Presentation on theme: "Save fuel Save the Earth"— Presentation transcript:
1Save fuel Save the Earth An invisible storyFIR Fuel Activator ®An infrared fuel saver that uses infrared to excite hydrocarbons for improved engine performanceSave fuel Save the EarthAldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (U.S.A.)
2we hope to turn you from a skeptic to a believer. IntroductionIn this presentation, we will show youhow infrared works to improve fuel combustionhow the underlying science is testified by academichow the fuel saving effect is verified by accredited testing facilities, including an EPA-recognized laband, last, but not least,Why you need the FIR Fuel Activator to save fuel and reduce Greenhouse gas CO2With all these scientific evidences,we hope to turn you from a skeptic to a believer.
3An invisible story It’s invisible, but present …… In 1900 Max Planck introduced the concept of “Quanta,” but no one would accept it until Einstein had proved it in 1905.It became today’s Quantum Mechanics.Likewise, Dr. Wey invented IR Fuel technology in 1998, but no one could appreciate it ……except a research team led by Professor Handy at Purdue University.
4Acknowledgement As a result, Though being skeptical, Purdue research team tookinitiative to verify the underlying science of our IR technology in a scientific way, and found indeedIR-excitation effect on improving fuel efficiency is real and does exist!As a result,they turn from a skeptic to a true believer.We really appreciate for their faith and support!
5IR-Fuel Technology Review Technically speaking, we did not invent it, becauseall elements were already there:In Organic ChemistryHC molecules are IR-active and absorb 3 – 20 μm IR photons causing vibrations.In Photoselective ChemistryLab dynamics studies have demonstrated increasing reactant vibrational energy is most effective at promoting reaction.Known IR-TechnologyIR-Emitters have been widely used for agricultural applications in Japan.
7It’s no secret …HC Molecules are IR-Active and absorb infrared photons in μm wavelengths causing vibrations.Organic Chemists have been usingIR-Absorption Spectral Analysisto identify unknown specimens for years.For example, if you give me a specimen with the following IR-absorption profile,I can tell you what the specimen is ……..
8So, what is it? ethanol C2H5OH The following spectral info is called “Infrared Finger Prints”First, look at “Functional Group Zone”.It contains C-H bonds and O-H bond; it must be one of “alcohols”Now, look at “Signature Zone”.The -CH3 bond and -CH2 bond suggest it contains “ethane”So, it must beSignature ZoneFunctional Groupsalcohol+ ethaneO–HstretchingethanolC–Hstretching–CH3bendingC–HbendingC2H5OH–CH2bendingH–Csp3stretchingC–Cstretching3Wavelength, μm61020
9From a Quantum Mechanic view absorbing IR photon causes molecular vibration.Using methane as an example,it absorbs IR at 7.66 μm to jump to v4 orbit, causing bending vibration,and absorbs 3.32 μm IR to jump tov3 orbit, causing stretching vibration.Asymmetric stretchingv3 = 3012 cm-1(3.32 μm)Bendingv4 = 1305 cm-1(7.66 μm)Molecular energy levelsEnergy level diagram
10For your information molecules vibrate in 6 ways: Scissoring Rocking SymmetricalStretchingAnti-symmetricalStretchingScissoringRockingWaggingTwisting
11The consequence of Vibrations Let’s recall some concepts in Quantum MechanicsReaction Rate:W = k e – E / RTK: constantT: TemperatureActivation BarrierWith IR-excitation,EiErHC molecule absorbs photons to increase vibrational states;IR-ExcitedHC moleculeIt reduces the activation energy Er required for overcoming Activation BarrierRegularHC Moleculeso that the reaction rate W is increased. Therefore,IR-excitation can increase chemical reaction rateReaction Profile
12Summary of IR-Excitation Model As presented above, it is scientifically predicable thatIR-excitation increases oxidation rate of HC moleculesand thus improves combustion efficiency of HC fuels.But, our next question is“Where to find such an IR-excitation source?”Actually, IR-emitters (8 – 20 μm) have been widely used in Japan for heating and drying agricultural produces since 1960s.All we needed to do was tailoring Japanese conventional 8 – 20 μm IR-emitters to 3 – 20 μm for our applications.
