4 MATHEMATICAL LOCATION Earth’s AxisThe Earth spins as it orbits the sunThe Axis is the line around which the earth spinsIt spins from West to East (direction of the arrow)The point around which the earth spins at the top and bottom of the earth are the poles
5 Latitude Lines (Parallels) MATHEMATICAL LOCATIONLatitude Lines (Parallels)Geographers orient the earth so that the direction of spin is at a right angle to the axisThey then apply lines in the direction of spin called latitude lines (parallels)The lines of greatest circumference is called the equator (assigned 0°)
6 Divides the earth into two Hemispheres (North and South) MATHEMATICAL LOCATIONTHE EQUATOR (0°)Divides the earth into two Hemispheres(North and South)
7 MATHEMATICAL LOCATION LATITUDE LINESEach additional line is placed at 1° intervals (angle from center of earth with equator as a base) Latitude lines run from 0° to 90° both North and South of Equator North pole is 90° North, South Pole is 90° South
8 MATHEMATICAL LOCATION AXIS TILTEarth’s axis tilts 23.5° to both sides every year.That tilt changes the point on the earth’s surface that gets the most direct sunlight.It also changes the point on the top and bottom of the earth at °90 to the sun.
9 MATHEMATICAL LOCATION TROPICS & CIRCLESWhen axis tilts right, northern hemisphere gets more direct sunlight.When axis tilts left, southern hemisphere gets direct sunlight.The lines of greatest shift relative to the equator are called TropicsThe lines of greatest shift relative to the poles are called circles
10 MATHEMATICAL LOCATION LONGITUDE LINES(MERIDIANS)Geographers draw lines that connect the two poles called longitude lines (or meridians)All meridians have an equal length.English geographers set the first meridian (0°) to pass through Greenwich England and called it the Prime (as in primary) Meridian.
11 MATHEMATICAL LOCATION PRIME MERIDIAN(0° LONGITUDE)Greenwich, England
12 MATHEMATICAL LOCATION LONGITUDE LINESUsing the pole as a point and the Prime Meridian as a base, all other meridians are place at 1° angle intervals to the East AND West of the Prime Meridian.Meridians run 0° to 180° West of the PM (towards the US) and 0° to 180° East of the Pm towards China.There is a single line of 180° longitude, exactly opposite the Prime Meridian.
13 THE GRID Each degree of latitude and longitude is further divided: MATHEMATICAL LOCATIONTHE GRIDLines of Latitude and Longitude form a grid. Coordinates are given in latitude, longitude.Each degree of latitude and longitude is further divided:Each degree into 60 minutesEach minute into 60 seconds
15 TIME ZONES Geographers used Meridians to create system of time. Earth takes 1 hour to turn 15° longitude.There are 24 total zones (24x15= 360° total longitude).
16 INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE Global time set at the prime meridian (Greenwich Mean Time, GMT)The International Date Line is located roughly 180° longitude.Cross it going East (Towards America) SUBTRACT a day.Cross it going West (Towards Asia) ADD a Day.
17 You Ain’t From Around Here Are Ya? REGIONSREGIONAL STUDIESYou Ain’t From Around Here Are Ya?
18 REGIONSA region is an area of the Earth defined my one or more characteristics:CULTURAL (language, religion, etc.ECONOMIC (agriculture, industry, etc.PHYSICAL (climate, vegetation, etc.)Regions gain uniqueness from a combination of human and environmental characteristicsHuman Activities produce distinctive landscapes that do not derive primarily from physical featuresREGION applies to any area larger than a point and smaller than the planet.
19 REGIONAL STUDIES REGIONS An approach pioneered by Vidal and Brunhes and then adopted by American Geographer Carl Sauer.Regional studies approach argues that each region has its own distinctive landscape that results from the unique combination of social relationships and physical processes.Paul Vidal de la Blanche and Jean BrunhesPeople are the most important agents of change on the earth’s surface.Carl Sauer
20 THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REGIONSTHE CULTURAL LANDSCAPERegions derive their character through the cultural landscape.The Cultural landscape is a combination of cultural (language, religion, etc.), economic (agriculture, industry, etc.) and physical (climate, vegetation, etc) features.Carl Sauer said, “Culture is the agent, the natural area the medium, the cultural landscape the result.”The Bamiyan Buddha
22 Formal Regions (aka Uniform or Homogenous) US CORN BELT (A FORMAL REGION)DEFINITIONTYPESAn area in which everyone (or the great majority) shares distinct characteristica region marked by internal samenessCULTURAL (language, religion, etc.)ENVIRONMENTAL (climate, vegetation, etc.)ECONOMIC (crops, manufacturing, etc.)POLITICAL (states, sub-state divisions, etc.)
