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Save fuel Save the Earth

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Presentation on theme: "Save fuel Save the Earth"— Presentation transcript:

1 Save fuel Save the Earth
An invisible story FIR Fuel Activator ® An infrared fuel saver that uses infrared to excite hydrocarbons for improved engine performance Save fuel Save the Earth Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (U.S.A.)

2 we hope to turn you from a skeptic to a believer.
Introduction In this presentation, we will show you how infrared works to improve fuel combustion how the underlying science is testified by academic how the fuel saving effect is verified by accredited testing facilities, including an EPA-recognized lab and, last, but not least, Why you need the FIR Fuel Activator to save fuel and reduce Greenhouse gas CO2 With all these scientific evidences, we hope to turn you from a skeptic to a believer.

3 An invisible story It’s invisible, but present ……
In 1900 Max Planck introduced the concept of “Quanta,” but no one would accept it until Einstein had proved it in 1905. It became today’s Quantum Mechanics. Likewise, Dr. Wey invented IR Fuel technology in 1998, but no one could appreciate it …… except a research team led by Professor Handy at Purdue University.

4 Acknowledgement As a result,
Though being skeptical, Purdue research team took initiative to verify the underlying science of our IR technology in a scientific way, and found indeed IR-excitation effect on improving fuel efficiency is real and does exist! As a result, they turn from a skeptic to a true believer. We really appreciate for their faith and support!

5 IR-Fuel Technology Review
Technically speaking, we did not invent it, because all elements were already there: In Organic Chemistry HC molecules are IR-active and absorb 3 – 20 μm IR photons causing vibrations. In Photoselective Chemistry Lab dynamics studies have demonstrated increasing reactant vibrational energy is most effective at promoting reaction. Known IR-Technology IR-Emitters have been widely used for agricultural applications in Japan.

6 Theoretical Model

7 It’s no secret … HC Molecules are IR-Active and absorb infrared photons in μm wavelengths causing vibrations. Organic Chemists have been using IR-Absorption Spectral Analysis to identify unknown specimens for years. For example, if you give me a specimen with the following IR-absorption profile, I can tell you what the specimen is ……..

8 So, what is it? ethanol C2H5OH
The following spectral info is called “Infrared Finger Prints” First, look at “Functional Group Zone”. It contains C-H bonds and O-H bond; it must be one of “alcohols” Now, look at “Signature Zone”. The -CH3 bond and -CH2 bond suggest it contains “ethane” So, it must be Signature Zone Functional Groups alcohol + ethane O–H stretching ethanol C–H stretching –CH3 bending C–H bending C2H5OH –CH2 bending H–Csp3 stretching C–C stretching 3 Wavelength, μm 6 10 20

9 From a Quantum Mechanic view
absorbing IR photon causes molecular vibration. Using methane as an example, it absorbs IR at 7.66 μm to jump to v4 orbit, causing bending vibration, and absorbs 3.32 μm IR to jump to v3 orbit, causing stretching vibration. Asymmetric stretching v3 = 3012 cm-1 (3.32 μm) Bending v4 = 1305 cm-1 (7.66 μm) Molecular energy levels Energy level diagram

10 For your information molecules vibrate in 6 ways: Scissoring Rocking
Symmetrical Stretching Anti-symmetrical Stretching Scissoring Rocking Wagging Twisting

11 The consequence of Vibrations
Let’s recall some concepts in Quantum Mechanics Reaction Rate: W = k e – E / RT K: constant T: Temperature Activation Barrier With IR-excitation, Ei Er HC molecule absorbs photons to increase vibrational states; IR-Excited HC molecule It reduces the activation energy Er required for overcoming Activation Barrier Regular HC Molecule so that the reaction rate W is increased. Therefore, IR-excitation can increase chemical reaction rate Reaction Profile

12 Summary of IR-Excitation Model
As presented above, it is scientifically predicable that IR-excitation increases oxidation rate of HC molecules and thus improves combustion efficiency of HC fuels. But, our next question is “Where to find such an IR-excitation source?” Actually, IR-emitters (8 – 20 μm) have been widely used in Japan for heating and drying agricultural produces since 1960s. All we needed to do was tailoring Japanese conventional 8 – 20 μm IR-emitters to 3 – 20 μm for our applications.

