2Debates in Adapted Physical Education Sonya FelmlyWest Chester UniversityKin 586
3DebateShould physical education teachers all use the same assessment to determine a students eligibility for adapted physical education?
4??Debate?? During this presentation I will discuss… Background information from NASPE, AAPAR, and IDEA.Motor and fitness test used for placementOther criteria to be considered for placement***Beginning Misunderstandings…***
5IDEA vs. NASPE and AAPAR Position IDEA considers students to be eligible for special education, and adapted physical education if they are identified with one of the 14 disabilities stated in the law.AutismDeaf-BlindDeafnessDevelopmental DelayEmotional DisturbancesHearing ImpairmentIntellectual DisabilityMultiple DisabilitiesOrthopedic ImpairmentOther Health ImpairmentsSpecific Learning DisabilitySpeech or Language ImpairmentTraumatic Brain InjuryVisual Impairment, including blindness
6IDEA vs. NASPE and AAPAR Position NASPE and AAPAR position is that any student can be eligible if they have unique instructional needs in physical education, regardless of disability, is entailed to receive appropriate accommodations through adapted physical education.
7NASPE Standards Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.Standard 2:Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.Standard 3:Participates regularly in physical activity.Standard 4:Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.Standard 5:Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings.Standard 6:Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction.
8Different Placements For Adapted PE IDEA requires students with disabilities to be instructed in the least restricted environment.General Physical EducationGeneral Physical Education with APE ConsultationAPE direct services in General Physical EducationPart-Time APE and Part-Time GPEReverse MainstreamingSelf-Contained APE
9Criteria For Eligibility ****THE LAW DOES NOT SPECIFIACALLY STATE WHAT CRITERIA FOR MOTOR PERFORMANCE SHOULD BE USED TO DETEREMINE IF A CHILD NEEDS ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION!!!
11Motor Skills and Abilities Brockport Physical Fitness TestUsed for students without disabilities and students withIntellectual disabilitiesSpinal cord injuriesCerebral palsyBlindnessCongenital anomaliesAmputation27 different fitness testSome test are traditional and some are modified for students with disabilitiesMost students will only be tested in four to six different test
12Motor Skills and Abilities Body CompositionSkinfold MeasuresBody Mass IndexAerobic FunctioningPacer Test (15m or 20m)Target Aerobic Movement TestOne-Mile run/walkFlexibilityBack saver sit and reachShoulder stretchApley Test (modified)Thomas Test (modified)Target stretch TestMusculoskeletal FunctioningMuscular Strength/EnduranceTrunk liftDominant grip strengthBench PressIsometric Push-upPush-UpSeated Push-upDumbbell PressReverse CurlPush/Walk (40m)Wheelchair Ramp TestCurl-upCurl-up modifiedExtended arm hangPull UpPull Up (modified
13Motor Skills and Abilities Test of Gross Motor DevelopmentTestAssessmentSkill CriteriaRunMark off 50 feet and tell students to run as fast as they canBrief period when both feet are off the groundArms in opposition to legs, elbow bentFoot placement on or near the lineNon supported leg bent at 90 degreesGallopMark off 30 feet and tell students to gallop from one line to the other three timesA step forward with the lead foot followed by a step with the trailing foot to a position behind or adjacent to the led footArms bent and lifted to waist levelAble to lead with the right and left foot
14Motor Skills and Abilities TestAssessmentPerformance CriteriaHopAsk the student to hop three times and then switch feetFoot of non supported leg is bent and is behind the bodyNon supported leg swings in pendular fashion to produce forceArms bent at elbow and bent to take offAble to hop on both feetLeapAsk the student to take large steps to leapTake off one foot and land on the otherA period when both feet are off the groundForward reach with arm opposite to lead leg
15Motor Skills and Abilities TestAssessmentPerformance CriteriaHorizontal JumpMark off a line and tell students to jump as far as they canPreparatory movement includes flexion of both knees with arms extended behind the body.Arms extend forcefully forward and upward reaching full extension above head.Take off and land on both feet simultaneousArms are brought downward during landing.SkipMark off two lines 30 feet apart. Tell students to skip back and forth three timesA rhythmical repetition of the step-hop on alternate feetFoot of nonsupport leg carried near surface during hop phaseArms alternately moving opposition to legs at about waist level.
