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Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator — Lesson 7 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook, 2 nd Edition Chapter 7 — Fire Hose Nozzles and Flow Rates.

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Presentation on theme: "Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator — Lesson 7 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook, 2 nd Edition Chapter 7 — Fire Hose Nozzles and Flow Rates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator — Lesson 7 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook, 2 nd Edition Chapter 7 — Fire Hose Nozzles and Flow Rates

2 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–17–1 Learning Objectives 1.Define fire stream. 2.List factors that influence a fire stream. 3.Explain why driver/operators must be knowledgeable about fire streams and nozzles. 4.Select facts about solid stream nozzles. (Continued)

3 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–27–2 Learning Objectives 5.State the equation for determining the flow from a solid stream nozzle. 6.Calculate nozzle flow from a solid stream nozzle. 7.Match fog stream terms to their definitions. 8.Select facts about fog stream nozzles. (Continued)

4 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–37–3 Learning Objectives 9.List the factors influencing the reach of a fog stream. 10.List the types of fog stream nozzles. 11.Identify characteristics of various types of fog stream nozzles. 12.Answer questions about handline nozzles. (Continued)

5 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–47–4 Learning Objectives 13.Select facts about master stream nozzles and the four basic categories. 14.Describe when to use master stream nozzles. 15.Identify characteristics of special purpose nozzles. 16.Select facts about nozzle reaction. (Continued)

6 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–57–5 Learning Objectives 17.Identify working limits for velocity of fire streams for various nozzles and handlines. 18.State the equation for determining nozzle reaction for solid stream nozzles. 19.State the equation for determining nozzle reaction for fog stream nozzles. 20.Calculate nozzle reaction.

7 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–67–6 Fire Stream A fire stream is a stream of water or other extinguishing agent after it leaves a nozzle until it reaches the desired point. (Continued)

8 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–77–7 Fire Stream Fire streams are influenced by: –Velocity –Gravity –Wind –Friction with the air –Operating pressures –Nozzle design –Nozzle adjustment –Condition of the nozzle orifice (Continued)

9 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–87–8 Fire Stream The type of fire stream applied to a fire depends on the nozzle being used. Each nozzle has its own optimum flow rate and discharge pressure, which affects the calculations performed by the driver/operator. Driver/Operators must understand the capabilities of each nozzle to provide the appropriate pressure and volume of water.

10 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–97–9 Solid Stream Nozzles Produce a stream as compact as possible with little shower or spray Reach areas that other streams might not (Continued)

11 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–10 Solid Stream Nozzles May be used on handlines, portable or apparatus-mounted master streams, or elevated master streams Are designed so that the shape of the water in the nozzle is gradually reduced until it reaches a point a short distance from the outlet; at this point, the nozzle becomes a cylindrical bore whose length is from one to one and one-half times its diameter (Continued)

12 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–11 Solid Stream Nozzles Have a smooth-finish waterway that contributes to both the shape and reach of the stream Note: Alteration or damage to the nozzle can significantly alter stream shape and performance. (Continued)

13 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–12 Solid Stream Nozzles Nozzle pressure and the size of the discharge opening determine the flow and stream reach. Should be operated at 50 psi (350 kPa) on handlines Should be operated at 80 psi (560 kPa) on master stream devices

14 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–13 Determining Flow from a Solid Stream Nozzle (Customary) GPM = 29.7 x d 2 x √NP GPM = Discharge in gallons per minute 29.7 = A constant d = Diameter of the orifice in inches NP = Nozzle pressure in psi

15 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–14 Determining Flow from a Solid Stream Nozzle (Metric) L/min = 0.067 x d 2 x √NP L/min = Discharge in liters per minute 0.067 = A constant d = Diameter of the orifice in millimeters NP = Nozzle pressure in kPa

16 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–15 Fog Stream Terms Periphery — The line bounding a rounded surface; the outward boundary of an object distinguished from its internal regions Deflection — A turning or state of being turned; a turning from a straight line or given course; a bending; a deviation Impinge — To stroke or dash about or against; clashing with a sharp collision; to come together with force

17 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–16 Fog Streams May be produced by deflection at the periphery or by impinging jets of water or by a combination When water is discharged at angles to the direct line of discharge, the reaction forces largely balance each other, reducing nozzle reaction. This balancing is why fog patterns are easier to handle than solid or stream patterns.

