Presentation on theme: "Albert C. Wey Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA)"— Presentation transcript:
1Albert C. Wey Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA) Infrared-Excitation for Improving Hydrocarbon Fuels’ Combustion Efficiency of EnginesAlbert C. WeyAldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA)Rodney G. HandyDept. of Mechanical Engineering TechnologyYuan Zheng and Chul H. KimDept. of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University
3Motivation: the demands 2007 SAE World CongressGovernment:Air QualityGlobal WarmingEnergy SecurityEMISSIONSREDUCTIONCar Makers:FUELECONOMYPROFITSEngineers:ICE Optimization/AftertreatmentAerodynamicsWeight ReductionsCustomers:SafetyComfortHorsepowerFuel CostsFUN TO DRIVEneed Physics, Magic, or Miracle?
4IR-excitation to improve fuel combustion efficiency IntroductionApproach:IR-excitation to improve fuel combustion efficiencyKnown Scientific Facts:Organic ChemistryHC molecules are IR-active and absorb 3 – 14 μm IR photons causing vibrationsPhotoselective ChemistryIncreasing reactant vibrational energy is most effective at promoting reaction.Known IR-Technology:IR-emitters for agricultural applications (Japan)
5The Innovative Concept Step 1: IR-emitter absorbs radiation heat from engineSupply fuel lineIR-emitterHeat EnergyRecyclingStep 2: IR-emitter emits 3 – 14 μmIR photonsEfficient combustionStep 3: IR photonsexcite HC-moleculesin the fuel
6Transition Metal Oxides Constituent electrons are thermally agitated to higher levels;Excited electrons return to initial levels by emitting IR photons in μm wavelengthsTi: 3d2 4s2 (22)Cr: 3d5 4s1 (24)Co: 3d7 4s2 (27)Ni: 3d8 4s2 (28)Zr: 4d2 5s2 (40)Transition Metals
8HC Molecules are IR-Active C2H5OH IR Spectral AnalysisO… HstretchingAlkanes–CH3bendingO–HstretchingAlkanesC–HstretchingC–HbendingAlkanes–CH2bendingH–Csp3stretchingC–Cstretching2.5358101420Wavelength, μm
10Molecules vibrate in 6 ways Molecular VibrationsMolecules vibrate in 6 waysSymmetricalStretchingAntisymmetricalStretchingScissoringRockingWaggingTwisting
11Multi-photons absorption & excitation Vibrational StatesMulti-photons absorption & excitationReaction Rate:W = k e – E / RTDissociation LimitActivation BarrierEQuasi-ContinuumLadder ofvibrational statesIR-excitedHC moleculeRegularHC Molecule
12Proof of Underlying Science Methane-Air Counter-flow Flame ExperimentAirmid-IR emitterFar-IR emitterPath 2Path 1Path 1: RegularPath 2: IR-excitedMethanePurdue University
13Laminar Diffusion Flame AirLaminarflamexX = 0Methane combustion chain reaction:CH4 + O → CH3 + OHO2 + CH3 → CH3OOCH4 + CH3OO → CH3 + CH3OOHCH3OOH → CO + 2 H2 + O2 CH4 + O2 → 2 CO + 4 H2CO + OH → H + CO2O2 + CO + H → OH + CO2H2 + OH → H + H2OO2 + H2 + H → OH + H2OMethaneH2 + ½ O2 → H2OCO + ½ O2 → CO2CH4 + O2 → CO + H2 + H2O
14Less CO, CO2 & NO emissions Experimental ResultsCO2BaselineN2IR-excitedCOBaselineN2BaselineCO2IR-excitedCOIR-excitedNOBaselineCH4BaselineNOIR-excitedCH4IR-excitedFuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air DuctFuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air DuctFlame occurs fasterLess CO, CO2 & NO emissions
15Observation (1): faster burn AirN2IR-excitedN2BaselineregularIR-excitedMethaneCH4BaselineIR-excited fuel:more combustibleburns faster, more completelyreduced flame strain ratereduced fuel flow momentumflame is pushed downwardCH4IR-excitedFuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air DuctFlame occurs faster
16Observation (2): Less Fuel Fuel Consumption RateL: distance between the ducts (15 mm)ωCH4 : volumetric consumption rate, moles/cm3/secIR-excited fuel:Fuel Consumption Rate is computed to be 8% less.CH4BaselineCH4IR-excitedFuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct
17Observation (3): Less CO Methane combustion chain reaction:CH4 + O → CH3 + OHO2 + CH3 → CH3OOCH4 + CH3OO → CH3 + CH3OOHCH3OOH → CO + 2 H2 + O2 CH4 + O2 → 2 CO + 4 H2CO2BaselineCOBaselineCO2IR-excitedCOIR-excitedFuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air DuctIR-excited fuel:Combusts faster and more completely;CO & CO2 emissions are computed to be 25% less.CO is a precursor of CO2H2 + ½ O2 → H2OCO + ½ O2 → CO2CH4 + O2 → CO + H2 + H2O
18Observation (4): Less NO EIJ, emission index for specie JNOBaselineNOIR-excitedFuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air DuctMj : molecular weightωJ : volumetric production rateLess NO emissions:Thermal NO formation follows fuel combustion; with a faster combustion, there was less time for NO to form.IR-excited fuel:Emission index of NO is computed to be 15% less.
