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These notes go on pages 5 and 7 of your INB!.

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Presentation on theme: "These notes go on pages 5 and 7 of your INB!."— Presentation transcript:

1 These notes go on pages 5 and 7 of your INB!


3  Between 2 - 3,000 have been identified  A few are “native elements” -- made of only one element, such as sulfur, gold. copper, and graphite (carbon)  Most are compounds, especially the silicate group (Si, O).  Other important groups are oxides, carbonates, and sulfides

4  Remember the acronym ISODA! 1)I norganic 2)S olid 3)O ccurs Naturally 4)D efined chemical composition 5)A rranged in a crystal

5  grouped by the elements they are made of  most abundant group are silicates, which are most of the rock-forming minerals Silver Ruby Copper

6 Mineral Group Elements & Characteristics Examples Silicates contain O and Si most abundant group Quartz Mica Feldspars MICA QUARTZ

7 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Carbonates C and O make up karst topography, which includes caves Calcite (SiO 3 ) Calcite with Duftite inclusions

8 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Oxides  metallic ion and O Hematite (Fe 2 )O 3

9 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Sulfides  S and a metallic ion Galena (PbS)

10 Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples Native Elements  single elements from the periodic table Gold (Au), Diamond (C), Silver (Ag)

11  Quartz  Feldspar (group)  Muscovite (white mica)  Biotite (black mica)  Calcite  Pyroxene  Olivine  Amphibole (group )  Magnetite, limonite, and other iron oxides  Pyrite

12  hardness  crystal shape (form)  luster  color  streak  cleavage/fracture  density or specific gravity  special properties --reaction to acid --fluorescence --salty taste --magnetism

13  least useful property for identification: 1. some minerals have more than one color 2. more than one type of mineral can have the same color

14  describes how light reflects off the surface  Main categories are metallic and non- metallic  Non-metallic includes: dull, glassy, waxy, pearly, earthy

15  ability to scratch another mineral  Mohs hardness scale from 1 (talc) to 10 (diamond)  Quartz (most common mineral and most dust particles) is a 7

16 We use a scratch plate to determine hardness.


18  color of the powder when rubbed on a streak plate (unglazed porcelain)  “true color”  may be same as hand-specimen or different  mineral must be softer than the streak plate

19  Some minerals split along flat surfaces when struck hard-- cleavage  Other minerals break unevenly along rough or curved surfaces-- fracture  few minerals have both cleavage and fracture

20 1. 4. 3. 2.

21  All minerals have density (mass / volume), but some are very dense  Specific Gravity is the density of the mineral compared with density of water (1 g/ml)

22 1. Acid Test: some minerals react to a dilute acid by fizzing (e.g. Carbonate mineral group) 2. Smell: some have a very distint smell (e.g. Sulfur) 3. Taste: certain taste (e.g. Halite, which tastes salty) 4. Attraction to magnets (e.g. magnetite & other iron minerals) 5. Fluorescence is when minerals glow under UV light

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