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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography

2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Defining Geography Word coined by Eratosthenes –Geo = Earth –Graphia = writing Geography thus means “earth writing”

3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Contemporary Geography Geographers ask where and why –Location and distribution are important terms Geographers are concerned with the tension between globalization and local diversity A division: physical geography and human geography

4 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Geography’s Vocabulary Place Region Scale Space Connections

5 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Maps Two purposes –As reference tools To find locations, to find one’s way –As communications tools To show the distribution of human and physical features

6 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Early Map Making Figure 1-2

7 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Maps: Scale Types of map scale –Ratio or fraction –Written –Graphic Projection –Distortion Shape Distance Relative size Direction

8 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1-4

9 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. U.S. Land Ordinance of 1785 Township and range system –Township = 6 sq. miles on each side North–south lines = principal meridians East–west lines = base lines –Range –Sections

10 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Township and Range System Figure 1-5

11 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Contemporary Tools Geographic Information Science (GIScience) –Global Positioning Systems (GPS) –Remote sensing –Geographic information systems (GIS) Figure 1-7

12 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Mash-up Figure 1-8

13 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Place: Unique Location of a Feature Location –Place names Toponym –Site –Situation –Mathematical location

14 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Place: Mathematical Location Location of any place can be described precisely by meridians and parallels –Meridians (lines of longitude) Prime meridian –Parallels (lines of latitude) The equator

15 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cultural Landscape A unique combination of social relationships and physical processes Each region = a distinctive landscape People = the most important agents of change to Earth’s surface

16 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Regions Formal (uniform) regions –Example: Montana Functional (nodal) regions –Example: the circulation area of a newspaper Vernacular (cultural) regions –Example: the American South

17 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Culture Origin from the Latin cultus, meaning “to care for” Two aspects: –What people care about Beliefs, values, and customs –What people take care of Earning a living; obtaining food, clothing, and shelter

18 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cultural Ecology The geographic study of human– environment relationships Two perspectives: –Environmental determinism –Possibilism Modern geographers generally reject environmental determinism in favor of possibilism

19 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Processes Climate Vegetation Soil Landforms –These four processes are important for understanding human activities

20 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Modifying the Environment Examples –The Netherlands Polders –The Florida Everglades Figure 1-21

21 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Scale Globalization –Economic globalization Transnational corporations –Cultural globalization A global culture?

22 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Space: Distribution of Features Distribution—three features –Density Arithmetic Physiological Agricultural –Concentration –Pattern

23 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Space–Time Compression Figure 1-29

24 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Spatial Interaction Transportation networks Electronic communications and the “death” of geography? Distance decay Figure 1-30

25 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Diffusion The process by which a characteristic spreads across space and over time Hearth = source area for innovations Two types of diffusion –Relocation –Expansion Three types: hierarchical, contagious, stimulus

26 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Relocation Diffusion: Example Figure 1-31

27 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The End. Up next: Population


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