23 REGIONSFormal Region: CULTURALWorld Macrocultural Regions
24 Formal Region: ENVIRONMENTAL REGIONSFormal Region: ENVIRONMENTALWorld Climate Zones
25 Formal Region: POLITICAL REGIONSFormal Region: POLITICALWorld States
26 Functional Regions (aka Nodal) DEFINITIONQUALITIESA area based around a central focal point (node)Functional characteristic dominates at CORE and lessens towards PERIPHERYMarked by functional integration, not internal samenessArea tied to node by systems (communication, transportation, economic)
31 Vernacular Regions (aka Peceptual) DEFINITIONQUALITIESAn area people believe exists as a part of a cultural identityVernacular regions may also have cores and peripheriesMarked by emotional reflection, not internal sameness or functional integrationReflects feelings and ideas of a people about a place
34 SPATIALASSOCIATIONGeographers try to identify cultural, economic, and environmental factors that display similar distributions.Factors that have similar distributions are said to have spatial association.These spatially associated factors do not necessarily cause each other but they can influence each other.Examine the above maps. What do you notice about the distribution of America’s poor and cancer mortality rates?
35 Aqueduct of the Eagle, Nerja, Spain CULTURAL ECOLOGYCULTURALECOLOGYMacchu Picchu, PeruWhere Man Meets LandAqueduct of the Eagle, Nerja, Spain
36 CULTURE CULTURAL ECOLOGY Culture is the sum total of a group’s way of living. It’s comprised of three elements:MENTIFACTS… religion and philosophySOCIOFACTS… government and economyARTIFACTS… food, clothing and shelter)Culture can operate at a number of scales from macrocultural to microcultural
38 ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM CULTURAL ECOLOGYCULTURAL ECOLOGYthe study of the relations and interactions between an organism and its physical environmentDifferent cultural groups interact with the natural environment in different waysThe geographic study of human-environment relationships is called CULTURAL ECOLOGY.There have been two primary theories of cultural ecology:ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISMPOSSIBILISM
39 ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM CULTURAL ECOLOGYENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISMThe Environmental Determinism theory was pioneered by German geographers Humboldt and Ritter in the 1800s.It was espoused by others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.It claimed that the physical environment CAUSED (determined) social development.IT’S BEEN REJECTED BY MODERN GEOGRAPHERS.
40 Environmental Determinism has been rejected as inaccurate because: CULTURAL ECOLOGYEnvironmental Determinism has been rejected as inaccurate because:The environment does limit man’s activities, but man can always choose how to act in response to the environment.
41 CULTURAL ECOLOGYPOSSIBILISM acknowledges that the environment does limit man’s activities, but claims that man can always choose how to act in response to the environment.Modern geographers take a closer look at the environment and its processes.They know they must understand the earth’s PHYSICAL PROCESSES to understand how they AFFECT (not DETERMINE) human activity.
42 CULTURAL ECOLOGY PHYSICAL PROCESSES CLIMATE Climate is the long term, average weather condition at a location.Humans have a limited tolerance for extreme temperature and precipitation levels.Local climate affects human activities, especially food production.
43 CULTURAL ECOLOGY PHYSICAL PROCESSES VEGETATION Vegetation and soil affect the types of agriculture people practice.Earth’s land vegetation is divided into four main categories (biomes) of plant communities:1. FOREST BIOME 2. SAVANNA BIOME3. GRASSLAND BIOME 4. DESERT BIOME
44 CULTURAL ECOLOGY PHYSICAL PROCESSES SOIL Soil is the organic material that forms on the Earth’s surface.It contains dirt, decomposed biomatter and nutrients essential for plant growth.Geographers have identified more than 12,000 types of soil.Geographers are especially concerned with destruction of soil due to erosion and desertification (nutrient depletion).
45 CULTURAL ECOLOGY PHYSICAL PROCESSES LANDFORMS Earth’s surface features (landforms) vary from flat to mountainous.Landforms include mountains, bodies of water, forest, valleys, wetlands, etc.Landforms affect the distribution of people and the choice of economic activities at different locations.
46 POSSIBILISM CULTURAL ECOLOGY Claims that the physical environment can LIMIT SOME human activities, but that humans have the ability to adjust to their environment.Humans can CHOOSE a course of action from many alternatives in the physical environment, given the physical processes.Possibilists argue that the physical environment becomes valuable through man’s adaptation of it and its resources.
47 CULTURAL ECOLOGYPOSSIBILISM IN:United Arab Emirates
48 Burj al Arab Hotel, Dubai UAE CULTURAL ECOLOGYPOSSIBILISM IN:United Arab EmiratesSki DubaiDubai, UAEThe World IslandsDubai, UAEBurj al Arab Hotel, Dubai UAEPalm Island: Dubai, UAE