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Save fuel Save the Earth

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1 Save fuel Save the Earth
FIR Fuel Activator ® An Invisible Story IR-Excitation for Improved HC Fuel Combustion Efficiency of Engines (a review) Dr. Albert C. Wey Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (U.S.A.) Save fuel Save the Earth

2 Introduction How infrared works to improve fuel combustion
Underlying science testified by academic Fuel saving effect verified by accredited testing facilities The IR application in SCR of NOx Summary

3 IR-Fuel Technology Review
In Organic Chemistry HC molecules are IR-active and absorb 3 – 20 μm IR photons causing vibrations. In Photoselective Chemistry Lab dynamics studies have demonstrated increasing reactant vibrational energy is most effective at promoting reaction. Known IR-Technology IR-Emitters have been widely used for agricultural applications in Japan.

4 EM-Wave Caused Excitations
Frequency (Hz) M I C R O W A V E Wavelength (nm) V I S B L E Γ- RAY X–RAY RADIO WAVE UV INFRARED Molecular Rotation Electron Self Spin Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Inner Electron Transition Outer Electron Transition Molecular Vibration Affect Molecular Structure Change in Electron Distribution Change in Direction Change in Self-spin

5 IR Classification Infrared: 0.83 – 1,000 μm NASA Classification
Visible lights: 0.3 – 0.7 μm Infrared: 0.83 – 1,000 μm Near IR: – 2.0 μm Mid IR: 2 – 4 μm Far IR: 4 – 1,000 μm (Ref.: “Quanta”, P.W. Atkins, Oxford University Press, New York, 1991) NASA Classification Near IR: – 3.0 μm Mid IR: 3 – 25 μm Far IR: 25 – 1,000 μm Desired wavelength band: 3 – 20 μm

6 A Quantum Mechanic view
absorbing IR photon causes molecular vibration. Using methane as an example, it absorbs IR at 7.66 μm to jump to v4 orbit, causing bending vibration, and absorbs 3.32 μm IR to jump to v3 orbit, causing stretching vibration. Asymmetric stretching v3 = 3012 cm-1 (3.32 μm) Bending v4 = 1305 cm-1 (7.66 μm) Molecular energy levels Energy level diagram

7 Molecular Vibrations ω = (1/2 πc) [ k /m ] ½
IR radiation can cause excitation of quantized molecular vibration states. Vibration frequency can be determined by Hooke’s Law: ω = (1/2 πc) [ k /m ] ½ ω = vibration frequencies c = speed of light (3 x 1010 cm/s) k = force constant m = mass Single Harmonic Oscillation

8 Vibrations of Benzene C6H6
Single Harmonic Oscillator (There are 30 possible modes)  = 6.27 m  = 10.1 m  = 16.5 m

9 Benzene: 30 Vibrational Modes
The pathways for collision-induced intermolecular vibrational energy transfer from the 61 level of 1B2u benzene

10 For your information molecules vibrate in 6 ways: Scissoring Rocking
Symmetrical Stretching Anti-symmetrical Stretching Scissoring Rocking Wagging Twisting

11 IR-Absorption Profile
The following spectral info is called “Infrared Finger Prints” First, look at “Functional Group Region”. It contains C-H bonds and O-H bond; it must be one of “alcohols” Now, look at “Signature Region”. The -CH3 bond and -CH2 bond suggest it contains “ethane” So, it must be Signature Zone Functional Groups alcohol + ethane = O–H stretching ethanol C–H stretching –CH3 bending C–H bending C2H5OH –CH2 bending H–Csp3 stretching C–C stretching 3 Wavelength, μm 6 10 20

12 The consequence of Vibrations
in Quantum Mechanics W = k e – E / RT Reaction Rate: K: constant T: Temperature Activation Barrier With IR-excitation, Ei Er HC molecule absorbs photons to increase vibrational states; IR-Excited HC molecule It reduces the activation energy Er required for overcoming Activation Barrier Regular HC Molecule so that the reaction rate W is increased. Therefore, IR-excitation can increase chemical reaction rate Reaction Profile

13 Dual-band IR-Emitter approach
Conventional Japanese 8 – 20 μm IR Emitter contains 2 MgO . 2 Al2O3 . 5 SiO2 We use a “dual-band” approach to cover the entire 3 – 20 μm range. but, we add zirconia to make a new 8 – 20 μm far-IR Emitter We also add CoO to make a 3 – 14 μm mid-IR Emitter 8 – 20 μm far-IR Emitter 3 – 14 μm mid-IR Emitter

14 Key elements of IR-emitters
The oxides of transition metals have such a unique property: Its constituent electrons can be thermally agitated to a neighboring higher energy level; When the excited electron returns to its initial level, it emits an IR photon in μm wavelength, depending on the elements used. As such, the IR-emitter absorbs radiation heat and converts the heat into IR photons. No additional energy source is required and it lasts forever. Transition Metals

15 The Innovative Concept
In engine applications, IR-Emitter serves as an energy conversion system. It starts with placing IR-Emitters on a supply fuel line. Step 1: IR-Emitter absorbs engine heat. IR-Emitter Heat Energy Recycling IR-excited fuel combusts Efficiently In cylinders Step 2: IR-Emitter emits 3 – 20 μm IR. Step 3: IR excites HC molecules in fuel.