16Motor Skills and Abilities TestAssessmentPerformance CriteriaSlideMark off two lines 30 feet apartHave students slide back and forth three times facing the same directionBody turned sideways to desired direction for travelA step sideways followed by a slide of the trailing foot to a point next to the lead foot.A short period where both feet are off the floor.Able to slide to the right and to the left side.Two hand StrikeToss ball softly to student waist highTell student to strike the object hardDominant hand grips but above non-dominant handNon-dominant side of the body faces the tosserHip and spine rotationWeight is transferred by steeping with front food
17Motor Skills and Abilities TestAssessmentPerformance CriteriaStationary BounceAsk the student to bounce the ball three times. Repeat three times.Contact ball with one hand at about hip heightPushes ball with fingersBall contacts floor in front of (or to the outside of) foot on the side of the hand being used.CatchMark off 15 feetTosser stands on one line while the student stands on the otherToss the ball underhand to the studentPreparation phase where elbows are flexed and hands are in front of body.Arms extend in preparation for ball contactBall is caught and controlled by hand onlyElbows bend to absorb force
18Motor Skills and Abilities TestAssessmentPerformance CriteriaKickMark of one line 20 feet away from the wall and one line that is 30 feet away from the wall.Have the student stand on the line that is 30 feet away and place the ball on the line that is 20 feet away.Rapid continuous s approach to the ball.The trunk is inclined backward during ball contact.Forward swing of the arm opposite kicking leg.Follow-through by hopping on non-kicking foot.Overhand ThrowMark off a line 25 feet away from a wall. Have the student throw a tennis ball at the wall.Score CardA downward arc of the throwing arm initial the windup.Rotation of hip and shoulder to a point where the non-dominant side faces an imaginary target.Weight is transferred by steeping with the opposite the throwing hand.Follow-through beyond ball release diagonal across body toward side opposite throwing arm.
20Motor Skills and Abilities Peabody Developmental Motor ScalesAssessment in gross and fine motor skillsAssess children from birth to 5 yearsCan be used byOccupational therapistAdapted physical education teachersPhysical therapistsDiagnosticiansPsychologistEarly intervention specialistSix subtest
21Motor Skills and Abilities CriteriaReflexes8 item subtestTests child's ability to automatically reactBirth to 11 monthsStationary30 item subtestTests child’s ability to sustain center of gravity and equilibriumLocomotion89 item subtestTests child’s ability to move from one place to another
22Motor Skills and Abilities CriteriaObject Manipulation24 item subtestTest measures the child's ability to manipulate ballsCatching, throwing, kicking12 Months and olderGrasping26 item subtestTest measures the child’s ability to use their handsVisual-Motor Integration72 item subtestTest measures the child’s ability to use visual perception skills for reaching and grasping for an object, building with blocks, and coping designs.
23Motor Skills and Abilities Bruininks- Oseretsky Test of Motor ProficiencyMost widely used motor proficiency testMeasures gross and fine motor skillsSample Reportpa/products/bot-2/BOT2_rpt_sample.pdf
24Motor Skills and Abilities Fine Motor Precision—7 items (e.g., cutting out a circle, connecting dots)Fine Motor Integration—8 items (e.g., copying a star, copying a square)Manual Dexterity—5 items (e.g., transferring pennies, sorting cards, stringing blocks)Bilateral Coordination—7 items (e.g., tapping foot and finger, jumping jacks)Balance—9 items (e.g., walking forward on a line, standing on one leg on a balance beam)Running Speed and Agility—5 items (e.g., shuttle run, one-legged side hop)Upper-Limb Coordination—7 items (e.g., throwing a ball at a target, catching a tossed ball)Strength—5 items (e.g., standing long jump, sit-ups)
25Motor Skills and Abilities President’s Council on Physical Fitness TestRecognizes students fitness levelsCurl-upsShuttle runEndurance walk/runPull-upsV sit and reach**Will not be available after the school year
26Motor Skills and Abilities Fitness GramFitness test that assess aerobic capacity; muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility; and body composition.Works well with fitness best curriculumScores from these assessments are compared to Healthy Fitness Zone standardsHealthy Fitness Zone standards are criterion-referenced standards that are based on fitness levels for boys and girls and various ages.Activity Log3 days/30 minute incrementsSoftware generates:Minutes of activityPeriods of activity each dayType of activity
28Ability to perform with the class More Criteria..Not only do you need to look at psychomotor skills set but you must also consider two of the following…BehaviorSensory needsSocialization skillsAbility to perform with the classFormal and Informal Observations in the general physical education classParent Input
29What fitness test would you like to see PA adapt as their official test? Or what key components would you take from each test to make one assessment?Also, do you think PA should come up with a rubric to identify the other criteria's?
30My thoughts…I like the Brockport test the best. I think it really considers students with all types of disabilities when measuring motor skills.I would also like to see a rubric for the other criteria.The test should be norm-based so all students are really getting the right services!
31ResourcesNASPE, AAPAR. Eligibly Criteria For Adapted Physical Education Services. Retrieved from Criteria-for-Adapted-PE.pdfPlacement Options in Adapted Physical Education. Retrieved fromBrockportBlock, M. E. (2006). A teacher's guide to including students with disabilities in general physical education. (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.