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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Defining Geography Word coined by Eratosthenes –Geo = Earth –Graphia = writing Geography thus means “earth writing”
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Contemporary Geography Geographers ask where and why –Location and distribution are important terms Geographers are concerned with the tension between globalization and local diversity A division: physical geography and human geography
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Geography’s Vocabulary Place Region Scale Space Connections
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Maps Two purposes –As reference tools To find locations, to find one’s way –As communications tools To show the distribution of human and physical features
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Early Map Making Figure 1-2
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Maps: Scale Types of map scale –Ratio or fraction –Written –Graphic Projection –Distortion Shape Distance Relative size Direction
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1-4
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. U.S. Land Ordinance of 1785 Township and range system –Township = 6 sq. miles on each side North–south lines = principal meridians East–west lines = base lines –Range –Sections
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Township and Range System Figure 1-5
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Contemporary Tools Geographic Information Science (GIScience) –Global Positioning Systems (GPS) –Remote sensing –Geographic information systems (GIS) Figure 1-7
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Mash-up Figure 1-8
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Place: Unique Location of a Feature Location –Place names Toponym –Site –Situation –Mathematical location
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Place: Mathematical Location Location of any place can be described precisely by meridians and parallels –Meridians (lines of longitude) Prime meridian –Parallels (lines of latitude) The equator
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cultural Landscape A unique combination of social relationships and physical processes Each region = a distinctive landscape People = the most important agents of change to Earth’s surface
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Regions Formal (uniform) regions –Example: Montana Functional (nodal) regions –Example: the circulation area of a newspaper Vernacular (cultural) regions –Example: the American South
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Culture Origin from the Latin cultus, meaning “to care for” Two aspects: –What people care about Beliefs, values, and customs –What people take care of Earning a living; obtaining food, clothing, and shelter
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cultural Ecology The geographic study of human– environment relationships Two perspectives: –Environmental determinism –Possibilism Modern geographers generally reject environmental determinism in favor of possibilism
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Processes Climate Vegetation Soil Landforms –These four processes are important for understanding human activities
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Modifying the Environment Examples –The Netherlands Polders –The Florida Everglades Figure 1-21
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Scale Globalization –Economic globalization Transnational corporations –Cultural globalization A global culture?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Space: Distribution of Features Distribution—three features –Density Arithmetic Physiological Agricultural –Concentration –Pattern
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Space–Time Compression Figure 1-29
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Spatial Interaction Transportation networks Electronic communications and the “death” of geography? Distance decay Figure 1-30
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Diffusion The process by which a characteristic spreads across space and over time Hearth = source area for innovations Two types of diffusion –Relocation –Expansion Three types: hierarchical, contagious, stimulus
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Relocation Diffusion: Example Figure 1-31
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The End. Up next: Population
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Key Issue 2: Why Is Each Point on Earth.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Key Issue 1: How Do Geographers Describe.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography.
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY Ch. 1 Basic Concepts – Where and Why?
Unit One Key Issue #2. How do we make these maps? GIS (Geographic Information Systems) Remote Sensing – uses satellites or planes to take still pictures.
By: Mary Helen, Charles, Claire. The word geography was invented by the Greek scholar Eratosthenes- He built off the work of Aristotle and Plato “Geo”
Geographic inquiry focuses on the spatial: - the spatial arrangement of places and phenomena (human and physical). - how are things organized on Earth?
Learning Goals for Chapter 1. Students will be able to discuss the various ways that geographers describe where things are.
Chapter 1 Thinking Geographically. Key Issues 1.How do geographers describe where things are? 2.Why is each point on Earth unique? 3.Why are different.
Thinking Geographically Introduction to AP Human Geography: It all begins…….
Thinking Geographically An Introduction to An Introduction to AP Human Geography.
Chapter One Thinking Geographically. Cultural Landscape Main thing human geographers are concerned with Visible imprint of human activity on the landscape.
INTRODUCTION Thinking Geographically An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape.
Thinking Geographically 4 types of maps 5 themes of geography 3 types of regions Site vs. Situation.
Key Issue #1: How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?
Why do we use the five themes? Location, Human/Environmental Interactions, Regions, Place, Movement Geographers begins with knowing WHERE things are. Next.
THIS IS With Host... Your KI 1 KI 2 KI 3.
Unit 1: GEOGRAPHY. THE STUDY OF THE EARTH and THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE THERE…
Unit 1. 5 Geographic Approaches for Thinking 1. Space 2. Place 3. Regions 4. Scale 5. Connections (5 Key Issues from Chapter 1)
By what two factors do geographers observe that people are being pulled in opposite directions? factors. A. latitude and longitude B. government and religion.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Functional regions A. Disperse evenly. B. Are centered on a node. C. Avoid cultural dysfunction. D. Are unaffected by communications.
What makes each place unique? Ch. 1, Key Issue 2.
Place an image over this box (OPTIONAL). Or, to delete this box entirely go to the title master in the “View” Menu What is Human Geography? Chapter 1.
Mile a Minute Unit 1: Basic Concepts. Round 1: Barrier to diffusion Permeable Absorbing.
Ch.1 Section #2. Uniqueness of Place Place (a point on Earth): Unique Location of a Feature Four ways to identify location: - Place Names - Site
Chapter 1 Thinking Geographically An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 9e James M. Rubenstein Victoria Alapo, Instructor Geog 1050.
Chapter 1 Key Issue 3 Why Are Different Places Similar?
How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are? Chapter 1: Thinking Geographically.
Thinking Geographically AP Human Geography Mr. Larkins.
Chapter 1: Human Geography Rae & Ben. Human Geography Human Geography- The study of how people make places, organize in society, interact with each other,
Warm Up Thursday 1/27 Why is a globe a limited tool for people to use? Get homework out!
Key Issue #2: Why is Each Point on Earth Unique? AP Human Geography.
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas originate Example: Early cultural hearths 1.Nile River 2.Indus River 3.Wei-Huang Valley 4.Ganges River Valley.
Thinking Geographically Most important purpose of Chapter 1: Begin thinking geographically by conducting spatial analysis and asking _________ and ___________.
Five Themes of Geography (Mr. Help) Movement Region Human- environment interaction Location Place.
THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY: NATURE AND PERSPECTIVES Human Geography Physical Geography Five themes of Geography 1. Location (absolute and relative) 2.Movement.
Chapter 1 Key Issue 2: Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?
Chapter 1 Thinking Geographically. Where we find Geography Geography exists in the global issues receiving attention at this time things such as… – Population.
Chapter Which map would have the largest scale? 1. country 2. continent 3. state 4. city 5. world.
THE 5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY. THE FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY Location Place Human-Environment Interaction Movement Regions.
What is a Region? A region is an area with one or more common features that make it different from surrounding areas.
AP Human Geography September 19, AP Human Geography A class that’s not a class Wednesday nights 6:30 – 8:30pm The value of attendance.
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