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Chapter 1 Key Issue 2: Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Key Issue 2: Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Key Issue 2: Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?

2 Two key points Place: Unique location of a feature Region: areas of unique characteristics

3 Place: Unique Location of a Feature Geographers describe a features place on Earth by identifying its location. There are four ways to identify location: Name Site Situation Mathematical location

4 Place Names Toponym is a name given to a place on Earth. --Names are often named after people, religious reasons, local economies, physical environments --Places can also change their names: a. Cincinnati was named Losantiville b. Hot Springs changed to Truth and Consequences

5 Site It is the physical character of a place. Characteristics include: climate, water sources, topography, soil,vegetation, lats and longs People can change the characteristics to fit their needs…Manhattan

6 Site: Lower Manhattan Island Fig. 1-6: Site of lower Manhattan Island, New York City. There have been many changes to the area over the last 200 years.

7 Situation Is the location of a place relative to other places. It helps in locating an unfamiliar place in location to a familiar one It helps us understand the importance of a location

8 Downtown Singapore

9 Situation: Singapore Fig. 1-7: Singapore is situated at a key location for international trade.

10 Mathematical Location Any location can be found with meridians and parallels Meridians are longitudes –0 degrees longitude is the Prime Meridian –15 degrees equals one hour of time Parallels are latitudes –The equator is 0 degrees Greenwich mean time Is the universal time Look at page 19 for reference International Date Line Where the day changes and is located 180 degrees from GMT

11 World Geographic Grid Fig. 1-8: The world geographic grid consists of meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude. The prime meridian ( 0º) passes through Greenwich, England.

12 World Time Zones Fig. 1-9: The worlds 24 standard time zones each represent about 15° of longitude. They are often depicted using the Mercator projection.

13 Regions: Areas of Unique Characteristics A region derives its unified character through the cultural landscape– a combination of cultural features such as ag, industry and physical features such as climate and vegetation.

14 Cultural Landscape Sometime it is called regional studies approach A region has its own distinctive landscape that results from a unique combination of social relationships and physical processes. The main principle is that people are the most important agents of change of Earths surface. –You might have poor soil in the area but people can change it by added nutrients to grow crops

15 Types of Regions Formal Functional Vernacular

16 Presidential Election 2004 Regional Differences Fig. 1-10: Presidential election results by county & state illustrate differences in regional voting patterns.

17 Presidential Election, 2004 Results by County

18 Presidential Election, 2004 Results by State

19 Formal Region is an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristic. Could be cultural value such as language, economic activity IE Govt units such as state or the wheat belt, voting tendencies.

20 Formal and Functional Regions Fig. 1-11: The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region; the areas of influence of various television stations are examples of functional regions.

21 Functional Region Is an area organized around a node or focal point. Usually the area is tied to the focal point by transportation, communication, or economics. IE newspaper, or TV reception, or a business service.

22 Vernacular Region Is a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity. IE is a mental map –It depict what a person knows about a place

23 Vernacular Regions Fig. 1-12: A number of features are often used to define the South as a vernacular region, each of which identifies somewhat different boundaries.

24 Regional Integration of Culture Why each region is distinctive, geographers refer to culture They look at two ideas –What people care about (ideas, beliefs, values, customs –What people take care of (salary, living, obtaining food, clothing, shelter)

25 Spatial Association at Various Scales Fig. 1-13: Death rates from cancer in the US, Maryland, and Baltimore show different patterns that can identify associations with different factors.

26 Spatial Association at Various Scales Fig. 1-13: Death rates from cancer in the US, Maryland, and Baltimore show different patterns that can identify associations with different factors.

27 Cancer Death Rates in the U.S.

28 Cancer Death Rates in Maryland

29 Cancer Death Rates in Baltimore

30 What people care about Geographers study why the beliefs, ideas and values produce a distinctive culture on a particular place. Language and religion play a part Ethnicity encompasses all these things and will cause problems when in contact with other ethnicities

31 What people take care of Look at material wealthfood, clothing, and shelter that humans need to survive. World is divided into regions: –LDC and MDCs –MDCs have more per capita income, higher literacy rates, lower death rates etc –LDCs are mainly farming, MDC are manufacturing countries –MDCs are usually organized into a political group country, states. LDCs are usually under a cultural group that doesnt coincide with the boundaries of a country

32 Cultural Ecology: Integrating Culture and Environment Groups: #1Cultural Ecology: Integrating Culture and Environment #2Human and Physical Factors #3 Physical Processes: Climate #4 Physical Processes: Vegetation #5 Physical Processes: Landforms All people in the group need to participate, each member will then go to another group and be an expert about their area.

33 World Climate Regions Fig. 1-14: The modified Köppen system divides the world into five main climate regions.

34 After the groups Read and write a summary on the modifications of the Netherlands and Florida. What are the potential problems and benefits of their modifications?

35 Uniqueness of Places & Regions Place: Unique location of a feature –Place names –Site –Situation –Mathematical location Regions: Areas of unique characteristics –Cultural landscape –Types of regions –Spatial association –Regional integration of culture –Cultural ecology

36 Environmen tal Modification in the Netherlands Fig. 1-15: Polders and dikes have been used for extensive environmental modification in the Netherlands.

37 Environment al Modification in Florida Fig. 1-16: Straightening the Kissimmee River has had many unintended side effects.

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