Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Infrared-Excitation for Improving Hydrocarbon Fuels’ Combustion Efficiency of Engines Albert C. Wey Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA) Rodney G. Handy Dept.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Infrared-Excitation for Improving Hydrocarbon Fuels’ Combustion Efficiency of Engines Albert C. Wey Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA) Rodney G. Handy Dept."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infrared-Excitation for Improving Hydrocarbon Fuels’ Combustion Efficiency of Engines Albert C. Wey Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA) Rodney G. Handy Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology Yuan Zheng and Chul H. Kim Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University

2 IR-Excited Fuel Technology Contents: Introduction Theoretical Model Scientific Verification –Methane-Air Counter-flow Laminar Flames Engine and Vehicle Tests Summary

3 Motivation: the demands FUEL ECONOMY PROFITS FUN TO DRIVE EMISSIONS REDUCTION Government: Air Quality Global Warming Energy Security Customers: Safety Comfort Horsepower Fuel Costs Car Makers: Engineers: ICE Optimization/ Aftertreatment Aerodynamics Weight Reductions need Physics, Magic, or Miracle? 2007 SAE World Congress

4 Introduction Known Scientific Facts: Organic Chemistry –HC molecules are IR-active and absorb 3 – 14 μm IR photons causing vibrations Photoselective Chemistry –Increasing reactant vibrational energy is most effective at promoting reaction. Known IR-Technology: –IR-emitters for agricultural applications (Japan) Approach: IR-excitation to improve fuel combustion efficiency

5 The Innovative Concept Step 1: IR-emitter absorbs radiation heat from engine Step 2: IR-emitter emits 3 – 14 μm IR photons Step 3: IR photons excite HC-molecules in the fuel Heat Energy Recycling IR-emitter Supply fuel line Efficient combustion

6 Transition Metal Oxides Ti: 3d 2 4s 2 (22) Cr: 3d 5 4s 1 (24) Co: 3d 7 4s 2 (27) Ni: 3d 8 4s 2 (28) Zr: 4d 2 5s 2 (40) Transition Metals Constituent electrons are thermally agitated to higher levels; Excited electrons return to initial levels by emitting IR photons in μm wavelengths

7 IR-Emitters 8 – 20 μm far -IR Emitter 3 – 14 μm mid -IR Emitter

8 HC Molecules are IR-Active H–C sp3 stretching Alkanes C–H stretching O–H stretching C 2 H 5 OH IR Spectral Analysis O… H stretching C–C stretching Wavelength, μm C–H bending Alkanes –CH 2 bending Alkanes –CH 3 bending 8

9 CH 4 Energy Level Diagram Asymmetric stretching v 3 = 3012 cm -1 (3.32 μm) Bending v 4 = 1305 cm -1 (7.66 μm) Resonance modes at v 4 = 1305 cm

10 Molecular Vibrations Symmetrical Stretching Antisymmetrical Stretching Scissoring WaggingRockingTwisting Molecules vibrate in 6 ways

11 Vibrational States Quasi-Continuum Ladder of vibrational states Dissociation Limit Activation Barrier IR-excited HC molecule Regular HC Molecule E Reaction Rate: W = k e – E / RT Multi-photons absorption & excitation

12 Proof of Underlying Science Methane-Air Counter-flow Flame Experiment Air Methane Path 1 Path 2 Path 1: Regular Path 2: IR-excited Far-IR emittermid-IR emitter Purdue University

13 Laminar Diffusion Flame Air Methane Laminar flame Methane combustion chain reaction: CH 4 + O → CH 3 + OH O 2 + CH 3 → CH 3 OO CH 4 + CH 3 OO → CH 3 + CH 3 OOH CH 3 OOH → CO + 2 H 2 + O 2 CH 4 + O 2 → 2 CO + 4 H 2 CO + OH → H + CO 2 O 2 + CO + H → OH + CO 2 H 2 + OH → H + H 2 O O 2 + H 2 + H → OH + H 2 O CH 4 + O 2 → CO + H 2 + H 2 O H 2 + ½ O 2 → H 2 O CO + ½ O 2 → CO 2 x X = 0

14 Experimental Results Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct NO Baseline NO IR-excited N 2 Baseline N 2 IR-excited CH 4 Baseline CH 4 IR-excited CO IR-excited CO Baseline CO 2 IR-excited CO 2 Baseline Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct Flame occurs fasterLess CO, CO 2 & NO emissions

15 Observation (1): faster burn Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct N 2 Baseline N 2 IR-excited CH 4 Baseline CH 4 IR-excited Flame occurs faster regular IR-excited Air Methane IR-excited fuel: more combustible burns faster, more completely reduced flame strain rate reduced fuel flow momentum flame is pushed downward

16 Observation (2): Less Fuel Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct CH 4 Baseline CH 4 IR-excited Fuel Consumption Rate L: distance between the ducts (15 mm) ω CH 4 : volumetric consumption rate, moles/cm 3 /sec IR-excited fuel: Fuel Consumption Rate is computed to be 8% less.

17 Observation (3): Less CO Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct CO IR-excited CO Baseline CO 2 IR-excited CO 2 Baseline CO is a precursor of CO 2 Methane combustion chain reaction: CH 4 + O → CH 3 + OH O 2 + CH 3 → CH 3 OO CH 4 + CH 3 OO → CH 3 + CH 3 OOH CH 3 OOH → CO + 2 H 2 + O 2 CH 4 + O 2 → 2 CO + 4 H 2 H 2 + ½ O 2 → H 2 O CO + ½ O 2 → CO 2 CH 4 + O 2 → CO + H 2 + H 2 O IR-excited fuel: Combusts faster and more completely; CO & CO 2 emissions are computed to be 25% less.

18 Observation (4): Less NO NO Baseline NO IR-excited Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct Less NO emissions: Thermal NO formation follows fuel combustion; with a faster combustion, there was less time for NO to form. EIJ, emission index for specie J Mj : molecular weight ωJ : volumetric production rate IR-excited fuel: Emission index of NO is computed to be 15% less.

19 Summary of Observations IR-excitation makes methane combust faster and more completely Less Fuel Consumption Rate less CO and CO 2 emissions less NO emissions The first scientific proof of IR-excited fuel technology

20 Proposed Engine Application IR-Emitters are retrofitted to supply fuel line, absorbing engine heat to emit IR photons. HC molecules traversing thru the fuel line are excited, raising vibrational states to lower activation barrier and increase combustibility. IR-excited fuel burns faster in cylinders, allocating more heat to do work and less heat loss to raise exhaust gas temperature (EGT). Increased power, with lower specific fuel combustion and less HC, CO, NOx, and CO 2 emissions.

21 GM Quad-4 Gasoline Engine RPM Baseline w/FIR Change- 6.76%- 6.74%- 4.93% Specific Fuel Consumption (unit: lb/hp-hr) Baseline IR-excited at Engine Lab, Purdue University

22 CO & NO Emissions Test Speed, RPM Baseline w/ IR-emitter Improvement % %- 7.8 % Speed, RPM Baseline w/ IR-emitter Improvement- 2.8 % % % NO Measurement (ppm) average reduced 10.2% CO Measurement (ppm) average reduced 14.5% PowerTek Single Cylinder Dynomometer Fuel: Propane Displacement: 13 cu in. Gross power: 7.5 HP Gross torque: 10 ft.lb at Engine Lab, Purdue University

23 U.S. EPA Test Test ItemHCCONOxCO 2 MPG Baseline with FIR Change % % % % % Test ItemHCCONOxCO 2 MPG Baseline with FIR Change % %- 18.1% % % AutoResearch Lab, an EPA-recognized Lab FTP – Federal Test Procedure for City Driving HFET – Highway Fuel Economy Test 1998 Mercury Grand Marquis, V8, 4.6 L at 16,300 odometer mileage (Jan. 1999)

24 Emissions: Diesel Pickup Speed, km/h Avg. Baseline w/ IR-Emitter Change- 6.8%- 6.5%- 8.3%- 4.6%- 6.6% Speed, km/h Avg. Baseline w/ IR-Emitter Change-25.3%-29.1%-31.1%-9.1%-23.7% (a) NOx Emissions, ppm (b) Smoke Emissions, % Opacity Iveco Motor Co. (Nanjing, China) 4.2 Ton Light-Duty Pickup 4 cyl. 2.8 L Diesel Engine (max. 78 KW) tested with a 60 Nm load FIR helps reduce smoke and NOx simultaneously.

25 P-norm/M-norm Dyno Tests 2004 Alfa Romeo 147 JTD 1900 cc Multijet turbodiesel 4 cyl. 16v, 110 rpm Odometer: 110,000 km CARBURATORI BERGAMO, (BG), ITALY 7/20/2007

26 Power/Torque Measurement Potenza & Coppia at 6 th Gear (ratio 0.614:1) FIR helps increase power/torque at mid- and high-speeds Alfa Romeo 147 JTD Max rpm (149.0 km/h) Max rpm (130.5 km/h) Peak Torque: rpm Con FIR: rpm Senza FIR: rpm Baseline (Senza FIR) Con FIR OEM Engine Spec OEM Engine Spec Baseline (Senza FIR) Con FIR

27 School Bus Road Tests IR-emitter installed on 10/14/05 at 15,475 miles IR-emitter removed on 5/8/06 at 25,531 miles 2004 International School Bus CE VT365 diesel engine V8, 6.0 L with EVRT mpg % improvement in fuel economy

28 Diesel Trucks Fleet Test Test Tractor #:2066* Total 5/12/07 Baseline MPG /15/07 w/FIR MPG Total distance, miles21,62220,76917,27820,26816,44117,805 Total fuels used, gal.3,2373,1912,3652,7522,0982,66313,369 % MPG Improvement0.9 %4.0 %7.3 %10.7 %2.7 %4.9 %5.9 % Fuel Saved, gal. ref Kenworth T600A Tractor Cummins ISX L 475 HP HD diesel engine 3 sets IR-emitters installed 6% improvement, or save 78 gallons per tractor per month

29 Summary & Conclusion “using IR-excitation to improve fuel combustion efficiency of engines” IR-emitters (3 – 14 μm) developed. Underlying science verified in methane-air counter-flow flame experiments: –IR-excited fuels burn faster, resulting in reduced fuel consumption rate and less CO & NO emissions Engine/vehicle test results demonstrate IR- effects on increasing engine efficiency More research to be done: –How IR-excitation participates in fuel combustion? –How IR-excited fuel improves engine performance?

30 THANK YOU Contact Information: Dr. Albert Wey Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (U.S.A.) Dario Franzoni Balos Technology (Italy) tel : (+39) Please join us to develop IR-fuel technology


Download ppt "Infrared-Excitation for Improving Hydrocarbon Fuels’ Combustion Efficiency of Engines Albert C. Wey Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA) Rodney G. Handy Dept."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google