13 Dual-band IR-Emitter approach
Conventional Japanese 8 – 20 μm IR Emitter contains 2 MgO . 2 Al2O3 . 5 SiO2 We use a “dual-band” approach to cover the entire 3 – 20 μm range. but, we add zirconia to make a new 8 – 20 μm far-IR Emitter We also add CoO to make a 3 – 14 μm mid-IR Emitter 8 – 20 μm far-IR Emitter 3 – 14 μm mid-IR Emitter

14 The key elements in IR-emitters
The oxides of transition metals have such a unique property: Its constituent electrons can be thermally agitated to a neighboring higher energy level; When the excited electron returns to its initial level, it emits an IR photon in μm wavelength, depending on the elements used. As such, the IR-emitter absorbs radiation heat and converts the heat into IR photons. No additional energy source is required and it lasts forever. Transition Metals

15 The Innovative Concept
In engine applications, IR-Emitter serves as an energy conversion system. It starts with placing IR-Emitters on a supply fuel line. Step 1: IR-Emitter absorbs engine heat. IR-Emitter Heat Energy Recycling IR-excited fuel combusts Efficiently In cylinders Step 2: IR-Emitter emits 3 – 20 μm IR. Step 3: IR excites HC molecules in fuel.

16 The “BIG IF” ……. A theory is incomplete
Though the theoretical model sounds plausible, the key question often asked is …….. “How do I know if IR effect exists and works to improve fuel combustion efficiency?” A theory is incomplete if it can not be verified by experiment. Professor Handy and Purdue team suggested a foolproof, down-to-basics experimentation, using the well-studied Methane-Air Counter-flow Laminar Diffusion Flame analysis. It will be straightforward to demonstrate with this experiment IF …. IR-excitation really works on fuel. In October 2006, we took the challenge.

17 Experiments Of Combustion & Flame Science

18 Proving the Underlying Science
Methane-Air Counter-Flow Flame Experiment Air at Zucrow Lab, Purdue University In the burner, Air flows from top duct, and Methane from the bottom. They meet at the center to form a laminar flame, when ignited. Flow = 10 cm/s Flame Air Laminar Flame X = 0 Methane Methane

19 Experimental set-up Burner Microprobe
that can be moved across the flame to collect gas species samples for analysis For demonstrating the IR-effect, the fuel supply is controlled to flow through either mid-IR emitter far-IR emitter or Path 2: Methane to be IR-excited Path 1: Fuel supply path control Laminar Flame Regular methane

20 Gas Samples Analysis The collected gas species samples were analyzed
at Zucrow Lab, Purdue University Species concentrations for O2, N2, CH4, CO, and, CO2, across the flame were measured using gas chromatography. Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured using chemiluminescence analysis. The measured results for IR-excited methane were compared to that of the benchmarking methane. The results and observations are presented as follows:

21 Observation (1): Faster combustion
Comparing the measured results for Air N2 IR-Excited IR-Excited X = 2 Regular X = 3 N2 Baseline X = 0 Methane What had happened was IR-Excitation makes fuel more combustible, burning faster and more completely; CH4 Baseline CH4 IR-Excited It reduces flame strain rate and lowers fuel flow momentum so that the flame is pushed down. Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct we found flame occurs faster

22 Observation (2): Less Fuel used
The Fuel Consumption Rate can be calculated by the formula: L: distance between the ducts (15 mm) ωCH4 : volumetric consumption rate, moles/cm3/sec Comparing the measured IR-excited result to the Baseline, CH4 Baseline the Fuel Consumption Rate for IR-Excited fuel is computed to be 8 % less CH4 IR-Excited than that of regular fuel. Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct

23 Observation (3): Less CO emission
Measured CO and CO2 for Methane combustion chain reaction: CH4 + O → CH3 + OH O2 + CH3 → CH3OO CH4 + CH3OO → CH3 + CH3OOH CH3OOH → CO + 2 H2 + O 2 CH4 + O2 → 2 CO + 4 H2 CO2 Baseline CO Baseline CO2 IR-Excited CO IR-Excited The measurements showed Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct because IR-Excited fuel combusts faster and more completely, CO is a precursor of CO2 H2 + ½ O2 → H2O CO + ½ O2 → CO2 the peak CO & CO2 emissions are 25 % less, CH4 + O2 → CO + H2 + H2O compared to regular fuel.

24 Observation (4): Less NO emissions
The NO measurements for The emission index can be calculated by NO Baseline NO IR-Excited Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct MJ : molecular weight ωJ : volumetric production rate It shows less NO emissions produced with IR-excited fuel. Thermal NO formation is slower than fuel combustion; The NO Emission index for IR-Excited fuel is computed to be 15 % less than that of regular fuel. With a faster combustion, there is less time for NO to form.

