Presentation on theme: "FVCC Fire Rescue Nozzles and Fire Streams. OBJECTIVES 2-13.1Identify a fire stream. (3-3.7) 2-13.2Identify the purposes of a fire stream. (3-3.7) 2-13.3Identify."— Presentation transcript:
FVCC Fire Rescue Nozzles and Fire Streams
OBJECTIVES 2-13.1Identify a fire stream. (3-3.7) 2-13.2Identify the purposes of a fire stream. (3-3.7) 2-13.3Identify the advantages of using water as an extinguishing agent. 2-13.4Identify the disadvantages of using water as an extinguishing agent.
OBJECTIVES 2-13.5Identify three major types of fire stream patterns. (3-3.6, 3-3.9) 2-13.6Identify three sizes of fire streams (3-3.6, 3-3.9) 2-13.7Identify the design of the three major types of fire stream nozzles and tips (3-3.6, 3-3.9)
OBJECTIVES 2-13.8Identify the required nozzle pressure of fire streams. (3-3.6, 3-3.9) 2-13.9Identify the major parts of a fog nozzle (3-3.7) 2-13.10Identify the water flow through various types of fog nozzles. (4-3.1) 2-13.11Identify the operations of fire stream nozzles. (3-3.6, 3-3.9)
OBJECTIVES 2-13.12Identify the nozzle pressure effects and the flow capabilities of fire stream nozzles. (3-3.9) 2-13.13Identify nozzle reaction (3-3.6, 3-3.9) 2-13.14Identify water hammer and one method of its prevention. (3-3.9)
OBJECTIVES 2-13.15Identify three observable results that are obtained when the proper application of a fire stream is accomplished (3-3.9) 2-13.16Identify the safe procedures in the handling of fire hose and associated equipment. (3-3.9)
OBJECTIVES 2-13.17Identify methods of preventing damage to a nozzle and associated equipment. (3-3.9) 2-13.18Identify the types of ground cover fires. (3-3.8) 2-13.19Identify the procedures for extinguishing ground cover fires. (3-3.8)
OBJECTIVES 2-13.20Identify the procedures for extinguishing ground cover fires (3-3.8) 2-13.21Identify the equipment necessary for foam application. (3-3.15) 2-13.22Identify the following methods of water application. (3-3.7) ◦2-13.22.1Direct ◦2-13.22.2Indirect ◦2-13.22.3Combination
OBJECTIVES 2-13.23Identify the use of nozzles carried on a pumper as required by Section 3-8 of NFPA1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, 1996 ed, (3- 3.9) ◦2-13.23.1Open and close a fog nozzle. ◦2-13.23.2Adjust the stream pattern on a fog nozzle ◦2-13.23.3Adjust the flow setting on an adjustable gallonage fog nozzle ◦2-13.23.4Open and close a solid stream nozzle.
OBJECTIVES 2-13.24Identify the use of adapters carried on a pumper as required by Section 3-8 of NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. 2-13.25Identify the procedures for inspecting nozzles for damage. (3-3.6, 3- 3.9)
OBJECTIVES 2-13.26Identify the procedures for cleaning and maintaining nozzles. (3-3.6, 3-3.9) 2-13.27Identify the procedures for extinguishing or controlling the following live fires working as a member of a team and using appropriate protective equipment, firefighting tools, and extinguishing agents: ◦2-13.27.1Piles/stacks of Class A combustible materials (exterior)
OBJECTIVES ◦2-13.27.2Open pans for combustible liquids (exterior) ◦2-13.27.3Vehicle fires ◦2-13.27.4Storage containers (exterior dumpster/trash bin) ◦2-13.27.5Class A combustible materials within a structure (interior attack) ◦2-13.27.6A hidden fire within a structure ◦2-13.27.7Ground cover fire
OBJECTIVES 2-13.28Identify assembling the components of a foam fire stream. (3- 3.15) 2-13.29Identify the application technique of Class B foam. (3-3.15) 2-13.30Demonstrate the following methods of water application: (3-3.7(b), 3-3.9(b))
OBJECTIVES 2-13.30.1Direct 2-13.30.2Indirect 2-13.30.3Combination ◦Demonstrate the use of nozzles carried on a pumper as required by Section 3-8 of NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, 1996 ed. (3-3.9(b)) 2-13.31.1Open and close a fog nozzle. 2-13.31.2Adjust the stream pattern on a fog nozzle 2-13.31.3Adjust the flow setting on an adjustable gallonage fog nozzle. 2-13.31.4Open and close a solid stream nozzle
OBJECTIVES 2-13.32Demonstrate the use of adapters carried on a pumper as required by Section 3-8 of NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. 2-13.33Demonstrate the procedures for inspecting nozzles for damage (3-3.6(b), 3-3.9(b))
OBJECTIVES 2-13.34Demonstrate the procedures for cleaning and maintaining nozzles. (3- 3.6(b), 3-3.9(b)) 2-13.35Demonstrate extinguishing or controlling the following live fires working as a member of a team and using appropriate protective equipment, firefighting tools, and extinguishing agents: ◦2-13.35.1Piles/stacks of Class A combustible materials (exterior)
OBJECTIVES ◦2-13.35.2Open pans for combustible liquids (exterior) ◦2-13.35.3Vehicle fires ◦2-13.35.4Storage containers (exterior dumpster/trash bin) ◦2-13.35.5Class A combustible materials within a structure (interior attack)
OBJECTIVES ◦2-13.35.6A hidden fire within a structure ◦2-13.35.7Ground cover fire Demonstrate assembling the components of a foam fire stream (3-3.15) Demonstrate application technique of Class B foam (3-3.15) IFSTA, Essentials, 4 th ed, Chapters 12-13 Delmar, Firefighter’s Handbook, copyright 2000, Chapters 10-11
IDENTIFY A FIRE STREAM A stream of water or other extinguishing agent, after it leaves the fire hose and nozzle until it reaches the desired point.
PURPOSES OF A FIRE STREAM Applying water or foam directly to burning material to reduce its temperature. Applying water or foam over an open fire to reduce the temperature so firefighters can advance hand lines closer to effect extinguishment. Reducing high atmospheric temperature.
PURPOSES OF A FIRE STREAM Dispersing hot smoke and fire gases from a heated area by using a fire stream. Creating a water curtain to protect firefighters and property from heat. Creating a barrier between a fuel and a fire by covering with a foam blanket.
EXTINGUISHING PROPERTIES OF WATER Is readily available Is inexpensive Has great heat-absorbing capacity Absorbs a large amount of heat when converting to steam The greater its surface area, the greater the heat absorption ◦Chipped ice vs. single ice cube ◦Fog stream vs. solid stream ◦Steam vs. liquid TS 13–2a
EXTINGUISHING PROPERTIES OF WATER (cont.) Is unique in that it expands both upon freezing and upon changing into its vapor state ◦Water in pipes subject to freezing may rupture Undrained automatic sprinkler piping in unheated buildings Wet barrel hydrants Shallowly buried underground pipes ◦Its 1700:1 expansion ratio during vaporization allows it to absorb more heat TS 13–2b
PHYSICAL STATES OF WATER VS 13-2 Solid Ice Liquid Water Gas Invisible Water Vapor 32°F (0°C)32°F to 212°F (0°C to 100°C) Above 212°F (100°C) Increasing Temperature
WATER AS STEAM VS 13-3 At 212ºF (100ºC) water expands to approximately 1,700 times its original volume. Steam absorbs more heat faster, cooling fuel below ignition temperature. Steam displaces hot gases, smoke, and other products of combustion. In some cases, steam may smother fire by excluding oxygen. 20 cubic feet (0.57 m 3 ) of water @ 500 ° F (260°C) converts to 48,000 feet (1 359 m) of steam 96 feet (29 m) 10 feet (3 m) 50 feet (15 m)
FRICTION LOSS VS 13-4 Velocity: Rate of motion of particle in a a given direction; speed Friction Loss: Pressure lost while forcing water through pipe, fittings, fire hose, and adapters. Critical Velocity: Turbulence caused when a stream is subjected to excessive velocity
ADVANTAGES OF USING WATER Greater heat absorbing capacity than other common extinguishing agents ◦One BTU is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree F. ◦Cools fuel below ignition temperature A relatively large amount of heat is required to vaporize liquid water to steam – 970 BTU’s are required to vaporize water, changing it to steam.
ADVANTAGES OF USING WATER The greater the surface area of the water exposed, the more rapidly heat will be absorbed Water converted to steam occupies 1700 times the original volume occupied by the liquid ◦Displaces hot gases, smoke and other products of combustion.
DISADVANTAGES OF USING WATER Water has a considerable amount of surface tension ◦Will not readily penetrate certain porous materials. ◦Will react with combustible materials Certain metals ◦Freezing will occur at 32 degrees F (0 degrees C) ◦Water has low viscosity; it will not cling or readily coat materials ◦May conduct electricity under certain conditions
CAUSES OF FRICTION LOSS Rough hose lining Damaged couplings Sharp bends/kinks in hose Adapters Partially closed valves/nozzles Wrong size gasket Excessive hose length Excess flow for hose size TS 13–3
CAUSES OF PRESSURE LOSS OTHER THAN FRICTION LOSS Broken hoseline Mechanical problem due to poor water supply Error in hydraulics calculation Obstructions from the pump or water main Elevation of nozzle above pump TS 13–4
SOME REASONS FOR PRESSURE LOSS VS 13-5 Damaged Couplings Kinks or Sharp Bends Adapters Hose Length Elevation Loss Hose Diameter/Length 1 ½2 ½ 30 psi Loss per 100 ft. 3 psi Loss per 100 ft. 100 gpm
GUIDELINES FOR REDUCING FRICTION LOSS Check for rough linings in fire hose. Replace damaged hose couplings. Eliminate sharp bends in hose when possible. Use adapters to make hose connections only when necessary. Reduce amount of flow. TS 13–5 Keep nozzles and valves fully open when operating hoselines. Use proper size hose gaskets for hose selected. Use short hoselines as much as possible. Use larger hose or multiple lines when flow must be increased.
ELEVATION LOSS/GAIN Nozzle above Fire Pump = Pressure Loss Nozzle below Fire Pump = Pressure Gain TS 13–6
WATER HAMMER VS 13-6 Water hammer hits everything PumpPiping Hose Hydrant Coupling Main Open and close all nozzles and valves slowly.
