Presentation on theme: "What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is inorganic and has a unique chemical and crystalline structure. Inorganic = Not."— Presentation transcript:
What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is inorganic and has a unique chemical and crystalline structure. Inorganic = Not living
What do all minerals have in common. 1. Natural 2. not living 3. Unique, crystalline and chemical Structure Create a cheat sheet for test
Minerals in the earths crust 1800 50 Quartz silicate
Pg. 26 Skip a line between mineral names. 1. Halite- 2. Calcite- 3. Magnetite- 4. Lodestone- 5. Sulfur- 6. Mica- 7. Pyrolusite- 8. Bentonite- 9. Feldspar- 10. Fluorite- 11. Graphite 12. Bauxite- 13. Quartz- 14. Hematite- 15. Barite-
Making observations: Color Shiny, not shiny Smooth or rough Smell
pg 26 As you walk around the stations, write down observations about the mineral samples. You will have 30 seconds at each station. Observations: What characteristics do all minerals have in common?
Ch. 5 Minerals of the Earth’s Crust
Warm up Question What is thought to cause gravity? A. The moon and earths relationship B. Iron ore on the surface. C. Convection currents in the upper mantle. The rotation of the earth around the sun.
What is a Mineral? Natural, usually inorganic solid substance with a crystal structure. – Inorganic=nonliving Pyromorphite
What do all minerals have in common? All: 1.Are formed by natural processes. 2.Are NOT alive and NEVER were alive and not made by living things. 3.Are solids with a definite volume and shape. 4.Are elements or compounds with a unique chemical makeup 5.Are made up of particles that are arranged in a pattern that is repeated over and over (called a CRYSTAL)
Minerals in the Earth’s Crust There are more than 3000 different types of minerals, but only 20 are common. Quartz(SiO 2 )is the most common mineral in the Earth’s crust.
Warm up A Biotic factor that might be studied in an ecosystem is the A.Size of soil particles. B.Percent of soil moisture. C. Rate of algae growth. D. pH of lake water.
Groups of Minerals Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of. Amethyst Beryl (Emerald) Calcite
Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples 1. Silicates Contain Oxygen & Silica Contain Oxygen & Silica The most abundant group of minerals The most abundant group of minerals Make up 95% of the Earth’s crust Make up 95% of the Earth’s crust Quartz (SiO 2, mica) MICA Quartz
Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples 2. Non- Silicates Do not contain compounds of Silica and Oxygen Do not contain compounds of Silica and Oxygen Make up only 5% of the Earth’s crust Make up only 5% of the Earth’s crust Include some of the most important minerals Include some of the most important minerals 6 different groups based on the main elements they contain.
Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples A. Carbonates Carbon & Oxygen and a positive ion, such as Calcium Carbon & Oxygen and a positive ion, such as Calcium Calcite (CaCO 3 ) Calcite with Duftite inclusions
Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples B. Halides Chlorine or Flourine combined with Sodium or Potassium. Chlorine or Flourine combined with Sodium or Potassium.Halite(NaCl) Flourite(CaF 2 )
Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples C. Oxides Metallic ion and Oxygen Hematite (Fe 2 )O 3
Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples D. Sulfides Sulfur and a metallic ion Galena (PbS) Galena
Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples E. Sulfates Metallic ion, Sulfur & Oxygen Barite (BaSO 4 ) Barite on Calcite BaSo4 / CaCO3 Barite BaSo4
Mineral Group CharacteristicsExamples F. Native Elements Single elements Gold (Au), Diamond (C), Silver (Ag)
What is a gem? A Mineral OR Rock that has value Rare ! Sometimes polishing or cutting will add value
Out A pearl forms when a particle of dirt gets trapped in the soft tissue of an oyster. To protect itself from the irritating particle, the oyster secretes a protective layer of a white material called nacre to cover the particle. This nacre covered particle is what we harvest as a pearl. 1.Is a pearl a mineral? 2.Why or why not?
Thurs. 11/1 and Fri.11/2
In: pg Watch “Crystals” by Brainpop… 1.What element are diamonds made from? 2. What do all crystals have in common?
Thru 1: pg Crystal Models Divide the 8 crystal models up between the people at your table(if you have 4 people at your table, each person gets 2 different crystals) Cut out the models along the solid lines and fold along the dotted lines. Put one very small dot of glue on each tab and glue the sides of your crystal together. Glue your crystal model in the appropriate space on your group’s “Crystal Shapes” sheet. Answer the analysis questions. Analysis Questions: 1. What are the 8 crystal shapes? 2. Which crystal shapes did you make? 3. What characteristics do all crystals share?
Thru 2 Article: Rockin’ Gems Read the article and answer the questions.
Mon. 11/5 and Wed. 11/7
Thru 1: pg Minerals CLOZE passage
Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Color Can be misleading Can vary with the type of impurities
Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Luster Surface reflection metallic = shiny like metal non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface Pyrite has a metallic luster Calcite has a non-metallic luster
Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Streak The color of the powdered form of the mineral The color of the streak can be different than the mineral Minerals must be softer than the streak plate
Streak…can help identify quartz http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b3.html
Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Hardness How easily a mineral scratches materials Mohs Hardness Scale Scale from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest) Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file)
Find out more… “Electronic” Hardness Test http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomy steries/cube/b2.html
Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Cleavage & Fracture – The way the mineral breaks – Cleavage—minerals break along smooth, flat surfaces and every fragment has the same general shape – Fracture—minerals that break at random with rough or jagged edges
Cleavage or Fracture? 1. 4. 3. 2.
Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) Other Properties – Specific gravity (*excellent clue to mineral’s identity) – Attraction to magnets – Bending of light – Reaction with hydrochloric acid – Smell & taste http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b4.html