Presentation on theme: "Save fuel Save the Earth"— Presentation transcript:
1 Save fuel Save the Earth FIR Fuel Activator ®An Invisible StoryIR-Excitation for Improved HC Fuel Combustion Efficiency of Engines (a review)Dr. Albert C. WeyAldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (U.S.A.)Save fuel Save the Earth
2 Introduction How infrared works to improve fuel combustion Underlying science testified by academicFuel saving effect verified by accredited testing facilitiesThe IR application in SCR of NOxSummary
3 IR-Fuel Technology Review In Organic ChemistryHC molecules are IR-active and absorb 3 – 20 μm IR photons causing vibrations.In Photoselective ChemistryLab dynamics studies have demonstrated increasing reactant vibrational energy is most effective at promoting reaction.Known IR-TechnologyIR-Emitters have been widely used for agricultural applications in Japan.
6 A Quantum Mechanic view absorbing IR photon causes molecular vibration.Using methane as an example,it absorbs IR at 7.66 μm to jump to v4 orbit, causing bending vibration,and absorbs 3.32 μm IR to jump tov3 orbit, causing stretching vibration.Asymmetric stretchingv3 = 3012 cm-1(3.32 μm)Bendingv4 = 1305 cm-1(7.66 μm)Molecular energy levelsEnergy level diagram
7 Molecular Vibrations ω = (1/2 πc) [ k /m ] ½ IR radiation can cause excitation of quantized molecular vibration states.Vibration frequency can be determined by Hooke’s Law:ω = (1/2 πc) [ k /m ] ½ω = vibration frequenciesc = speed of light (3 x 1010 cm/s)k = force constantm = massSingle Harmonic Oscillation
8 Vibrations of Benzene C6H6 Single Harmonic Oscillator(There are 30 possible modes) = 6.27 m = 10.1 m = 16.5 m
9 Benzene: 30 Vibrational Modes The pathways for collision-induced intermolecular vibrational energy transfer from the 61 level of 1B2u benzene
10 For your information molecules vibrate in 6 ways: Scissoring Rocking SymmetricalStretchingAnti-symmetricalStretchingScissoringRockingWaggingTwisting
11 IR-Absorption Profile The following spectral info is called “Infrared Finger Prints”First, look at “Functional Group Region”.It contains C-H bonds and O-H bond; it must be one of “alcohols”Now, look at “Signature Region”.The -CH3 bond and -CH2 bond suggest it contains “ethane”So, it must beSignature ZoneFunctional Groupsalcohol+ ethane =O–HstretchingethanolC–Hstretching–CH3bendingC–HbendingC2H5OH–CH2bendingH–Csp3stretchingC–Cstretching3Wavelength, μm61020
12 The consequence of Vibrations in Quantum MechanicsW = k e – E / RTReaction Rate:K: constantT: TemperatureActivation BarrierWith IR-excitation,EiErHC molecule absorbs photons to increase vibrational states;IR-ExcitedHC moleculeIt reduces the activation energy Er required for overcoming Activation BarrierRegularHC Moleculeso that the reaction rate W is increased. Therefore,IR-excitation can increase chemical reaction rateReaction Profile
13 Dual-band IR-Emitter approach Conventional Japanese 8 – 20 μm IR Emitter contains 2 MgO . 2 Al2O3 . 5 SiO2We use a “dual-band”approach to cover the entire 3 – 20 μm range.but, we add zirconia to make a new 8 – 20 μm far-IR EmitterWe also add CoO to make a3 – 14 μm mid-IR Emitter8 – 20 μmfar-IR Emitter3 – 14 μmmid-IR Emitter
14 Key elements of IR-emitters The oxides of transition metals have such a unique property:Its constituent electrons can be thermally agitated to a neighboring higher energy level;When the excited electron returns to its initial level, it emits an IR photon in μm wavelength, depending on the elements used.As such, the IR-emitter absorbs radiation heat and converts the heat into IR photons.No additional energy source is required and it lasts forever.Transition Metals
15 The Innovative Concept In engine applications,IR-Emitter serves as an energy conversion system.It starts with placing IR-Emitters on a supply fuel line.Step 1:IR-Emitter absorbs engine heat.IR-EmitterHeat EnergyRecyclingIR-excited fuel combusts EfficientlyIn cylindersStep 2:IR-Emitter emits 3 – 20 μm IR.Step 3:IR excites HCmolecules in fuel.
