Presentation on theme: "Key Issue 2: Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?"— Presentation transcript:
1Key Issue 2: Why is Each Point on Earth Unique? Chapter 1Key Issue 2:Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?
2Two key points Place: Unique location of a feature Region: areas of unique characteristics
3Place: Unique Location of a Feature Geographers describe a feature’s place on Earth by identifying it’s location.There are four ways to identify location:NameSiteSituationMathematical location
4Place Names Toponym is a name given to a place on Earth. --Names are often named after people, religious reasons, local economies, physical environments--Places can also change their names:a. Cincinnati was named Losantivilleb. Hot Springs changed to Truth and Consequences
5Site It is the physical character of a place. Characteristics include: climate, water sources, topography, soil ,vegetation, lat’s and long’sPeople can change the characteristics to fit their needs…Manhattan
6Site: Lower Manhattan Island Fig. 1-6: Site of lower Manhattan Island, New York City. There have been many changes to the area over the last 200 years.
7Situation Is the location of a place relative to other places. It helps in locating an unfamiliar place in location to a familiar oneIt helps us understand the importance of a location
9Situation: SingaporeFig. 1-7: Singapore is situated at a key location for international trade.
10Mathematical Location Any location can be found with meridians and parallelsMeridians are longitudes0 degrees longitude is the Prime Meridian15 degrees equals one hour of timeParallels are latitudesThe equator is 0 degreesGreenwich mean timeIs the universal timeLook at page 19 for referenceInternational Date LineWhere the day changes and is located 180 degrees from GMT
11World Geographic GridFig. 1-8: The world geographic grid consists of meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude. The prime meridian ( 0º) passes through Greenwich, England.
12World Time ZonesFig. 1-9: The world’s 24 standard time zones each represent about 15° of longitude. They are often depicted using the Mercator projection.
13Regions: Areas of Unique Characteristics A region derives its unified character through the cultural landscape– a combination of cultural features such as ag, industry and physical features such as climate and vegetation.
14Cultural Landscape Sometime it is called regional studies approach A region has its own distinctive landscape that results from a unique combination of social relationships and physical processes.The main principle is that people are the most important agents of change of Earth’s surface.You might have poor soil in the area but people can change it by added nutrients to grow crops
19Formal Regionis an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristic.Could be cultural value such as language, economic activityIE Gov’t units such as state or the wheat belt, voting tendencies.
20Formal and Functional Regions Fig. 1-11: The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region; the areas of influence of various television stations are examples of functional regions.
21Functional Region Is an area organized around a node or focal point. Usually the area is tied to the focal point by transportation, communication, or economics.IE newspaper, or TV reception, or a business service.
22Vernacular RegionIs a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.IE is a mental mapIt depict what a person knows about a place
23Vernacular RegionsFig. 1-12: A number of features are often used to define the South as a vernacular region, each of which identifies somewhat different boundaries.
24Regional Integration of Culture Why each region is distinctive, geographers refer to cultureThey look at two ideasWhat people care about (ideas, beliefs, values, customsWhat people take care of (salary, living, obtaining food, clothing, shelter)
25Spatial Association at Various Scales Fig. 1-13: Death rates from cancer in the US, Maryland, and Baltimore show different patterns that can identify associations with different factors.
26Spatial Association at Various Scales Fig. 1-13: Death rates from cancer in the US, Maryland, and Baltimore show different patterns that can identify associations with different factors.
30What people care aboutGeographers study why the beliefs, ideas and values produce a distinctive culture on a particular place.Language and religion play a partEthnicity encompasses all these things and will cause problems when in contact with other ethnicities
31What people take care of Look at material wealth—food, clothing, and shelter that humans need to survive.World is divided into regions:LDC and MDCsMDCs have more per capita income, higher literacy rates, lower death rates etcLDCs are mainly farming, MDC are manufacturing countriesMDCs are usually organized into a political group—country, states. LDCs are usually under a cultural group that doesn’t coincide with the boundaries of a country
32Cultural Ecology: Integrating Culture and Environment Groups:#1Cultural Ecology: Integrating Culture and Environment#2Human and Physical Factors#3 Physical Processes: Climate#4 Physical Processes: Vegetation#5 Physical Processes: LandformsAll people in the group need to participate, each member will then go to another group and be an expert about their area.
33World Climate RegionsFig. 1-14: The modified Köppen system divides the world into five main climate regions.
34After the groupsRead and write a summary on the modifications of the Netherlands and Florida. What are the potential problems and benefits of their modifications?
35Uniqueness of Places & Regions Place: Unique location of a featurePlace namesSiteSituationMathematical locationRegions: Areas of unique characteristicsCultural landscapeTypes of regionsSpatial associationRegional integration of cultureCultural ecology
36Environmental Modification in the Netherlands Fig. 1-15: Polders and dikes have been used for extensive environmental modification in the Netherlands.
37Environmental Modification in Florida Fig. 1-16: Straightening the Kissimmee River has had many unintended side effects.