13Dual-band IR-Emitter approach Conventional Japanese 8 – 20 μm IR Emitter contains 2 MgO . 2 Al2O3 . 5 SiO2We use a “dual-band”approach to cover the entire 3 – 20 μm range.but, we add zirconia to make a new 8 – 20 μm far-IR EmitterWe also add CoO to make a3 – 14 μm mid-IR Emitter8 – 20 μmfar-IR Emitter3 – 14 μmmid-IR Emitter
14The key elements in IR-emitters The oxides of transition metals have such a unique property:Its constituent electrons can be thermally agitated to a neighboring higher energy level;When the excited electron returns to its initial level, it emits an IR photon in μm wavelength, depending on the elements used.As such, the IR-emitter absorbs radiation heat and converts the heat into IR photons.No additional energy source is required and it lasts forever.Transition Metals
15The Innovative Concept In engine applications,IR-Emitter serves as an energy conversion system.It starts with placing IR-Emitters on a supply fuel line.Step 1:IR-Emitter absorbs engine heat.IR-EmitterHeat EnergyRecyclingIR-excited fuel combusts EfficientlyIn cylindersStep 2:IR-Emitter emits 3 – 20 μm IR.Step 3:IR excites HCmolecules in fuel.
16The “BIG IF” ……. A theory is incomplete Though the theoretical model sounds plausible, the key question often asked is ……..“How do I know if IR effect exists and works to improve fuel combustion efficiency?”A theory is incompleteif it can not be verified by experiment.Professor Handy and Purdue team suggested a foolproof, down-to-basics experimentation, using the well-studiedMethane-Air Counter-flow Laminar Diffusion Flame analysis.It will be straightforward to demonstrate with this experiment IF …. IR-excitation really works on fuel.In October 2006, we took the challenge.
18Proving the Underlying Science Methane-Air Counter-Flow Flame ExperimentAirat Zucrow Lab, Purdue UniversityIn the burner, Air flows from top duct,and Methane from the bottom.They meet at the centerto form a laminar flame, when ignited.Flow = 10 cm/sFlameAirLaminarFlameX = 0MethaneMethane
19Experimental set-up Burner Microprobe that can be moved across the flame to collect gas species samples for analysisFor demonstrating the IR-effect,the fuel supply iscontrolled to flow through eithermid-IR emitterfar-IR emitteror Path 2:Methane to be IR-excitedPath 1:Fuel supply pathcontrolLaminar FlameRegular methane
20Gas Samples Analysis The collected gas species samples were analyzed at Zucrow Lab, Purdue UniversitySpecies concentrations forO2, N2, CH4, CO, and, CO2,across the flame were measured using gas chromatography.Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured usingchemiluminescence analysis.The measured results for IR-excited methane were compared to that of the benchmarking methane.The results and observations are presented as follows:
21Observation (1): Faster combustion Comparing the measured results forAirN2IR-ExcitedIR-ExcitedX = 2RegularX = 3N2BaselineX = 0MethaneWhat had happened wasIR-Excitation makes fuel more combustible, burning faster and more completely;CH4BaselineCH4IR-ExcitedIt reduces flame strain rate and lowers fuel flow momentum so that the flame is pushed down.Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Ductwe foundflame occurs faster
22Observation (2): Less Fuel used The Fuel Consumption Rate can be calculated by the formula:L: distance between the ducts (15 mm)ωCH4 : volumetric consumption rate, moles/cm3/secComparing the measured IR-excited result to the Baseline,CH4Baselinethe Fuel Consumption Rate for IR-Excited fuel is computed to be 8 % lessCH4IR-Excitedthan that of regular fuel.Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct
23Observation (3): Less CO emission Measured CO and CO2 forMethane combustionchain reaction:CH4 + O → CH3 + OHO2 + CH3 → CH3OOCH4 + CH3OO → CH3 + CH3OOHCH3OOH → CO + 2 H2 + O2 CH4 + O2 → 2 CO + 4 H2CO2BaselineCOBaselineCO2IR-ExcitedCOIR-ExcitedThe measurements showedFuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Ductbecause IR-Excited fuel combusts faster and more completely,CO is a precursor of CO2H2 + ½ O2 → H2OCO + ½ O2 → CO2the peak CO & CO2 emissions are 25 % less,CH4 + O2 → CO + H2 + H2Ocompared to regular fuel.