16 The basic Science has been verified by
Purdue University

17 Proving the Science Methane-Air Counter-Flow Flame Experiment Air
Zucrow Lab, Purdue University Air Laminar Flame Flow = 10 cm/s Methane Flame Methane

18 Summary of Observations
Experimental results IR-Excitation makes fuel combust faster and more completely CH4 Baseline CH4 IR-Excited that results in 8% Less Fuel Consumption 25% Less CO emissions 15% Less NO emissions CO2 IR-Excited CO IR-Excited NO Baseline Thanks to Purdue’s experimental verification science is served! NO IR-Excited Fuel Duct …....… X, mm …….... Air Duct

19 More Complete Combustion
University of Michigan-Dearborn using CO as an indicator of combustion completeness on Chrysler 2.5 L, 4-cyl. gas engine at 1,800 RPM and 20 ft-lb load CO counts (ppm) real time scan plot Baseline Prof. Keshav Varde IR-excited Nicolet FT-IR Exhaust Emissions Analyzer Result: FIR reduced CO 30 % (i.e. burn more completely)

20 More Engine and Beta-Site Tests

21 Results: FIR reduced 6.2 % specific fuel consumption
GM Quad-4 Gas Engine Tested at Engine Lab, Purdue University on a GM Quad-4, 4 cyl L gasoline engine Measured Specific Fuel Consumption (unit: lb/hp-hr) RPM 1800 2200 3000 Baseline w/ FIR Change % % % Baseline IR-Excited Results: FIR reduced 6.2 % specific fuel consumption

22 NO & CO Emissions PowerTek tested at Engine Lab, Purdue University
on a single-cylinder enigne with propane fuel PowerTek Single Cylinder Dynomometer CO Measurement (ppm) 13 in3 7.5 HP Speed, RPM 1500 2000 2500 Baseline with FIR Change % % % average reduced 14.5% NO Measurement (ppm) Speed, RPM 1500 2000 2500 Baseline with FIR Change % % % average reduced 10.2% Result: FIR simultaneously reduced CO and NO emissions

23 Result: FIR increased fuel economy and reduced all emissions
U.S. EPA Standard Test tested at AutoResearch Lab (Harvey, IL), an EPA-recognized Lab on a V8, 4.6L Mercury Grand Marquis at 16,300 odometer mileage FTP– Federal Test Procedure (City Driving) Test Item HC CO NOx CO2 MPG Baseline With FIR Change % % % % % HFET– Highway Fuel Economy Test Test Item HC CO NOx CO2 MPG Baseline With FIR Save Fuel Reduce CO2 Change % % % % % Result: FIR increased fuel economy and reduced all emissions

24 Heat Release in Cylinders
IR-excitation improves engine performance on the basis of that it changes heat allocation in engine cylinders. Heat Release KJ / c.a. deg. With IR-excited diesel, more heat is released within 15o TDC to do mechanical work IR-excited diesel and less heat released in later cycle as heat loss for heating exhaust gas (EG) regular diesel Crank Angle, deg. Result: increased power and reduced specific fuel consumption

25 Torque/Power Dyno Test
at Carburatori Bergamo, ITALY on 7/20/2007 2004 Alfa Romeo 147 JTD 1900cc Multi-jet turbo-diesel 4 cyl., 110 rpm Odometer: 110,000 km Measured Power at 6th Gear (ratio 0.614:1) with FIR Baseline Result: FIR increased torque & power significantly

26 Diesel Emissions: NOx & Smoke
tested at Shanghai Vehicle Performance Testing Center Iveco Motor Co. (Nanjing, China) 4.2 Ton Light-Duty Pickup 4 cyl. 2.8 L Diesel Engine (max. 78 KW) with a 60 Nm load (a) NOx Emissions, ppm Speed, km/h 30 40 50 60 Avg. Baseline With FIR Change % % % % - 6.6% (b) Smoke Emissions, % Opacity Speed, km/h 30 40 50 60 Avg. Baseline With FIR Change % % % % - 23.7% Result: FIR simultaneously reduced smoke and NOx.

