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What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite."— Presentation transcript:

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2 What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite

3 What do all minerals have in common? All: 1. Are formed by natural processes. 2. Are NOT alive and NEVER were alive 3. Have a definite volume and shape 4. Are elements or compounds with a unique chemical makeup 5. Are made up of particles that are arranged in a pattern that is repeated over and over (called a CRYSTAL)

4 What do all minerals have in common? They must occur naturally within the earth. They must occur naturally within the earth. Cement, bricks, steel, and glass are not minerals because they are man made. Cement, bricks, steel, and glass are not minerals because they are man made.

5 What do all minerals have in common? Minerals must be inorganic. This means that they cannot arise from materials that were once part of a living thing. Minerals must be inorganic. This means that they cannot arise from materials that were once part of a living thing. Coal is not a mineral because it comes from the remains of plants and animals Coal is not a mineral because it comes from the remains of plants and animals

6 What do all minerals have in common? Minerals have a definite volume and shape. Minerals have a definite volume and shape. The particles that make up the sample do not move apart. The particles that make up the sample do not move apart.

7 What do all minerals have in common? Minerals have definite chemical compositions. Minerals have definite chemical compositions. A mineral always contains certain elements in definite proportions. A mineral always contains certain elements in definite proportions. Most minerals are compounds. Most minerals are compounds. Compounds are two or more elements combined. Compounds are two or more elements combined. Some minerals are just elements Copper, Gold, and Silver. Some minerals are just elements Copper, Gold, and Silver.

8 What do all minerals have in common? Minerals have crystal structures. These are particles in minerals that line up in a pattern that repeats over and over again. Minerals have crystal structures. These are particles in minerals that line up in a pattern that repeats over and over again. Sometimes a crystal structure is obvious and sometimes its only visible under a microscope. Sometimes a crystal structure is obvious and sometimes its only visible under a microscope.

9 Watch Crystals by Brainpop…Crystals 1.What element are diamonds made from? 2. What do all crystals have in common?

10 Groups of Minerals Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of. Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of. Amethyst Beryl (Emerald) Calcite

11 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Silicates Contain oxygen & silica Contain oxygen & silica The most abundant group of minerals The most abundant group of minerals Quartz, mica MICA Quartz

12 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Non-Silicates Make up only 5% of the Earths crust Make up only 5% of the Earths crust Include some of the most important minerals Include some of the most important minerals iron, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, rubies Silver Gold Ruby Iron Copper Diamond

13 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Carbonates Carbon & oxygen and a positive ion, such as calcium Carbon & oxygen and a positive ion, such as calcium Calcite (CaCO 3 ) Calcite with Duftite inclusions

14 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Oxides Metallic ion and oxygen Metallic ion and oxygen Hematite (Fe 2 )O 3

15 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Sulfides Sulfur and a metallic ion Sulfur and a metallic ion Galena (PbS)

16 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Sulfates Metallic ion, Sulfur & oxygen Metallic ion, Sulfur & oxygen Barite (BaSO 4 ) Barite on Calcite BaSo4 / CaCO3 Barite BaSo4

17 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Native Elements Single elements Single elements Gold (Au), Diamond (C), Silver (Ag)

18 How do minerals form? 1) Cooling of magma (hot, liquid rock and minerals inside the earth (from the mantle)) 1) Cooling of magma (hot, liquid rock and minerals inside the earth (from the mantle)) Fast Cooling = No Crystals (mineraloids) Fast Cooling = No Crystals (mineraloids) Medium Cooling = small crystals Medium Cooling = small crystals Slow Cooling = large crystals Slow Cooling = large crystals

19 How do minerals form? 2) Elements dissolved in liquids (usually water) 2) Elements dissolved in liquids (usually water)

20 Physical Properties of Minerals Mineral appearance Mineral appearance Mineral appearance Mineral appearance Hardness Hardness Hardness Luster Luster Luster Specific gravity Specific gravity Specific gravity Specific gravity Streak Streak Streak Cleavage and fracture Cleavage and fracture Cleavage and fracture Cleavage and fracture

21 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Color Can be misleading Can be misleading Can vary with the type of impurities Can vary with the type of impurities

22 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Hardness How easily a mineral scratches materials How easily a mineral scratches materials Mohs Hardness Scale Mohs Hardness Scale Scale from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest) Scale from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest) Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file) Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file)

23 Properties of Minerals Mohs Hardness Scale Mineral Talc Gypsum Calcite Fluorite Apatite Feldspar Quartz Topaz Corundum Diamond Rating 1Softest known mineral. It flakes easily when scratched by a fingernail. 2A fingernail can easily scratch it. 3A fingernail cannot scratch it, but a copper penny can. 4A steel knife can easily scratch it. 5A steel knife can scratch it. 6Cannot be scratched by a steel knife, but it can scratch window glass. 7Can scratch steel and hard glass easily. 8Can scratch quartz. 9Can scratch topaz. 10Hardest known mineral. Diamond can scratch all other substances. Testing Method

24 Find out more… Electronic Hardness Test Electronic Hardness Test http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomy steries/cube/b2.html http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomy steries/cube/b2.html

25 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Luster Surface reflection Surface reflection metallic = shiny like metal metallic = shiny like metal non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface Pyrite has a metallic luster Calcite has a non-metallic luster

26 Specific Gravity or Density The specific gravity of a mineral is the ratio of its mass compared with the mass of an equal volume of water. The specific gravity of a mineral is the ratio of its mass compared with the mass of an equal volume of water. Gold has specific gravity of 19 Gold has specific gravity of 19 It means gold is 19 times heavier than water. It means gold is 19 times heavier than water. 19 times heavier

27 Density

28 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Streak The color of the powdered form of the mineral The color of the powdered form of the mineral The color of the streak can be different than the mineral The color of the streak can be different than the mineral Minerals must be softer than the streak plate Minerals must be softer than the streak plate

29 Streak…can help identify quartz http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b3.html

30 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Cleavage & Fracture The way the mineral breaks The way the mineral breaks Cleavageminerals break along smooth, flat surfaces and every fragment has the same general shape Cleavageminerals break along smooth, flat surfaces and every fragment has the same general shape Fractureminerals that break at random with rough or jagged edges Fractureminerals that break at random with rough or jagged edges

31 Cleavage Cleavage is the way that mineral breaks. Cleavage is the way that mineral breaks. Minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces have cleavage. Minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces have cleavage. Mica has cleavage Mica has cleavage

32 and Fracture!... Mineral that breaks uneven, rough, or jagged surfaces have fracture. Mineral that breaks uneven, rough, or jagged surfaces have fracture. Quartz has fracture Quartz has fracture quartz

33 Identify the minerals below for cleavage and fracture CLEAVAGE FRACTURE in

34 Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Other Properties Specific gravity (*excellent clue to minerals identity) Specific gravity (*excellent clue to minerals identity) Attraction to magnets Attraction to magnets Bending of light Bending of light Reaction with hydrochloric acid Reaction with hydrochloric acid Smell & taste Smell & taste http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b4.html

35 An illustration appearance:luster,color and streak

36 An illustration cleavage and fracture

37 Watch Classifying Minerals Clip Classifying Minerals Classifying Minerals

38 Watch BrainpopMineral Identification 1. If a mineral can scratch your fingernail, the mineral is _______________ than your fingernail. 2. What is luster?


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