24Observation (4): Less NO emissions The NO measurements forThe emission index can be calculated byNOBaselineNOIR-ExcitedFuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air DuctMJ : molecular weightωJ : volumetric production rateIt shows less NO emissions produced with IR-excited fuel.Thermal NO formation is slower than fuel combustion;The NO Emission index for IR-Excited fuel is computed to be 15 % less than that of regular fuel.With a faster combustion, there is less time for NO to form.
25Summary of Observations The experimental results suggestthe key effect of IR-excitation on fuel combustion is:IR-Excitation makes fuel combust faster andmore completelythat results inLess Fuel Consumption RateLess CO and CO2 emissions, andLess NO emissionsThanks to Purdue’s experimental verification,the IR-Excitation effect on Fuel is scientifically provenand can be explained by known science principles.
26Further Verification on Engines To confirm above findings and verify the effect of the IR-excitation on engine performance, namelyincreasing fuel efficiencyreducing fuel consumptionreducing CO & NO emissionsnumerous tests have been performed on various fuels and engines in labs, as presented in the following:
28Results: FIR reduced 6.2 % specific fuel consumption GM Quad-4 Gas EngineTested at Engine Lab, Purdue Universityon a GM Quad-4, 4 cyl L gasoline engineMeasured Specific Fuel Consumption (unit: lb/hp-hr)RPM180022003000Baselinew/ FIRChange % % %BaselineIR-ExcitedResults: FIR reduced 6.2 % specific fuel consumption
29NO & CO Emissions of Propane tested at Engine Lab, Purdue Universityon a single-cylinder enigne with propane fuelPowerTekSingle Cylinder DynomometerCO Measurement (ppm)13 in37.5 HPSpeed, RPM150020002500Baselinewith FIRChange % % %average reduced 14.5%NO Measurement (ppm)Speed, RPM150020002500Baselinewith FIRChange % % %average reduced 10.2%Result: FIR simultaneously reduced CO and NO emissions
30Combustion Completeness Tested at the University of Michigan-Dearbornusing CO as an indicator of combustion completenesson a Chrysler 2.5 L, 4-cyl. Engineat 1,800 RPM with a 20 ft-lb loadand A/F ratio maintained at 14.7:1CO counts (ppm) real time scan plotBaselineProf. Keshav VardeIR-excitedNicolet FT-IR ExhaustEmissions AnalyzerResult: FIR reduced CO 30 % (i.e. more complete combusiton)
32Proposed Engine Application This is what we expect:IR-Emitters are retrofitted to the supply fuel line, absorbing engine heat to emit IR photons.HC molecules traversing thru the fuel line are excited, raising vibrational states to lower activation barrier and increase combustibility.IR-Excited fuel burns faster in cylinders, allocating more heat to do work and less heat loss to raise exhaust gas temperature (EGT).IR-Excited fuel increases power, with lower specific fuel combustion and less HC, CO, NOx, and CO2 emissions.
