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What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite."— Presentation transcript:

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2 What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite

3 What do all minerals have in common? All: 1. Are formed by natural processes. 2. Are NOT alive and NEVER were alive 3. Have a definite volume and shape 4. Are elements or compounds with a unique chemical makeup 5. Are made up of particles that are arranged in a pattern that is repeated over and over (called a CRYSTAL)

4 Watch “Crystals” by Brainpop…Crystals 1.What element are diamonds made from? 2. What do all crystals have in common?

5 Groups of Minerals Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of. Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of. Amethyst Beryl (Emerald) Calcite

6 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Silicates Contain oxygen & silica Contain oxygen & silica The most abundant group of minerals The most abundant group of minerals Quartz, mica MICA Quartz

7 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Non-Silicates Make up only 5% of the Earth’s crust Make up only 5% of the Earth’s crust Include some of the most important minerals Include some of the most important minerals iron, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, rubies Silver Gold Ruby Iron Copper Diamond

8 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Carbonates Carbon & oxygen and a positive ion, such as calcium Carbon & oxygen and a positive ion, such as calcium Calcite (CaCO 3 ) Calcite with Duftite inclusions

9 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Oxides  Metallic ion and oxygen Hematite (Fe 2 )O 3

10 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Sulfides  Sulfur and a metallic ion Galena (PbS)

11 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Sulfates  Metallic ion, Sulfur & oxygen Barite (BaSO 4 ) Barite on Calcite BaSo4 / CaCO3 Barite BaSo4

12 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Native Elements  Single elements Gold (Au), Diamond (C), Silver (Ag)

13 How do minerals form? 1) Cooling of magma (hot, liquid rock and minerals inside the earth (from the mantle)) 1) Cooling of magma (hot, liquid rock and minerals inside the earth (from the mantle)) Fast Cooling = No Crystals (mineraloids) Fast Cooling = No Crystals (mineraloids) Medium Cooling = small crystals Medium Cooling = small crystals Slow Cooling = large crystals Slow Cooling = large crystals

14 How do minerals form? 2) Elements dissolved in liquids (usually water) 2) Elements dissolved in liquids (usually water)

15 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Color Can be misleading Can be misleading Can vary with the type of impurities Can vary with the type of impurities

16 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Luster Surface reflection Surface reflection metallic = shiny like metal metallic = shiny like metal non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface Pyrite has a metallic luster Calcite has a non-metallic luster

17 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Streak The color of the powdered form of the mineral The color of the powdered form of the mineral The color of the streak can be different than the mineral The color of the streak can be different than the mineral Minerals must be softer than the streak plate Minerals must be softer than the streak plate

18 Streak…can help identify quartz

19 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Hardness How easily a mineral scratches materials How easily a mineral scratches materials Mohs Hardness Scale Mohs Hardness Scale Scale from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest) Scale from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest) Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file) Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file)

20 Find out more… “Electronic” Hardness Test “Electronic” Hardness Test steries/cube/b2.html steries/cube/b2.html

21 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Cleavage & Fracture The way the mineral breaks The way the mineral breaks Cleavage—minerals break along smooth, flat surfaces and every fragment has the same general shape Cleavage—minerals break along smooth, flat surfaces and every fragment has the same general shape Fracture—minerals that break at random with rough or jagged edges Fracture—minerals that break at random with rough or jagged edges

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23 Cleavage or Fracture?

24 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Other Properties Specific gravity (*excellent clue to mineral’s identity) Specific gravity (*excellent clue to mineral’s identity) Attraction to magnets Attraction to magnets Bending of light Bending of light Reaction with hydrochloric acid Reaction with hydrochloric acid Smell & taste Smell & taste

25 Watch Brainpop—“Mineral Identification” 1. If a mineral can scratch your fingernail, the mineral is _______________ than your fingernail. 2. What is luster?

26 Watch Classifying Minerals Clip Classifying Minerals Classifying Minerals


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