27 Result: FIR improved fuel economy 12 %
School Bus Road Tests Greenwood Community Schools (Indiana) 2004 International School Bus CE VT365 diesel engine V8, 6.0 L with EVRT The re-fueling records indicated FIR installed on 10/14/05 FIR removed on 5/8/06 6.23 5.67 mpg 5.40 Baseline Result: FIR improved fuel economy 12 %

28 Diesel Trucks Fleet Test
Heritage Transport, LLC. (Indianapolis, Indiana) Cummins ISX L, 475 HP HD diesel engine 4 sets FIR installed 2005 Kenworth T600A Tractor Truck #2066 serves as Controller, no FIR installed Test Tractor #: 2066* 2086 2246 2320 2325 2398 Average or Total 5/12/07 Baseline MPG 6/13 – 11/9 w/FIR MPG Drive Distance, miles Fuel Used, gallons MPG Change % % % % % % % 7.8 % Fuel Saved, gallons no FIR 2363 Result: FIR saved 7.8% fuel, or 105 gallons per tractor per month

29 Municipal Buses in Albania
Municipal Bus Service of the City of Valona (2/5/2008) 4 IR-Emitters installed FIAT Bus with an Iveco 12 L diesel engine Fuel consumption dropped from 48.0 L/100km to 45.2 L/100km Result: FIR helped save 6.2 % fuel

30 Power Generator on Train
15 far-IR Emittes installed on Caterpillar 3512 DI-TA 12 cyl, 51.8 L Diesel Engine 1,450 KW Power Generator Sistemi Territoriali S.p.A., Italy Result: FIR helped save 6 % fuel, or 5,000 Euros per month

31 Cargo Ship in Shanghai, China
Transporting between Shanghai and Tianjin (1/5/2008) 15 sets IR-Emitters installed Cargo Ship with an Dong-Fong 10 L diesel engine The generator consumes fuel at a rate of ¼ ton a day Result: FIR helped save about 5 % fuel

32 Many users have it !

33 Emission Regulation For Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

34 Urea-SCR NOx System System Diagram Installation on Truck

35 Urea-SCR Strategy 6 NO + 4 NH3 → 5 N2 + 6 H2O
To set free NH3 from urea by: CO(NH2)2 → HNCO + NH3 ……. (thermolysis) HNCO → NH3 + CO2 ………………. (hydrolysis) The NH3 radical then reacts with NO and NO2 6 NO + 4 NH3 → 5 N2 + 6 H2O 6 NO2 + 8 NH3 → 7 N H2O IR Excitation Examples: –HNCO– vibrates at 3.23 – 3.26, 6.45 – 6.62 μm –NH2 at (symmetric), (asymmetric), μm (bending) biuret (NH2CONHCONH2) vibrates at 4.72 – 4.93, 6.80 – 6.92 μm

36 NOx (HC-SCR) System 2 C3H6 + 18 NO → 9 N2 + 6 H2O + 6 CO 2
For example, the propylene C3H6 reacts with NO 2 C3H NO → 9 N2 + 6 H2O + 6 CO 2

37 Conclusion: a proven technology
Using IR photons shorter than 20 μm to excite hydrocarbons for improved combustion efficiency is scientifically predictable. We have developed IR-Emitters that absorb radiation heat and emit 3 – 20 μm wavelength IR photons. The underlying science of IR-excitation effect on fuel is verified by methane-air counter-flow flame experiments IR-Excited fuels burn faster, resulting in reduced fuel consumption rate and less CO & NO emissions. Engine/vehicle test results have demonstrated the IR-Effect on increasing engine efficiency, with Increased torque/power Improved fuel economy (up to 20% ) Reduced emissions (up to 46% )

38 IR Technology Features
Ever imagine such a simple device can do so much for you and our environment?! Save fuel (8 – 10%) and reduce same % Greenhouse Gas CO2 Reduce all tailpipe emissions (up to 40%) Increase power/torque (smoother engine) Easy installation in minutes Inexpensive one time investment and maintenance free Lower vehicle maintenance costs, due to less carbon deposits on engine parts and oil Too good to be true?

39 Test it for yourself Your own test counts

40 Test Results smoke test printouts
The smoke drops from 1.1 down to 0.5 after installing FIR Fuel Activator.

41 Thank You Dario Franzoni Balos Technology (Italy)
An Invisible Story Together we can ease Global Warming Please give infrared a chance to prove itself Contact Information: Dr. Albert Wey (the Inventor) Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA) Dario Franzoni Balos Technology (Italy) Phone : (+39)

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