33Heat Release in Cylinders IR-excitation improves engine performance on the basis of that it changes heat allocation in engine cylinders.Heat ReleaseKJ / c.a. deg.With IR-excited diesel,more heat is released within 15o TDC to do mechanical workIR-excited dieseland less heat released in later cycle as heat loss for heating exhaust gas (EG)regular dieselCrank Angle, deg.Result: increased power and reduced specific fuel consumption
34Torque/Power Dyno Test at Carburatori Bergamo, ITALY on 7/20/20072004 Alfa Romeo 147 JTD1900cc Multi-jet turbo-diesel4 cyl., 110 rpmOdometer: 110,000 kmMeasured Power at 6th Gear(ratio 0.614:1)with FIRBaselineResult: FIR increased torque & power significantly
35Result: FIR increased fuel economy and reduced all emissions U.S. EPA Standard Testtested at AutoResearch Lab (Harvey, IL), an EPA-recognized Labon a V8, 4.6L Mercury Grand Marquisat 16,300 odometer mileageFTP– Federal Test Procedure (City Driving)Test ItemHCCONOxCO2MPGBaselineWith FIRChange % % % % %HFET– Highway Fuel Economy TestTest ItemHCCONOxCO2MPGBaselineWith FIRSave FuelReduce CO2Change % % % % %Result: FIR increased fuel economy and reduced all emissions
36Diesel Emissions: NOx & Smoke tested at Shanghai Vehicle Performance Testing CenterIveco Motor Co. (Nanjing, China)4.2 Ton Light-Duty Pickup4 cyl. 2.8 L Diesel Engine (max. 78 KW)with a 60 Nm load(a) NOx Emissions, ppmSpeed, km/h30405060Avg.BaselineWith FIRChange % % % %- 6.6%(b) Smoke Emissions, % OpacitySpeed, km/h30405060Avg.BaselineWith FIRChange % % % %- 23.7%Result: FIR simultaneously reduced smoke and NOx.
37Result: FIR improved fuel economy 12 % School Bus Road TestsGreenwood Community Schools (Indiana)2004 International School Bus CEVT365 diesel engineV8, 6.0 L with EVRTThe re-fueling records indicatedFIR installedon 10/14/05FIR removedon 5/8/066.235.67 mpg5.40BaselineResult: FIR improved fuel economy 12 %
38Diesel Trucks Fleet Test Heritage Transport, LLC. (Indianapolis, Indiana)Cummins ISX L, 475 HPHD diesel engine4 sets FIRinstalled2005 Kenworth T600A TractorTruck #2066 serves as Controller, no FIR installedTest Tractor #:2066*20862246232023252398Averageor Total5/12/07 Baseline MPG6/13 – 11/9 w/FIR MPGDrive Distance, milesFuel Used, gallonsMPG Change % % % % % % %7.8 %Fuel Saved, gallons no FIR2363Result: FIR saved 7.8% fuel, or 105 gallons per tractor per month
39Our claims have been verified by FTC for compliance. Your own test counts …We have many test results to share with you.Also, we have numerous satisfied users like Mr. Suma Orazio, a taxi driver in Milano, Italy.However, prove it to yourself,your own test counts!FTC Warning:FTC Act 15 USC §41 et seq. prohibits deceptive marketing practices, including false and unsubstantiated advertising.Our claims have been verified by FTC for compliance.
41IR is a proven technology Using IR photons shorter than 20 μm to excite hydrocarbons for improved combustion efficiency is scientifically predictable.We have developed IR-Emitters that absorb radiation heat and emit 3 – 20 μm wavelength IR photons.The underlying science of IR-excitation effect on fuel is verified by methane-air counter-flow flame experimentsIR-Excited fuels burn faster, resulting in reduced fuel consumption rate and less CO & NO emissions.Engine/vehicle test results have demonstrated the IR-Effect on increasing engine efficiency, withIncreased torque/powerImproved fuel economy (up to 20% )Reduced emissions (up to 46% )
42Product Features Then, you know it is true! Imagine such a simple device can do so much for you and our environment?!Save fuel (8 – 10%) and reduce same % Greenhouse Gas CO2Reduce all tailpipe emissions (up to 40%)Increase power/torque (smoother engine)Easy installation in minutesInexpensive one time investment and maintenance freeLower vehicle maintenance costs, due to less carbon deposits on engine parts and oilToo good to be true?Until you have tried it yourself.Then, you know it is true!
43Thank You Together we can ease Global Warming. An Invisible StoryTogether we can ease Global Warming.Can you ask for anything better than this?Please give infrared a chance to prove itselfContact Information:Dr. Albert Wey (the Inventor)Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA)