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What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite."— Presentation transcript:

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2 What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite

3 What do all minerals have in common? All: 1. Are formed by natural processes. 2. Are NOT alive and NEVER were alive (inorganic) 3. Have a definite volume and shape (solid) 4. Are elements or compounds with a unique chemical makeup 5. Are made up of particles that are arranged in a pattern that is repeated over and over (called a CRYSTAL)

4 Watch “Crystals” by Brainpop…Crystals 1.What element are diamonds made from? 2. What do all crystals have in common?

5 Mineral Groups Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of. Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of. Amethyst Beryl (Emerald)Calcite

6 Mineral Groups – Silicates Silicates Silicates Tetrahedron Tetrahedron fundamental building block fundamental building block 4 oxygen ions surrounding a much smaller silicon ion 4 oxygen ions surrounding a much smaller silicon ion Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (SiO 4 ) 4-

7 Mineral Groups Non-ferromagnesian Silicates (K, Na, Ca, Al) Ferromagnesian Silicates (Fe, Mg) Oxides Carbonates Sulfides/sulfates Native elements

8 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Silicates Contain oxygen & silica Contain oxygen & silica The most abundant group of minerals The most abundant group of minerals Quartz, mica MICA Quartz

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10 Quartz Group light silicates (pure SiO 2 ) no cleavage (conchoidal fracture) hard, resistant to weathering Quartz

11 Feldspar Group Non-ferromagnesian Silicates (K, Na, Ca, Al) light silicates (K, Na, Ca, Al) 2-directions of cleavage (at 90 degrees) K-feldspar Orthoclase Plagioclase Ca/Na-feldspar

12 Pyroxene Groups Ferromagnesian Silicates (Fe, Mg) dark silicates (Fe-Mg) 2 directions of cleavage at nearly 90° Augite

13 Amphibole Groups Non-ferromagnesian Silicates (K, Na, Ca, Al) Ferromagnesian Silicates (Fe, Mg) Oxides Carbonates Sulfides/sulfates Native elements dark silicates (Fe-Mg) 2 directions of cleavage not at 90° Hornblende

14 Mica Group & Clay Minerals Non-ferromagnesian Silicates (K, Na, Ca, Al) Ferromagnesian Silicates (Fe, Mg) Oxides Carbonates Sulfides/sulfates Native elements light silicates (K, Al) 1 direction of cleavage

15 Shapes of Silicates

16 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Non-Silicates Make up only 5% of the Earth’s crust Make up only 5% of the Earth’s crust Include some of the most important minerals Include some of the most important minerals iron, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, rubies Silver Gold Ruby Iron Copper Diamond

17 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Carbonates Carbon & oxygen and a positive ion, such as calcium Carbon & oxygen and a positive ion, such as calcium Calcite (CaCO 3 ) Calcite with Duftite inclusions

18 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Oxides  Metallic ion and oxygen Hematite (Fe 2 )O 3

19 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Sulfides  Sulfur and a metallic ion Galena (PbS)

20 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Sulfates  Metallic ion, Sulfur & oxygen Barite (BaSO 4 ) Barite on Calcite BaSo4 / CaCO3 Barite BaSo4

21 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Native Elements  Single elements Gold (Au), Diamond (C), Silver (Ag)

22 How do minerals form? 1) Cooling of magma (hot, liquid rock and minerals inside the earth (from the mantle)) 1) Cooling of magma (hot, liquid rock and minerals inside the earth (from the mantle)) Fast Cooling = No Crystals (mineraloids) Fast Cooling = No Crystals (mineraloids) Medium Cooling = small crystals Medium Cooling = small crystals Slow Cooling = large crystals Slow Cooling = large crystals

23 How do minerals form? 2) Elements dissolved in liquids (usually water) 2) Elements dissolved in liquids (usually water)

24 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Color Color Luster Luster Habit (Shape) Habit (Shape) Cleavage & Fracture Cleavage & Fracture Streak Streak Hardness Hardness Other Other

25 Color - Most obvious, but often misleading - Different colors may result from impurities; ie., Quartz

26 Luster Surface reflection Surface reflection metallic = shiny like metal metallic = shiny like metal non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface Metallic - pyrite Non-metallic - calcite

27 Mineral Habit (Shape) Shape a mineral takes if grown unimpeded Amethyst Babingtonite Diamond Fluorite

28 Cleavage & Fracture The way the mineral breaks The way the mineral breaks Cleavage—minerals break along smooth, flat surfaces and every fragment has the same general shape Cleavage—minerals break along smooth, flat surfaces and every fragment has the same general shape Fracture—minerals that break at random with rough or jagged edges Fracture—minerals that break at random with rough or jagged edges

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30 Cleavage or Fracture?

31 Streak The color of the powdered form of the mineral The color of the powdered form of the mineral The color of the streak can be different than the mineral The color of the streak can be different than the mineral Minerals must be softer than the streak plate Minerals must be softer than the streak plate

32 Streak…can help identify quartz

33 Hardness How easily a mineral scratches materials How easily a mineral scratches materials Mohs Hardness Scale Mohs Hardness Scale Scale from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest) Scale from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest) Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file) Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file)

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35 Find out more… “Electronic” Hardness Test “Electronic” Hardness Test steries/cube/b2.html steries/cube/b2.html

36 Other Properties Specific gravity (*excellent clue to mineral’s identity) Specific gravity (*excellent clue to mineral’s identity) Attraction to magnets Attraction to magnets Bending of light Bending of light Reaction with hydrochloric acid Reaction with hydrochloric acid Smell & taste Smell & taste

37 Watch Brainpop—“Mineral Identification” 1. If a mineral can scratch your fingernail, the mineral is _______________ than your fingernail. 2. What is luster?

38 Watch Classifying Minerals Clip Classifying Minerals Classifying Minerals


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