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Fire Apparatus Pump Theory Section 180. Introduction Types of pressure encountered in the fire service Identify the types of fire pumps & components of.

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Presentation on theme: "Fire Apparatus Pump Theory Section 180. Introduction Types of pressure encountered in the fire service Identify the types of fire pumps & components of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fire Apparatus Pump Theory Section 180

2 Introduction Types of pressure encountered in the fire service Identify the types of fire pumps & components of pumps Identify the function, theory, principles of operation of fire pumps

3 Types of pressures encountered in the fire service Static pressure Residual pressure Flow pressure Normal operating pressure Negative pressure

4 Static pressure Static pressure Static pressure is stored potential energy that is available to force water through a pipe, fittings, fire hose & adapters The pressure exerted in all directions at a point in a fluid at rest a

5 Residual pressure The pressure remaining in a system while water is flowing The total available pressure not used to overcome friction or gravity while forcing water through pipes, fittings, fire hose & adapter c

6 Flow pressure The forward velocity pressure at a discharge opening when water is flowing d The rate of flow {velocity} of the water coming from the discharge opening produces this force called velocity or flow pressure

7 Water pressure

8 Normal operating pressure The pressure found in the water distribution system during normal consumption demands Occurs when some water is flowing in the system b

9 Grid system

10 Negative pressure Also called vacuum. Pressure that is less than atmospheric pressure Negative pressure in the fire service is the result of drafting operations, which results from removing all the air from the pump & using atmospheric pressure to lift water from a source lower than the pump e

11 Terms related to the basic principles of fire service hydraulics Atmospheric pressure – the atmosphere that surrounds the earth has depth & density & exerts pressure upon everything on earth Capacity – The maximum amount of water a pump will deliver at the indicated pressure

12 Displacement – Movement of a given amount of a fluid w/ each stoke of a pump Flow {GPM} – Gallons per minute, the measurement of the amount of water moved through a fire pump Friction loss – Loss of pressure created by the turbulence of water moving against the interior walls of the hose or pipe.

13 Friction loss ex 1

14 Friction loss ex 2

15 Head Pressure (gain of loss) – Water pressure due to elevation. For every 1 increase in elevation, psi is gained. 1 M in height 10 kPa is gained Hydrant pressure – The force of water when it enters the pump from the distribution system Net engine pressure – The actual amount of pressure being produced by the pump

16 Nozzle reaction – The counterforce directed against the people or device holding a nozzle by the velocity of water being discharged Pound per square inch PSI - Pump discharge pressure – The actual velocity pressure (measured in PSI) if the water as it leaves the pump & enters the hose line.

17 Vacuum – A pressure that is less than normal atmospheric pressure Velocity – The rate of motion of a particle in a given direction, speed Water hammer – When the flow of water is suddenly stopped, the resulting surge is referred to as a water hammer

18 Water hammer

19 Break Thank Goodness

20 The firefighter shall identify & describe the following guages: The firefighter shall identify & describe the following guages: Compound gauge – A gauge connected to the intake side of the pump that is capable of measuring positive & negative intake pressures Discharge/pressure gauge – A gauge on the discharge side of the pump that registers the pump discharge pressure

21

22 SuctionPressure

23 Pressure loss

24 Flow chart

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