18 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–17 Periphery-Deflected Streams Produced by deflecting water from the periphery of an inside circular stem in a periphery-deflected fog nozzle; this water is again deflected by exterior barrel Shape is determined by the relative positions of the deflecting stem and the exterior barrel

19 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–18 Impinging Stream Nozzle Drives several jets of water together at a set angle to break the water into finely divided particles Usually produces a wide-angle fog pattern, but a narrow pattern is possible

20 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–19 Reach of a Fog Stream Is directly dependent on –Width of the stream –Size of water droplets –Wind –Amount of water flowing

21 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–20 Constant Flow Nozzles Are designed to flow a specific amount of water at a specific nozzle discharge pressure on all stream patterns Utilize a periphery-deflected stream Discharge the same volume of water regardless of the pattern setting (Continued)

22 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–21 Constant Flow Nozzles Are intended to be operated at a nozzle pressure of 100 psi (700 kPa) Some may operate at 50 to 75 psi (350 kPa to 535 kPa) for special applications such as high-rise fire fighting (Continued)

23 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–22 Constant Flow Nozzles

24 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–23 Manually Adjustable Nozzles Have a number of constant flow settings, enabling a flow rate that best suits the existing conditions Supply the selected flow at the rated nozzle discharge pressure; actual flow will differ if proper pressure cannot be supplied Are designed to supply the gallonage marked on each setting at a nozzle pressure of 100 psi (700 kPa) (Continued)

25 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–24 Manually Adjustable Nozzles CAUTION! Take care when adjusting flow settings. Nozzles that are set on a low flow may not provide the volume of water needed to sufficiently cool a burning fuel. The minimum flow setting for interior structural firefighting is 95 to 100 gpm (380 L/min to 400 L/min).

26 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–25 Automatic Nozzles Are the most common variable flow nozzles in use Are also referred to as constant pressure nozzles or multipurpose nozzles Are variable flow nozzles with pattern- change capabilities and the ability to maintain the same nozzle pressure (Continued)

27 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–26 Automatic Nozzles (Continued)

28 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–27 Automatic Nozzles Maintain approximately same nozzle pressure and pattern if gallonage supplied to nozzle changes Can have a stream that appears adequate, but may not be supplying sufficient water for extinguishment or protection; the goal of the driver/operator is to provide an acceptable flow of water at the discharge pressure for which the nozzle is designed (Continued)

29 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–28 Automatic Nozzles Most are designed for a 100 psi (700 kPa) discharge pressure Some may be designed for lower pressures such as 50 to 75 psi (350 kPa to 535 kPa) Serve as a pressure regulator for the pumper as lines are added or shut down, ensuring that available water may be used continuously (Continued)

30 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–29 Automatic Nozzles CAUTION! Make sure that adequate pump discharge pressures are used to supply hoselines equipped with automatic nozzles. Nozzles receiving inadequate pressures may not provide the volume of water needed to sufficiently cool a burning fuel even though the stream appears adequate. (Continued)

31 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–30 Automatic Nozzles Maintain a constant nozzle pressure of approximately 100 psi (700 kPa), no matter how much the pump discharge pressure is above this figure Enlarge opening size automatically as pump discharge pressure is increased

32 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–31 High-Pressure Fog Nozzles Operate at pressures up to 800 psi (5 600 kPa) Develop a fog stream with considerable forward velocity but deliver a relatively low volume of water Deliver water in a very fast-moving, fine spray (Continued)

33 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–32 High-Pressure Fog Nozzles May use an impinging stream Are best suited for fighting wildland fires Are not recommended for structural fire fighting because they generally only flow around 8 to 15 gpm (32 L/min to 60 L/min) (Continued)

34 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–33 High-Pressure Fog Nozzles

35 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–34 Handline Nozzles Are designed to be placed on attack lines that can be easily maneuvered by firefighters May be of the solid, fog, impinging, or broken stream type Range in size from small booster line nozzles for ¾-inch (19 mm) booster line to large fog or solid stream nozzles for 3-inch (77 mm) hoseline (Continued)

36 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–35 Handline Nozzles Can flow a maximum of 350 gpm (1 400 L/min) safely; flows greater than 350 gpm (1 400 L/min) produce nozzle reactions that make the hoselines difficult and dangerous for firefighters to handle

37 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–36 Master Stream Nozzles Include any fire stream that is too large to be controlled without mechanical aid Are powerful and generate a considerable amount of nozzle reaction force; it is extremely important that firefighters take proper safety precautions (Continued)

38 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–37 Master Stream Nozzles May be either solid or fog streams; both utilize a nozzle of sufficient size to deliver the higher flows Are usually operated at 80 psi (560 kPa) (smoothbore) and 100 psi (700 kPa) (fog) Flow 350 gpm (1 400 L/min) or greater (Continued)

39 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–38 Master Stream Nozzles Are used when –Handlines would be ineffective –Conditions are unsafe –Manpower is limited (Continued)

40 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–39 Master Stream Nozzles Are used from fixed positions, so most have some means for moving the stream in either a vertical or horizontal plane, or both –To permit such adjustments, the water must pass through one or more sharp bends –On some larger master stream devices, there are two bends to form a loop in the shape of a ram’s horns. –Some other master stream devices have a single bent-pipe waterway. (Continued)

41 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–40 Master Stream Nozzles Friction loss varies from device to device – each department must determine the friction loss in the devices it has available, either by flow test or manufacturer’s documentation Note: Refer to Appendix B for the procedure for determining friction loss in master stream devices.

