Should physical education teachers all use the same assessment to determine a students eligibility for adapted physical education?
During this presentation I will discuss… Background information from NASPE, AAPAR, and IDEA. Motor and fitness test used for placement Other criteria to be considered for placement ***Beginning Misunderstandings…***
IDEA considers students to be eligible for special education, and adapted physical education if they are identified with one of the 14 disabilities stated in the law. Autism Deaf-Blind Deafness Developmental Delay Emotional Disturbances Hearing Impairment Intellectual Disability Multiple Disabilities Orthopedic Impairment Other Health Impairments Specific Learning Disability Speech or Language Impairment Traumatic Brain Injury Visual Impairment, including blindness
NASPE and AAPAR position is that any student can be eligible if they have unique instructional needs in physical education, regardless of disability, is entailed to receive appropriate accommodations through adapted physical education.
Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities. Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities. Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity. Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness. Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings. Standard 6: Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction.
IDEA requires students with disabilities to be instructed in the least restricted environment. General Physical Education General Physical Education with APE Consultation APE direct services in General Physical Education Part-Time APE and Part-Time GPE Reverse Mainstreaming Self-Contained APE
****THE LAW DOES NOT SPECIFIACALLY STATE WHAT CRITERIA FOR MOTOR PERFORMANCE SHOULD BE USED TO DETEREMINE IF A CHILD NEEDS ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION!!!
Brockport Physical Fitness Test Used for students without disabilities and students with ◦ Intellectual disabilities ◦ Spinal cord injuries ◦ Cerebral palsy ◦ Blindness ◦ Congenital anomalies ◦ Amputation 27 different fitness test ◦ Some test are traditional and some are modified for students with disabilities ◦ Most students will only be tested in four to six different test
Body Composition ◦ Skinfold Measures ◦ Body Mass Index Aerobic Functioning ◦ Pacer Test (15m or 20m) ◦ Target Aerobic Movement Test ◦ One-Mile run/walk Flexibility ◦ Back saver sit and reach ◦ Shoulder stretch ◦ Apley Test (modified) ◦ Thomas Test (modified) ◦ Target stretch Test Musculoskeletal Functioning Muscular Strength/Endurance ◦ Trunk lift ◦ Dominant grip strength ◦ Bench Press ◦ Isometric Push-up ◦ Push-Up ◦ Seated Push-up ◦ Dumbbell Press ◦ Reverse Curl ◦ Push/Walk (40m) ◦ Wheelchair Ramp Test ◦ Curl-up ◦ Curl-up modified ◦ Extended arm hang ◦ Pull Up ◦ Pull Up (modified
Test of Gross Motor Development TestAssessment Skill Criteria Run Mark off 50 feet and tell students to run as fast as they can Brief period when both feet are off the ground Arms in opposition to legs, elbow bent Foot placement on or near the line Non supported leg bent at 90 degrees Gallop Mark off 30 feet and tell students to gallop from one line to the other three times A step forward with the lead foot followed by a step with the trailing foot to a position behind or adjacent to the led foot Brief period when both feet are off the ground Arms bent and lifted to waist level Able to lead with the right and left foot
TestAssessment Performance Criteria Hop Ask the student to hop three times and then switch feet Foot of non supported leg is bent and is behind the body Non supported leg swings in pendular fashion to produce force Arms bent at elbow and bent to take off Able to hop on both feet Leap Ask the student to take large steps to leap Take off one foot and land on the other A period when both feet are off the ground Forward reach with arm opposite to lead leg
TestAssessment Performance Criteria Horizontal Jump Mark off a line and tell students to jump as far as they can Preparatory movement includes flexion of both knees with arms extended behind the body. Arms extend forcefully forward and upward reaching full extension above head. Take off and land on both feet simultaneous Arms are brought downward during landing. Skip Mark off two lines 30 feet apart. Tell students to skip back and forth three times A rhythmical repetition of the step- hop on alternate feet Foot of nonsupport leg carried near surface during hop phase Arms alternately moving opposition to legs at about waist level.