16 The basic Science has been verified by Purdue University
17 Proving the Science Methane-Air Counter-Flow Flame Experiment Air Zucrow Lab, Purdue UniversityAirLaminarFlameFlow = 10 cm/sMethaneFlameMethane
18 Summary of Observations Experimental resultsIR-Excitation makes fuel combust faster andmore completelyCH4BaselineCH4IR-Excitedthat results in8% Less Fuel Consumption25% Less CO emissions15% Less NO emissionsCO2IR-ExcitedCOIR-ExcitedNOBaselineThanks to Purdue’s experimental verificationscience is served!NOIR-ExcitedFuel Duct …....… X, mm …….... Air Duct
19 More Complete Combustion University of Michigan-Dearbornusing CO as an indicator of combustion completenesson Chrysler 2.5 L, 4-cyl. gas engineat 1,800 RPM and 20 ft-lb loadCO counts (ppm) real time scan plotBaselineProf. Keshav VardeIR-excitedNicolet FT-IR ExhaustEmissions AnalyzerResult: FIR reduced CO 30 % (i.e. burn more completely)
21 Results: FIR reduced 6.2 % specific fuel consumption GM Quad-4 Gas EngineTested at Engine Lab, Purdue Universityon a GM Quad-4, 4 cyl L gasoline engineMeasured Specific Fuel Consumption (unit: lb/hp-hr)RPM180022003000Baselinew/ FIRChange % % %BaselineIR-ExcitedResults: FIR reduced 6.2 % specific fuel consumption
22 NO & CO Emissions PowerTek tested at Engine Lab, Purdue University on a single-cylinder enigne with propane fuelPowerTekSingle Cylinder DynomometerCO Measurement (ppm)13 in37.5 HPSpeed, RPM150020002500Baselinewith FIRChange % % %average reduced 14.5%NO Measurement (ppm)Speed, RPM150020002500Baselinewith FIRChange % % %average reduced 10.2%Result: FIR simultaneously reduced CO and NO emissions
23 Result: FIR increased fuel economy and reduced all emissions U.S. EPA Standard Testtested at AutoResearch Lab (Harvey, IL), an EPA-recognized Labon a V8, 4.6L Mercury Grand Marquisat 16,300 odometer mileageFTP– Federal Test Procedure (City Driving)Test ItemHCCONOxCO2MPGBaselineWith FIRChange % % % % %HFET– Highway Fuel Economy TestTest ItemHCCONOxCO2MPGBaselineWith FIRSave FuelReduce CO2Change % % % % %Result: FIR increased fuel economy and reduced all emissions
24 Heat Release in Cylinders IR-excitation improves engine performance on the basis of that it changes heat allocation in engine cylinders.Heat ReleaseKJ / c.a. deg.With IR-excited diesel,more heat is released within 15o TDC to do mechanical workIR-excited dieseland less heat released in later cycle as heat loss for heating exhaust gas (EG)regular dieselCrank Angle, deg.Result: increased power and reduced specific fuel consumption
25 Torque/Power Dyno Test at Carburatori Bergamo, ITALY on 7/20/20072004 Alfa Romeo 147 JTD1900cc Multi-jet turbo-diesel4 cyl., 110 rpmOdometer: 110,000 kmMeasured Power at 6th Gear(ratio 0.614:1)with FIRBaselineResult: FIR increased torque & power significantly
26 Diesel Emissions: NOx & Smoke tested at Shanghai Vehicle Performance Testing CenterIveco Motor Co. (Nanjing, China)4.2 Ton Light-Duty Pickup4 cyl. 2.8 L Diesel Engine (max. 78 KW)with a 60 Nm load(a) NOx Emissions, ppmSpeed, km/h30405060Avg.BaselineWith FIRChange % % % %- 6.6%(b) Smoke Emissions, % OpacitySpeed, km/h30405060Avg.BaselineWith FIRChange % % % %- 23.7%Result: FIR simultaneously reduced smoke and NOx.
