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FIR Fuel Activator FIR Fuel Activator ® Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (U.S.A.) Save fuel Save the Earth Dr. Albert C. Wey IR-Excitation for Improved HC Fuel.

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Presentation on theme: "FIR Fuel Activator FIR Fuel Activator ® Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (U.S.A.) Save fuel Save the Earth Dr. Albert C. Wey IR-Excitation for Improved HC Fuel."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIR Fuel Activator FIR Fuel Activator ® Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (U.S.A.) Save fuel Save the Earth Dr. Albert C. Wey IR-Excitation for Improved HC Fuel Combustion Efficiency of Engines (a review) An Invisible Story

2 Introduction How infrared works to improve fuel combustion Underlying science testified by academic Fuel saving effect verified by accredited testing facilities The IR application in SCR of NOx Summary

3 IR-Fuel Technology Review In Organic Chemistry HC molecules are IR-active and absorb 3 – 20 μ m IR photons causing vibrations. In Photoselective Chemistry Lab dynamics studies have demonstrated increasing reactant vibrational energy is most effective at promoting reaction. Known IR-Technology IR-Emitters have been widely used for agricultural applications in Japan.

4 EM-Wave Caused Excitations Change in Electron Distribution Affect Molecular Structure Change in Direction Change in Self-spin Inner Electron Transition Outer Electron Transition Molecular Vibration Molecular Rotation Electron Self Spin Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Wavelength (nm) Frequency (Hz) MICROWAVEMICROWAVE RADIO WAVE INFRARED VISIBLEVISIBLE UV X– RAY Γ- RAY

5 IR Classification Visible lights: 0.3 – 0.7 μ m Infrared: 0.83 – 1,000 μm –Near IR: 0.83 – 2.0 μm –Mid IR: 2 – 4 μm –Far IR: 4 – 1,000 μm (Ref.: “Quanta”, P.W. Atkins, Oxford University Press, New York, 1991) NASA Classification –Near IR: 0.83 – 3.0 μm –Mid IR: 3 – 25 μm –Far IR: 25 – 1,000 μm Desired wavelength band: 3 – 20 μm

6 A Quantum Mechanic view it absorbs IR at 7.66 μm to jump to v 4 orbit, causing bending vibration, Molecular energy levels absorbing IR photon causes molecular vibration. Using methane as an example, Bending v 4 = 1305 cm -1 (7.66 μm) Asymmetric stretching v 3 = 3012 cm -1 (3.32 μm) and absorbs 3.32 μm IR to jump to v 3 orbit, causing stretching vibration. Energy level diagram

7 Molecular Vibrations IR radiation can cause excitation of quantized molecular vibration states. Vibration frequency can be determined by Hooke ’ s Law: ω = (1/2 πc) [ k /m ] ½ ω = vibration frequencies c = speed of light (3 x cm/s) k = force constant m = mass Single Harmonic Oscillation

8 Vibrations of Benzene C 6 H 6 Single Harmonic Oscillator (There are 30 possible modes) = 10.1  m = 6.27  m = 16.5  m

9 Benzene: 30 Vibrational Modes The pathways for collision-induced intermolecular vibrational energy transfer from the 6 1 level of 1 B 2u benzene

10 For your information Symmetrical Stretching Anti-symmetrical Stretching Scissoring WaggingRockingTwisting molecules vibrate in 6 ways:

11 H–C sp3 stretching C–H stretching O–H stretching C 2 H 5 OH C–C stretching Wavelength, μm C–H bending –CH 2 bending –CH 3 bending The following spectral info is called “Infrared Finger Prints” Functional Groups Signature Zone 6 IR-Absorption Profile First, look at “Functional Group Region”. It contains C-H bonds and O-H bond; it must be one of “alcohols” alcohol + ethane = ethanol Now, look at “Signature Region”. The -CH 3 bond and -CH 2 bond suggest it contains “ethane” So, it must be

12 The consequence of Vibrations Activation Barrier IR-Excited HC molecule Regular HC Molecule EiEi Reaction Rate: W = k e – E / RT in Quantum Mechanics ErEr With IR-excitation, HC molecule absorbs photons to increase vibrational states; It reduces the activation energy E r required for overcoming Activation Barrier so that the reaction rate W is increased. Therefore, IR-excitation can increase chemical reaction rate K: constant T: Temperature Reaction Profile

13 Dual-band IR-Emitter approach Conventional Japanese 8 – 20 μm IR Emitter contains 2 MgO. 2 Al 2 O 3. 5 SiO 2 but, we add zirconia to make a new 8 – 20 μm far-IR Emitter We also add CoO to make a 3 – 14 μm mid-IR Emitter 8 – 20 μm far-IR Emitter 3 – 14 μm mid-IR Emitter We use a “dual-band” approach to cover the entire 3 – 20 μm range.

14 Key elements of IR-emitters Transition Metals When the excited electron returns to its initial level, it emits an IR photon in μm wavelength, depending on the elements used. The oxides of transition metals have such a unique property: Its constituent electrons can be thermally agitated to a neighboring higher energy level; No additional energy source is required and it lasts forever. As such, the IR-emitter absorbs radiation heat and converts the heat into IR photons.

15 The Innovative Concept Step 1: IR-Emitter absorbs engine heat. Step 2: IR-Emitter emits 3 – 20 μm IR. Step 3: IR excites HC molecules in fuel. Heat Energy Recycling IR-Emitter IR-excited fuel combusts Efficiently In cylinders In engine applications, It starts with placing IR-Emitters on a supply fuel line. IR-Emitter serves as an energy conversion system.

16 The basic Science has been verified by Purdue University

17 Proving the Science Methane-Air Counter-Flow Flame Experiment Air Methane Purdue University Zucrow Lab, Purdue University Flow = 10 cm/s Air Methane Flame Laminar Flame

18 Fuel Duct …....… X, mm …….... Air Duct NO Baseline NO IR-Excited CH 4 Baseline CH 4 IR-Excited Experimental results CO 2 IR-Excited CO IR-Excited IR-Excitation combust faster IR-Excitation makes fuel combust faster and more completely that results in 8% Less Fuel Consumption 25% Less CO emissions 15% Less NO emissions Thanks to Purdue’s experimental verification science is served! Summary of Observations

19 More Complete Combustion on Chrysler 2.5 L, 4-cyl. gas engine Prof. Keshav Varde Baseline IR-excited Nicolet FT-IR Exhaust Emissions Analyzer University of Michigan-Dearborn FIRCO30 % Result: FIR reduced CO 30 % (i.e. burn more completely) at 1,800 RPM and 20 ft-lb load COcombustion completeness using CO as an indicator of combustion completeness CO counts (ppm) real time scan plot

20 More Engine and Beta-Site Tests

21 GM Quad-4 Gas Engine RPM Measured Specific Fuel Consumption (unit: lb/hp-hr) Baseline IR-Excited on a GM Quad-4, 4 cyl. 2.4 L gasoline engine Results: FIR reduced 6.2 % specific fuel consumption Change % % - 5.0% w/ FIR Baseline Tested at Engine Lab, Purdue University

22 NO & CO Emissions Speed, RPM Speed, RPM NO Measurement (ppm) CO Measurement (ppm) PowerTek Single Cylinder Dynomometer 13 in HP tested at Engine Lab, Purdue University Result: FIR simultaneously reduced CO and NO emissions average reduced 14.5% average reduced 10.2% Baseline with FIR Change % % -7.8 % Baseline with FIR Change -2.8 % % % on a single-cylinder enigne with propane fuel

23 U.S. EPA Standard Test Test ItemHCCONOxCO 2 MPG Test ItemHCCONOxCO 2 MPG tested at AutoResearch Lab (Harvey, IL), an EPA-recognized Lab FTP– Federal Test Procedure (City Driving) HFET– Highway Fuel Economy Test on a V8, 4.6L Mercury Grand Marquis at 16,300 odometer mileage Result: FIR increased fuel economy and reduced all emissions Baseline Baseline With FIR With FIR Change % % % % % Change % % % % % Save Fuel Reduce CO 2

24 Heat Release in Cylinders Heat Release KJ / c.a. deg. Crank Angle, deg. regular diesel IR-excited diesel IR-excitation improves engine performance on the basis of that it changes heat allocation in engine cylinders. more heat is released within 15 o TDC to do mechanical work and less heat released in later cycle as heat loss for heating exhaust gas (EG) Result: increased power and reduced specific fuel consumption With IR-excited diesel,

25 Torque/Power Dyno Test 1900cc Multi-jet turbo-diesel 4 cyl., 110 rpm Odometer: 110,000 km at Carburatori Bergamo, ITALY on 7/20/2007 Result: FIR increased torque & power significantly Measured Power at 6 th Gear (ratio 0.614:1) with FIR Baseline 2004 Alfa Romeo 147 JTD

26 Diesel Emissions: NOx & Smoke Speed, km/h Avg. Speed, km/h Avg. (a) NOx Emissions, ppm (b) Smoke Emissions, % Opacity Iveco Motor Co. (Nanjing, China) 4.2 Ton Light-Duty Pickup 4 cyl. 2.8 L Diesel Engine (max. 78 KW) with a 60 Nm load Result: F IR simultaneously reduced smoke and NOx. tested at Shanghai Vehicle Performance Testing Center Baseline Baseline With FIR Change - 6.8% - 6.5% - 8.3% - 4.6% Change % % % - 9.1% With FIR % %

27 School Bus Road Tests FIR installed on 10/14/05 FIR removed on 5/8/ International School Bus CE VT365 diesel engine V8, 6.0 L with EVRT mpg 5.40 Result: FIR improved fuel economy 12 % Greenwood Community Schools (Indiana) The re-fueling records indicated Baseline

28 Diesel Trucks Fleet Test Test Tractor #:2066* Average or Total 2005 Kenworth T600A Tractor Cummins ISX L, 475 HP HD diesel engine 4 sets FIR installed Result: FIR saved 7.8% fuel, or 105 gallons per tractor per month Heritage Transport, LLC. (Indianapolis, Indiana) 5/12/07 Baseline MPG /13 – 11/9 w/FIR MPG Drive Distance, miles Fuel Used, gallons MPG Change % -2.5 % 7.9 % 7.9 % 10.6 % 4.0 % 8.4 % 7.8 % Fuel Saved, gallons no FIR Truck #2066 serves as Controller, no FIR installed

29 Municipal Buses in Albania 6.2 % Result: FIR helped save 6.2 % fuel Municipal Bus Service of the City of Valona (2/5/2008) FIAT Bus with an Iveco 12 L diesel engine Fuel consumption dropped from 48.0 L/ 100km to 45.2 L/ 100km 4 IR-Emitters installed

30 Power Generator on Train Sistemi Territoriali S.p.A., Italy Caterpillar 3512 DI-TA 12 cyl, 51.8 L Diesel Engine 1,450 KW Power Generator Result: FIR helped save 6 % fuel, or 5,000 Euros per month 15 far-IR Emittes installed on

31 Cargo Ship in Shanghai, China 5 % Result: FIR helped save about 5 % fuel Transporting between Shanghai and Tianjin (1/5/2008) Cargo Ship with an Dong-Fong 10 L diesel engine The generator consumes fuel at a rate of ¼ ton a day 15 sets IR-Emitters installed

32 Many users have it !

33 Emission Regulation For Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

34 Urea-SCR NO x System Installation on Truck System Diagram

35 Urea-SCR Strategy To set free NH 3 from urea by: CO(NH 2 ) 2 → HNCO + NH 3 ……. (thermolysis) HNCO → NH 3 + CO 2 ………………. (hydrolysis) The NH 3 radical then reacts with NO and NO 2 6 NO + 4 NH 3 → 5 N H 2 O 6 NO NH 3 → 7 N H 2 O IR Excitation Examples: –HNCO– vibrates at 3.23 – 3.26, 6.45 – 6.62 μm –NH 2 at (symmetric), (asymmetric), μm (bending) biuret (NH 2 CONHCONH 2 ) vibrates at 4.72 – 4.93, 6.80 – 6.92 μm

36 NOx (HC-SCR) System 2 C 3 H NO → 9 N H 2 O + 6 CO 2 For example, the propylene C 3 H 6 reacts with NO

37 Conclusion: a proven technology –IR-Excited fuels burn faster, resulting in reduced fuel consumption rate and less CO & NO emissions. Using IR photons shorter than 20 μm to excite hydrocarbons for improved combustion efficiency is scientifically predictable. We have developed IR-Emitters that absorb radiation heat and emit 3 – 20 μm wavelength IR photons. –Increased torque/power –Improved fuel economy (up to 20% ) –Reduced emissions (up to 46% ) The underlying science of IR-excitation effect on fuel is verified by methane-air counter-flow flame experiments Engine/vehicle test results have demonstrated the IR-Effect on increasing engine efficiency, with

38 IR Technology Features Save fuel (8 – 10%) and reduce same % Greenhouse Gas CO 2 Reduce all tailpipe emissions (up to 40%) Increase power/torque (smoother engine) Easy installation in minutes Inexpensive one time investment and maintenance free Lower vehicle maintenance costs, due to less carbon deposits on engine parts and oil Ever imagine such a simple device can do so much for you and our environment?! Too good to be true?

39 Test it for yourself Your own test counts

40 Test Results smoke test printouts The smoke drops from 1.1 down to 0.5 after installing FIR Fuel Activator.

41 Dr. Albert Wey (the Inventor) Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA) Thank You Please give infrared a chance to prove itself Contact Information: Together we can ease Global Warming An Invisible Story Dario Franzoni Balos Technology (Italy) Phone : (+39)

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