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Photosynthesis vs. Respiration

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Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis vs. Respiration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Photosynthesis vs. Respiration

2 Free Energy – ∆𝐺= ∆𝐻 −𝑇∆𝑆
Enthalpy (heat of reaction) is the amount of energy released or absorbed during a chemical reaction Symbol is ΔH Think of it as energy needed Entropy is a measure of randomness, tendency toward disorder Symbol is ΔS More disorder = more entropy If reaction leads to more disorder, the entropy change (ΔS) is positive, if it becomes more ordered, ΔS is negative Example: melting ice, condensing water, cleaning your room (+,-,-) Temperature – T measured in K (273 + ºC) Free Energy – spontaneity of a reaction Spontaneous - ∆𝐺 is negative Not spontaneous - ∆𝐺 is positive. Would be spontaneous if reversed.

3 Things in Common Both photosynthesis and respiration make ATP.
Both involve, CO2, oxygen, sugar (C6H12O6), and water (H2O) Almost all cells go through respiration

4 ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions.
Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed. ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added. phosphate removed

5 Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP.
Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP. not stored in large amounts up to 36 ATP from one glucose molecule triphosphate adenosine diphosphate tri=3 di=2

6 Fats store the most energy.
80 percent of the energy in your body about 146 ATP from a triglyceride Proteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP. amino acids not usually needed for energy about the same amount of energy as a carbohydrate

7 The light-dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight.
take place in thylakoids water and sunlight are needed chlorophyll absorbs energy energy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactions oxygen is released

8 The light-independent reactions make sugars.
take place in stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids) needs carbon dioxide from atmosphere use energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions

9 Photosystem II captures and transfers energy.
chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight energized electrons enter electron transport chain water molecules are split oxygen is released as waste hydrogen ions are transported across thylakoid membrane

10 Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy-carrying molecules.
chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight energized electrons are used to make NADPH NADPH is transferred to light-independent reactions

11 Summary of Light Dependent Reactions
Energy is captured from the sun. Energy goes into electrons into the electron transport chain. Water is broken down H+ ions are transported and form NADPH Flow of H+ ions through ATP synthase makes ATP Electron Transport

12 Summary of Light Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)
CO2 enters cycle ATP and NADPH from light-dependent transfer energy 1 3-carbon molecule made for every 3 CO2 2 3-carbon molecules bonded to make sugar Products – 6-carbon sugar, NADP+, and ADP

13 A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.
carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle (this is what has sugar as an end product energy is added and carbon molecules are rearranged a high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle

14 two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugar
A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight. two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugar remaining molecules stay in the cycle

15 Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars.
Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen. Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria. mitochondrion animal cell

16 Glycolysis must take place first.
anaerobic process (does not require oxygen) takes place in cytoplasm splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules produces two ATP molecules

17 Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis.
The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron transport chain. takes place in mitochondrial matrix breaks down three-carbon molecules from glycolysis 6H O 2 6CO 6O mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed by inner membrane) inner membrane ATP energy energy from glycolysis 1 4 3 and Krebs Cycle makes a small amount of ATP releases carbon dioxide transfers energy-carrying molecules

18 energy from glycolysis
The electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP. takes place in inner membrane energy transferred to electron transport chain oxygen enters process ATP produced 6H O 2 6CO 6O mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed by inner membrane) inner membrane ATP energy energy from glycolysis 1 4 3 and Electron Transport water released as a waste product

19 The Krebs cycle is the first main part of cellular respiration.
Pyruvate is broken down before the Krebs cycle. carbon dioxide released NADH produced coenzyme A (CoA) bonds to two-carbon molecule

20 The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.

21 The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.
The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP. high-energy electrons enter electron transport chain energy is used to transport hydrogen ions across the inner membrane hydrogen ions flow through a channel in the membrane

22 The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.
The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP. The breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to 36 molecules of ATP. (2 from glycolysis, 2 from Kreb, 32 from ETC) ATP synthase produces ATP oxygen picks up electrons and hydrogen ions water is released as a waste product

23 ATP Products of Cellular Respiration including glycolysis
Glycolysis – uses 2 ATP and make 4 ATP. Net gain of 2 ATP Kreb Cycle – 2 ATP, 8 NADH, 2 FADH2 Electron Transport Chain – 32ATP Net gain – 36 ATP for every glucose molecule.

24 Comparison of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
Organelle for process Chloroplast Mitochondrion Reactants CO2 and H2O Sugars (C6H12O6) and O2 Cycle of chemical reactions Calvin cycle in stroma of chloroplasts builds sugar molecules Krebs cycle in matrix of mitochondria breaks down carbon-based molecules Electron Transport Chain Proteins within thylakoid membrane Proteins within inner mitochondrial membrane Products

25 Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue when oxygen is unavailable.
Fermentation is an anaerobic process. occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respiration does not produce ATP

26 Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.
NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells. glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate molecules pyruvate and NADH enter fermentation energy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acid NADH is changed back into NAD+

27 Fermentation is used in food production.
yogurt cheese bread

28 Project In teams of 2, students will create a visual representation (e.g., poster or PowerPoint) to explain the interdependent relationships of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, and how the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis affect a runner in a marathon race. Students should use few words and focus on using graphics to represent the cyclic processes. Visual representations will be peer and teacher reviewed.


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