27 Result: FIR improved fuel economy 12 % School Bus Road TestsGreenwood Community Schools (Indiana)2004 International School Bus CEVT365 diesel engineV8, 6.0 L with EVRTThe re-fueling records indicatedFIR installedon 10/14/05FIR removedon 5/8/066.235.67 mpg5.40BaselineResult: FIR improved fuel economy 12 %
28 Diesel Trucks Fleet Test Heritage Transport, LLC. (Indianapolis, Indiana)Cummins ISX L, 475 HPHD diesel engine4 sets FIRinstalled2005 Kenworth T600A TractorTruck #2066 serves as Controller, no FIR installedTest Tractor #:2066*20862246232023252398Averageor Total5/12/07 Baseline MPG6/13 – 11/9 w/FIR MPGDrive Distance, milesFuel Used, gallonsMPG Change % % % % % % %7.8 %Fuel Saved, gallons no FIR2363Result: FIR saved 7.8% fuel, or 105 gallons per tractor per month
29 Municipal Buses in Albania Municipal Bus Service of the City of Valona (2/5/2008)4 IR-Emitters installedFIAT Bus with anIveco 12 L diesel engineFuel consumption dropped from 48.0 L/100km to 45.2 L/100kmResult: FIR helped save 6.2 % fuel
30 Power Generator on Train 15 far-IR Emittes installed onCaterpillar 3512 DI-TA12 cyl, 51.8 L Diesel Engine1,450 KW Power GeneratorSistemi Territoriali S.p.A., ItalyResult: FIR helped save 6 % fuel, or 5,000 Euros per month
31 Cargo Ship in Shanghai, China Transporting between Shanghai and Tianjin (1/5/2008)15 sets IR-Emitters installedCargo Ship with anDong-Fong10 L diesel engineThe generator consumes fuel at a rate of ¼ ton a dayResult: FIR helped save about 5 % fuel
34 Urea-SCR NOx SystemSystem DiagramInstallation on Truck
35 Urea-SCR Strategy 6 NO + 4 NH3 → 5 N2 + 6 H2O To set free NH3 from urea by:CO(NH2)2 → HNCO + NH3 ……. (thermolysis)HNCO → NH3 + CO2 ………………. (hydrolysis)The NH3 radical then reacts with NO and NO26 NO + 4 NH3 → 5 N2 + 6 H2O6 NO2 + 8 NH3 → 7 N H2OIR Excitation Examples:–HNCO– vibrates at 3.23 – 3.26, 6.45 – 6.62 μm–NH2 at (symmetric), (asymmetric), μm (bending)biuret (NH2CONHCONH2) vibrates at 4.72 – 4.93, 6.80 – 6.92 μm
36 NOx (HC-SCR) System 2 C3H6 + 18 NO → 9 N2 + 6 H2O + 6 CO 2 For example, the propylene C3H6 reacts with NO2 C3H NO → 9 N2 + 6 H2O + 6 CO 2
37 Conclusion: a proven technology Using IR photons shorter than 20 μm to excite hydrocarbons for improved combustion efficiency is scientifically predictable.We have developed IR-Emitters that absorb radiation heat and emit 3 – 20 μm wavelength IR photons.The underlying science of IR-excitation effect on fuel is verified by methane-air counter-flow flame experimentsIR-Excited fuels burn faster, resulting in reduced fuel consumption rate and less CO & NO emissions.Engine/vehicle test results have demonstrated the IR-Effect on increasing engine efficiency, withIncreased torque/powerImproved fuel economy (up to 20% )Reduced emissions (up to 46% )
38 IR Technology Features Ever imagine such a simple device can do so much for you and our environment?!Save fuel (8 – 10%) and reduce same % Greenhouse Gas CO2Reduce all tailpipe emissions (up to 40%)Increase power/torque (smoother engine)Easy installation in minutesInexpensive one time investment and maintenance freeLower vehicle maintenance costs, due to less carbon deposits on engine parts and oilToo good to be true?
40 Test Results smoke test printouts The smoke drops from 1.1 down to 0.5 after installing FIR Fuel Activator.
41 Thank You Dario Franzoni Balos Technology (Italy) An Invisible StoryTogether we can ease Global WarmingPlease give infrared a chance to prove itselfContact Information:Dr. Albert Wey (the Inventor)Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA)Dario Franzoni Balos Technology (Italy)Phone : (+39)