19Summary of Observations IR-excitation makesmethane combust fasterand more completelyLess Fuel Consumption Rateless CO and CO2 emissionsless NO emissionsThe first scientific proof of IR-excited fuel technology
20Proposed Engine Application IR-Emitters are retrofitted to supply fuel line, absorbing engine heat to emit IR photons.HC molecules traversing thru the fuel line are excited, raising vibrational states to lower activation barrier and increase combustibility.IR-excited fuel burns faster in cylinders, allocating more heat to do work and less heat loss to raise exhaust gas temperature (EGT).Increased power, with lower specific fuel combustion and less HC, CO, NOx, and CO2 emissions.
22Single Cylinder Dynomometer CO & NO Emissions Testat Engine Lab, Purdue UniversityPowerTekSingle Cylinder DynomometerFuel: PropaneDisplacement: 13 cu in.Gross power: 7.5 HPGross torque: 10 ft.lbCO Measurement (ppm) average reduced 14.5%Speed, RPM150020002500Baseline54210511596w/ IR-emitter4688201472Improvement%%- 7.8 %NO Measurement (ppm) average reduced 10.2%Speed, RPM150020002500Baseline2549537w/ IR-emitter2477933Improvement- 2.8 %%%
23U.S. EPA Test FTP – Federal Test Procedure for City Driving AutoResearch Lab, an EPA-recognized Lab1998 Mercury Grand Marquis, V8, 4.6 Lat 16,300 odometer mileage (Jan. 1999)FTP – Federal Test Procedure for City DrivingTest ItemHCCONOxCO2MPGBaseline0.2082.7090.362520.7416.98with FIR0.1301.7760.196438.2920.22Change%%%%%HFET – Highway Fuel Economy TestTest ItemHCCONOxCO2MPGBaseline0.0841.2270.342330.3926.84with FIR0.0690.9930.280281.4131.52Change%%- 18.1%%%
24Emissions: Diesel Pickup Iveco Motor Co. (Nanjing, China)4.2 Ton Light-Duty Pickup4 cyl. 2.8 L Diesel Engine (max. 78 KW)tested with a 60 Nm load(a) NOx Emissions, ppmSpeed, km/h30405060Avg.Baseline642567505431w/ IR-Emitter598530463410Change- 6.8%- 6.5%- 8.3%- 4.6%- 6.6%(b) Smoke Emissions, % OpacitySpeed, km/h30405060Avg.Baseline16.615.810.66.6w/ IR-Emitter12.4184.108.40.206Change-25.3%-29.1%-31.1%-9.1%-23.7%FIR helps reduce smoke and NOx simultaneously.
2712% improvement in fuel economy School Bus Road Tests2004 International School Bus CEVT365 diesel engineV8, 6.0 L with EVRTIR-emitter removedon 5/8/06at 25,531 milesIR-emitter installedon 10/14/05at 15,475 miles6.235.67 mpg5.4012% improvement in fuel economy
28Diesel Trucks Fleet Test Cummins ISX L 475 HPHD diesel engine2005 Kenworth T600A Tractor3 sets IR-emitters installedTest Tractor #:2066*20862246232023252398Total5/12/07 Baseline MPG6.626.266.816.657.636.377/15/07 w/FIR MPG6.686.517.317.367.846.69Total distance, miles21,62220,76917,27820,26816,44117,805Total fuels used, gal.3,2373,1912,3652,7522,0982,66313,369% MPG Improvement0.9 %4.0 %7.3 %10.7 %2.7 %4.9 %5.9 %Fuel Saved, gal.ref.129173294571317846% improvement, or save 78 gallons per tractor per month
29“using IR-excitation to improve fuel combustion efficiency of engines” Summary & Conclusion“using IR-excitation to improve fuel combustion efficiency of engines”IR-emitters (3 – 14 μm) developed.Underlying science verified in methane-air counter-flow flame experiments:IR-excited fuels burn faster, resulting in reduced fuel consumption rate and less CO & NO emissionsEngine/vehicle test results demonstrate IR-effects on increasing engine efficiencyMore research to be done:How IR-excitation participates in fuel combustion?How IR-excited fuel improves engine performance?
30THANK YOUPlease join us to develop IR-fuel technologyContact Information:Dr. Albert WeyAldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (U.S.A.)Dario Franzoni Balos Technology (Italy)tel : (+39)