidswater and sunlight are neededchlorophyll absorbs energyenergy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactionsoxygen is released
8 The light-independent reactions make sugars. take place in stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)needs carbon dioxide from atmosphereuse energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions
9 Photosystem II captures and transfers energy. chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlightenergized electrons enter electron transport chainwater molecules are splitoxygen is released as wastehydrogen ions are transported across thylakoid membrane
10 Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy-carrying molecules. chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlightenergized electrons are used to make NADPHNADPH is transferred to light-independent reactions
11 Summary of Light Dependent Reactions Energy is captured from the sun.Energy goes into electrons into the electron transport chain.Water is broken downH+ ions are transported and form NADPHFlow of H+ ions through ATP synthase makes ATPElectron Transport
12 Summary of Light Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle) CO2 enters cycleATP and NADPH from light-dependent transfer energy1 3-carbon molecule made for every 3 CO22 3-carbon molecules bonded to make sugarProducts – 6-carbon sugar, NADP+, and ADP
13 A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight. carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle (this is what has sugar as an end productenergy is added and carbon molecules are rearrangeda high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle
14 two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugar A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugarremaining molecules stay in the cycle
15 Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars. Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen.Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria.mitochondrionanimal cell
16 Glycolysis must take place first. anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)takes place in cytoplasmsplits glucose into two three-carbon moleculesproduces two ATP molecules
17 Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis. The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron transport chain.takes place in mitochondrial matrixbreaks down three-carbon molecules from glycolysis6H O26CO6Omitochondrionmatrix (area enclosedby inner membrane)inner membraneATPenergyenergy from glycolysis143andKrebs Cyclemakes a small amount of ATPreleases carbon dioxidetransfers energy-carrying molecules
18 energy from glycolysis The electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP.takes place in inner membraneenergy transferred to electron transport chainoxygen enters processATP produced6H O26CO6Omitochondrionmatrix (area enclosedby inner membrane)inner membraneATPenergyenergy from glycolysis143andElectron Transportwater released as a waste product
19 The Krebs cycle is the first main part of cellular respiration. Pyruvate is broken down before the Krebs cycle.carbon dioxide releasedNADH producedcoenzyme A (CoA) bonds to two-carbon molecule
20 The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.
21 The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.high-energy electrons enter electron transport chainenergy is used to transport hydrogen ions across the inner membranehydrogen ions flow through a channel in the membrane
22 The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.The breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to 36 molecules of ATP. (2 from glycolysis, 2 from Kreb, 32 from ETC)ATP synthase produces ATPoxygen picks up electrons and hydrogen ionswater is released as a waste product
23 ATP Products of Cellular Respiration including glycolysis Glycolysis – uses 2 ATP and make 4 ATP. Net gain of 2 ATPKreb Cycle – 2 ATP, 8 NADH, 2 FADH2Electron Transport Chain – 32ATPNet gain – 36 ATP for every glucose molecule.
24 Comparison of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Organelle for processChloroplastMitochondrionReactantsCO2 and H2OSugars (C6H12O6) and O2Cycle of chemical reactionsCalvin cycle in stroma of chloroplasts builds sugar moleculesKrebs cycle in matrix of mitochondria breaks down carbon-based moleculesElectron Transport ChainProteins within thylakoid membraneProteins within inner mitochondrial membraneProducts
25 Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue when oxygen is unavailable. Fermentation is an anaerobic process.occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respirationdoes not produce ATP
26 Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable. NAD+ is recycled to glycolysisLactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells.glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate moleculespyruvate and NADH enter fermentationenergy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acidNADH is changed back into NAD+
27 Fermentation is used in food production. yogurtcheesebread
28 ProjectIn teams of 2, students will create a visual representation (e.g., poster or PowerPoint) to explain the interdependent relationships of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, and how the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis affect a runner in a marathon race.Students should use few words and focus on using graphics to represent the cyclic processes. Visual representations will be peer and teacher reviewed.