TestAssessment Performance Criteria Slide Mark off two lines 30 feet apart Have students slide back and forth three times facing the same direction Body turned sideways to desired direction for travel A step sideways followed by a slide of the trailing foot to a point next to the lead foot. A short period where both feet are off the floor. Able to slide to the right and to the left side. Two hand Strike Toss ball softly to student waist high Tell student to strike the object hard Dominant hand grips but above non-dominant hand Non-dominant side of the body faces the tosser Hip and spine rotation Weight is transferred by steeping with front food
TestAssessment Performance Criteria Stationary Bounce Ask the student to bounce the ball three times. Repeat three times. Contact ball with one hand at about hip height Pushes ball with fingers Ball contacts floor in front of (or to the outside of) foot on the side of the hand being used. Catch Mark off 15 feet Tosser stands on one line while the student stands on the other Toss the ball underhand to the student Preparation phase where elbows are flexed and hands are in front of body. Arms extend in preparation for ball contact Ball is caught and controlled by hand only Elbows bend to absorb force
TestAssessment Performance Criteria Kick Mark of one line 20 feet away from the wall and one line that is 30 feet away from the wall. Have the student stand on the line that is 30 feet away and place the ball on the line that is 20 feet away. Rapid continuous s approach to the ball. The trunk is inclined backward during ball contact. Forward swing of the arm opposite kicking leg. Follow-through by hopping on non-kicking foot. Overhand Throw Mark off a line 25 feet away from a wall. Have the student throw a tennis ball at the wall. Score Card http://www2.pef.uni- lj.si/srp_gradiva/tgm.pdf A downward arc of the throwing arm initial the windup. Rotation of hip and shoulder to a point where the non-dominant side faces an imaginary target. Weight is transferred by steeping with the opposite the throwing hand. Follow-through beyond ball release diagonal across body toward side opposite throwing arm.
Peabody Developmental Motor Scales ◦ Assessment in gross and fine motor skills ◦ Assess children from birth to 5 years ◦ Can be used by Occupational therapist Adapted physical education teachers Physical therapists Diagnosticians Psychologist Early intervention specialist ◦ Six subtest
SkillsCriteria Reflexes 8 item subtest Tests child's ability to automatically react Birth to 11 months Stationary 30 item subtest Tests child’s ability to sustain center of gravity and equilibrium Locomotion 89 item subtest Tests child’s ability to move from one place to another
SkillsCriteria Object Manipulation 24 item subtest Test measures the child's ability to manipulate balls Catching, throwing, kicking 12 Months and older Grasping 26 item subtest Test measures the child’s ability to use their hands Visual-Motor Integration 72 item subtest Test measures the child’s ability to use visual perception skills for reaching and grasping for an object, building with blocks, and coping designs.
Bruininks- Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency ◦ Most widely used motor proficiency test ◦ Measures gross and fine motor skills Sample Report ◦ http://www.pearsonassessments.com/hai/images/ pa/products/bot-2/BOT2_rpt_sample.pdf
Fine Motor Precision—7 items (e.g., cutting out a circle, connecting dots) Fine Motor Integration—8 items (e.g., copying a star, copying a square) Manual Dexterity—5 items (e.g., transferring pennies, sorting cards, stringing blocks) Bilateral Coordination—7 items (e.g., tapping foot and finger, jumping jacks) Balance—9 items (e.g., walking forward on a line, standing on one leg on a balance beam) Running Speed and Agility—5 items (e.g., shuttle run, one-legged side hop) Upper-Limb Coordination—7 items (e.g., throwing a ball at a target, catching a tossed ball) Strength—5 items (e.g., standing long jump, sit-ups)
President’s Council on Physical Fitness Test ◦ Recognizes students fitness levels Curl-ups Shuttle run Endurance walk/run Pull-ups V sit and reach **Will not be available after the 2012-2013 school year
Fitness Gram Fitness test that assess aerobic capacity; muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility; and body composition. Works well with fitness best curriculum Scores from these assessments are compared to Healthy Fitness Zone standards Healthy Fitness Zone standards are criterion-referenced standards that are based on fitness levels for boys and girls and various ages. Activity Log ◦ 3 days/30 minute increments ◦ Software generates: Minutes of activity Periods of activity each day Type of activity
Not only do you need to look at psychomotor skills set but you must also consider two of the following… Behavior Sensory needs Socialization skills Ability to perform with the class Formal and Informal Observations in the general physical education class Parent Input
What fitness test would you like to see PA adapt as their official test? Or what key components would you take from each test to make one assessment? Also, do you think PA should come up with a rubric to identify the other criteria's?
I like the Brockport test the best. I think it really considers students with all types of disabilities when measuring motor skills. I would also like to see a rubric for the other criteria. The test should be norm-based so all students are really getting the right services!
NASPE, AAPAR. Eligibly Criteria For Adapted Physical Education Services. Retrieved from http://www.aahperd.org/naspe/standards/upload/Eligibility- Criteria-for-Adapted-PE.pdf Placement Options in Adapted Physical Education. Retrieved from http://www.region10.org/APE/documents/APEplacement.pdf http://www.region10.org/APE/documents/APEplacement.pdf Brockport http://www.topendsports.com/testing/brockport.htm Block, M. E. (2006). A teacher's guide to including students with disabilities in general physical education. (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.