42 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–41 Monitors Are often incorrectly referred to as deluge sets Differ in one important way: with a monitor, the stream direction and angle can be changed while water is being discharged (Continued)

43 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–42 Monitors Fixed (sometimes called a deck gun or turret) — Is permanently mounted on the apparatus Combination — Is mounted on the apparatus, but can be used there as a turret or removed and used as a portable monitor Portable — Can be carried to the location where it is needed (Continued)

44 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–43 Monitors

45 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–44 Turret Pipe Mounted on a fire apparatus deck and is connected directly to the pump by permanent piping Also sometimes called a deck gun or deck pipe Supplied by permanent piping from the pump (Continued)

46 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–45 Turret Pipe Photo courtesy Ed Hawthorne

47 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–46 Deluge Set Consists of a short length of large diameter hose with a large nozzle or large playpipe supported at the discharge end by a tripod Has a siamese connection at the supply end Cannot have direction and angle of the stream changed while discharging water (Continued)

48 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–47 Deluge Set

49 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–48 Elevated Master Streams Are large-capacity nozzles that are designed to be placed on the end of an aerial device May be permanently attached to elevating platforms and preplumbed aerial ladders or may be detachable

50 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–49 Ladder Pipes Are a master stream device used in conjunction with aerial ladders Are attached to the rungs of an aerial ladder and are supplied by fire hose (Continued)

51 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–50 Ladder Pipes Can be operated manually by a firefighter at the tip of the ladder or by using a rope from the ground, although some departments choose to control them only from the ground to avoid putting a firefighter in jeopardy on the ladder (Continued)

52 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–51 Ladder Pipes Movement is limited to vertical up-and-down motions. Horizontal movement would place dangerous stress on the aerial ladder. If the nozzle direction needs to be changed horizontally, the entire ladder must be redirected.

53 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–52 Elevated Master Streams Have preplumbed waterways instead of hose, which: –Generally have the ladder pipe attached to the end of the waterway, which is on the underside of the ladder –May be operated from the top either manually or by a power control switch located there (Continued)

54 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–53 Elevated Master Streams Preplumbed waterways (cont.): –Can be operated from turntable or pump panel area by remote power controls –May be operated by electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic system (Continued)

55 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–54 Elevated Master Streams May be used with elevating platforms –Are similar to those with preplumbed aerial ladders, but are located on the aerial platform and can be more easily maneuvered by firefighters at the tip of the aerial device –Some are equipped with two master streams on one platform

56 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–55 Special Purpose Nozzles Most are broken stream nozzles –Differ from fog stream nozzles in that fog streams use deflection or impinging streams to create a fog pattern, while broken streams are created when water is forced through a series of small holes on the discharge end of the nozzle –Broken streams produce larger droplets of water than do fog streams, giving better reach and penetrating power

57 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–56 Cellar Nozzles Are also called distributors Are often used on basement fires Can be lowered through holes cut in the floor or through some other suitable opening (Continued)

58 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–57 Cellar Nozzles May or may not be equipped with shutoffs; if not, an in-line shutoff valve should be placed at a convenient location back from the nozzle May also be used to attack attic fires – the nozzle is pushed through a hole in the ceiling to attack the fire above (Continued)

59 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–58 Cellar Nozzles

60 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–59 Water Curtain Nozzles Are decreasing in use Produce a fan-shaped stream intended to protect combustible materials from the heat of an adjacent fire May be used to protect firefighters from heat (Continued)

61 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–60 Water Curtain Nozzles Must cover a wide area and be reasonably heavy to be effective Are only effective in absorbing convected heat from a fire; radiant heat penetrates the water curtain (Continued)

62 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–61 Water Curtain Nozzles Note: A water curtain between the fire and combustible material is not as effective as the same amount of water flowing over the surface of the combustible material. It is better to direct fire streams onto exposed surfaces. This may be accomplished by allowing the water to rain down on the exposure being protected.