WATER HAMMER Is surge created by suddenly stopping the flow of water through fire hose or pipe Is often heard as a distinct clank, much like a hammer striking pipe Causes a change in direction of energy and multiplies the energy many times TS 13–7 Can damage pumps, hoselines, water mains, couplings, nozzles, and hydrants Can be prevented by operating nozzle controls, hydrants, valves, and hose clamps slowly
FIRE STREAM PATTERNS Solid streams ◦Designed to produce a stream as compact as possible with little shower or spray ◦Produced from a fixed orifice ◦Longer reach than other types of streams ◦Reduced problem of steam burns to firefighters and trapped civilians as a result of disturbance to the normal thermal layering of heat and gases during interior structural attack ◦Operating pressures (2-3.9(a)) 50 psi on handlines 80 psi on master stream devices
FIRE STREAM PATTERNS Fog streams ◦A fog stream is a patterned stream composed of fine water droplets ◦Variable stream patterns can be produced Wide angle fog Narrow angle fog Straight stream ◦Greater heat absorption due to more surface area of water exposed ◦May be used in close proximity to energized electrical equipment
FIRE STREAM PATTERNS ◦Have less reach than solid streams ◦Less penetrating power than solid streams ◦Susceptible to wind currents ◦Improper use during interior attacks can Spread fire Create heat inversion Cause steam burns to firefighters and trapped civilians ◦Operate at designed pressure
FIRE STREAM PATTERNS Broken Stream ◦Solid stream broken into coarsely divided water droplets ◦Droplets are larger than fog stream droplets and have better penetration
THREE SIZES OF FIRE STREAMS Fire streams are identified by size and type ◦The size is the amount of water in gallons per minute that will flow at a specified pressure. ◦The type of fire stream is the pattern Booster lines ◦ Low-volume stream: Discharge is generally less than 40 GPM ◦ Handline stream: Generally range from 40-350 GPM ½” to 2” diameter handlines (small):40-100 GPM 2 ½” – 3” diameter handlines (medium large) 165-350 GPM ◦ Master stream: Discharge is greater than 350 GPM
DESIGN Solid stream nozzles ◦Shape of the stream in the nozzle is gradually reduced until it is a short distance from the outlet ◦Has a smooth finished waterway one to one and one-half times its diameter ◦Discharge orifice should be no greater than one-half the diameter of the hoseline supplying the nozzle.
DESIGN Fog stream nozzles ◦Set or constant gallonage nozzles One flow rate at a given discharge pressure ◦Adjustable gallonage nozzles Allows one of several preset gallon settings to be selected ◦Automatic nozzles Discharge a wide range of flows depending on the pressure being supplied to the nozzle
NOZZLE CONTROL VALVES ROTARY CONTROL VALVE VS 13-22 A screw guides an exterior barrel around an interior barrel. This valve also controls the stream discharge Pattern.
Set or constant gallonage nozzles Adjustable gallonage nozzles
DESIGN Broken stream nozzles ◦Limited to special applications ◦Designed for a specific use ◦Types are : Water curtain ◦ Designed to produce a fan-like pattern that is most effective if sprayed directly upon the exposure being protected Cellar or distributor nozzle ◦ Designed to be raised or lowered through holes in floors or ceilings Piercing nozzle ◦ Designed with a hardened steep tip that can be driven through a wall or partition ◦ Can be used on truck or engine compartment of a vehicle
NOZZLE PRESSURE Smooth bore handline: 50 PSI Fog handline, normal100 PSI Fog handline, mid-pressure 75 PSI Fog handline, low pressure 50 PSI Smooth bore master stream 80 PSI Fog master stream100 PSI
FOG NOZZLE Nozzle control valve ◦Permits regulation of the flow ◦Types: Ball valve Slide valve Rotary control
FOG NOZZLE Exterior barrel ◦Body of nozzle ◦Rotating changes stream pattern Deflecting stem ◦Position in relation to barrel determines shape of stream Gallonage adjustment ring (on variable gallonage nozzles) ◦Used to select gallons per minute desired
FOG NOZZLE Rubber bumper/guard ◦Located on barrel of nozzle Provides solid grip for adjusting stream pattern Protects nozzle if dropped ◦Play pipes Tapered pipe used to accelerate flow Usually found on 2 ½ inch nozzles ◦Stream straightness Used to prevent the twisting motion of a fire stream
FOG NOZZLE Accessories ◦Pistol grips (Throw them away!) ◦Large double handles (usually 2 ½ inch nozzles) Identify the water flow through various types of fog nozzles 2-13.10 (4-3.1)
WATER FLOW THROUGH FOG NOZZLES Periphery – deflected ◦Produced by deflecting water from the periphery of an inside, circular stem and then again by the exterior barrel ◦Position of exterior barrel determines shape of stream
WATER FLOW THROUGH FOG NOZZLES Impinging jet ◦Developed by driving several jets of water together at a fixed angle ◦Usually produces wide fog patterns