63 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–62 Piercing Nozzles Are also called penetrating nozzles Are commonly used in aircraft fire fighting and to apply water to areas that are inaccessible to water streams (Continued)

64 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–63 Piercing Nozzles May be used to deliver aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) to a confined area Are generally a 3- to 6-foot (1 m to 2 m) hollow steel rod 1½-inches (38 mm) in diameter (Continued)

65 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–64 Piercing Nozzles Have a discharge end that is a hardened steel point suitable for driving through concrete block or other types of wall or partition assemblies; built into that point is an impinging jet nozzle capable of delivering about 100 gpm (400 L/min) of water at standard operating pressure (Continued)

66 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–65 Piercing Nozzles Have a driving end opposite the pointed end; this end is driven with a sledgehammer to force the point through an obstruction

67 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–66 Chimney Nozzles Have been developed to attack chimney flue fires Are designed to be placed on the end of a booster hose Are a solid piece of brass or steel with numerous, very small impinging holes (Continued)

68 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–67 Chimney Nozzles Generally produce only 1.5 to 3 gpm (6 L/min to 12 L/min) at a nozzle pressure of 100 psi (700 kPa) Produce water in a very fine, misty fog cone

69 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–68 Chimney Nozzle Process Hose and nozzle are lowered down the entire length of chimney and then quickly pulled out. The mist from the nozzle immediately turns to steam and chokes the flue fire as well as loosens the soot on the inside of the chimney. The process may damage booster hose, so it is better to use an old section of hose on the end of the regular section of hose. (Continued)

70 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–69 Chimney Nozzle Process

71 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–70 Nozzle Reaction Is the force pushing back on firefighters as water is discharged from a nozzle at a given pressure Illustrates Newton’s Third Law of Motion – For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction (Continued)

72 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–71 Nozzle Reaction Forces firefighters to limit the amount of nozzle pressure that can be supplied to an attack line Can cause serious injury to firefighters due to nozzles violently whipping around from excess nozzle reaction

73 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–72 Practical Working Limits for Velocity of Fire Streams Are within 60 to 120 feet per second (18.3 m to 36.6 m per second) Are produced by nozzle pressures that range from 25 to 100 psi (175 kPa to 700 kPa) (Continued)

74 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–73 Practical Working Limits for Velocity of Fire Streams Fog nozzles –Are designed to operate at a nozzle pressure of 100 psi –Become difficult to handle above this pressure (Continued)

75 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–74 Practical Working Limits for Velocity of Fire Streams Solid stream handlines –Are usually designed to operate at 50 psi (350 kPa) –May be raised to 65 psi (455 kPa) without becoming unmanageable; above this point, become increasingly difficult to handle (Continued)

76 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–75 Practical Working Limits for Velocity of Fire Streams Portable master stream devices — Should not be operated above recommended nozzle pressure unless approved by manufacturer Fixed master stream devices with solid stream nozzles — May be operated at higher pressures (80 to 100 psi [560 kPa to 700 kPa]) as required (Continued)

77 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–76 Practical Working Limits for Velocity of Fire Streams Solid stream nozzles used on aerial devices — Should be limited to a nozzle pressure of 80 psi (560 kPa) Fog nozzles used on aerial devices — Should be limited to a nozzle pressure of 100 psi (700 kPa)

78 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–77 Determining Nozzle Reaction Is not done at the fire scene Can prove useful in other situations, such as determining hose and nozzle configurations for preconnected attack lines that will be placed on the apparatus

79 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–78 Determining Nozzle Reaction on Solid Stream Nozzles Customary NR = 1.57 x d 2 x NP NR = Nozzle reaction in pounds 1.57 = A constant d = Nozzle diameter in inches NP = Nozzle pressure in psi (Continued)

80 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–79 Determining Nozzle Reaction on Solid Stream Nozzles Metric NR = 0.0015 x d 2 x NP NR = Nozzle reaction in newtons 0.0015 = A constant d = Nozzle diameter in mm NP = Nozzle pressure in kPa

81 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–80 Determining Nozzle Reaction on Fog Stream Nozzles Customary NR = 0.0505 x Q x √NP NR = Nozzle reaction in pounds 0.0505 = A constant Q = Total flow through the nozzle in gpm NP = Nozzle pressure in psi (Continued)

82 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–81 Determining Nozzle Reaction on Fog Stream Nozzles Metric NR = 0.0156 x Q x √NP NR = Nozzle reaction in newtons 0.0156 = A constant Q = Total flow through the nozzle in L/min NP = Nozzle pressure in kPa

83 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–82 Summary Pumping apparatus driver/operators must be familiar with the different types of nozzles carried on their apparatus. Each type of nozzle has its own optimum flow rate and discharge pressure. (Continued)

84 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–83 Summary The particular type of nozzle being used affects the hydraulic calculations that driver/operators must perform. Even though driver/operators are usually not responsible for selecting an appropriate nozzle to perform a particular evolution, they must understand the capabilities of each nozzle in order to properly support it.

85 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–84 Discussion Questions 1.What is a fire stream? 2.What factors influence a fire stream? 3.What is the equation for determining the flow from a solid stream nozzle? 4.Name the types of fog stream nozzles. (Continued)

86 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator 7–85 Discussion Questions 5.When are master stream nozzles used? 6.What are the types of master stream nozzles? 7.What is nozzle reaction? 8.What is the equation for determining nozzle reaction?

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