25 Summary of Observations
The experimental results suggest the key effect of IR-excitation on fuel combustion is: IR-Excitation makes fuel combust faster and more completely that results in Less Fuel Consumption Rate Less CO and CO2 emissions, and Less NO emissions Thanks to Purdue’s experimental verification, the IR-Excitation effect on Fuel is scientifically proven and can be explained by known science principles.

26 Further Verification on Engines
To confirm above findings and verify the effect of the IR-excitation on engine performance, namely increasing fuel efficiency reducing fuel consumption reducing CO & NO emissions numerous tests have been performed on various fuels and engines in labs, as presented in the following:

27 Engine Stand Tests

28 Results: FIR reduced 6.2 % specific fuel consumption
GM Quad-4 Gas Engine Tested at Engine Lab, Purdue University on a GM Quad-4, 4 cyl L gasoline engine Measured Specific Fuel Consumption (unit: lb/hp-hr) RPM 1800 2200 3000 Baseline w/ FIR Change % % % Baseline IR-Excited Results: FIR reduced 6.2 % specific fuel consumption

29 NO & CO Emissions of Propane
tested at Engine Lab, Purdue University on a single-cylinder enigne with propane fuel PowerTek Single Cylinder Dynomometer CO Measurement (ppm) 13 in3 7.5 HP Speed, RPM 1500 2000 2500 Baseline with FIR Change % % % average reduced 14.5% NO Measurement (ppm) Speed, RPM 1500 2000 2500 Baseline with FIR Change % % % average reduced 10.2% Result: FIR simultaneously reduced CO and NO emissions

30 Combustion Completeness
Tested at the University of Michigan-Dearborn using CO as an indicator of combustion completeness on a Chrysler 2.5 L, 4-cyl. Engine at 1,800 RPM with a 20 ft-lb load and A/F ratio maintained at 14.7:1 CO counts (ppm) real time scan plot Baseline Prof. Keshav Varde IR-excited Nicolet FT-IR Exhaust Emissions Analyzer Result: FIR reduced CO 30 % (i.e. more complete combusiton)

31 Vehicle Tests

32 Proposed Engine Application
This is what we expect: IR-Emitters are retrofitted to the supply fuel line, absorbing engine heat to emit IR photons. HC molecules traversing thru the fuel line are excited, raising vibrational states to lower activation barrier and increase combustibility. IR-Excited fuel burns faster in cylinders, allocating more heat to do work and less heat loss to raise exhaust gas temperature (EGT). IR-Excited fuel increases power, with lower specific fuel combustion and less HC, CO, NOx, and CO2 emissions.

33 Heat Release in Cylinders
IR-excitation improves engine performance on the basis of that it changes heat allocation in engine cylinders. Heat Release KJ / c.a. deg. With IR-excited diesel, more heat is released within 15o TDC to do mechanical work IR-excited diesel and less heat released in later cycle as heat loss for heating exhaust gas (EG) regular diesel Crank Angle, deg. Result: increased power and reduced specific fuel consumption

34 Torque/Power Dyno Test
at Carburatori Bergamo, ITALY on 7/20/2007 2004 Alfa Romeo 147 JTD 1900cc Multi-jet turbo-diesel 4 cyl., 110 rpm Odometer: 110,000 km Measured Power at 6th Gear (ratio 0.614:1) with FIR Baseline Result: FIR increased torque & power significantly

35 Result: FIR increased fuel economy and reduced all emissions
U.S. EPA Standard Test tested at AutoResearch Lab (Harvey, IL), an EPA-recognized Lab on a V8, 4.6L Mercury Grand Marquis at 16,300 odometer mileage FTP– Federal Test Procedure (City Driving) Test Item HC CO NOx CO2 MPG Baseline With FIR Change % % % % % HFET– Highway Fuel Economy Test Test Item HC CO NOx CO2 MPG Baseline With FIR Save Fuel Reduce CO2 Change % % % % % Result: FIR increased fuel economy and reduced all emissions

36 Diesel Emissions: NOx & Smoke
tested at Shanghai Vehicle Performance Testing Center Iveco Motor Co. (Nanjing, China) 4.2 Ton Light-Duty Pickup 4 cyl. 2.8 L Diesel Engine (max. 78 KW) with a 60 Nm load (a) NOx Emissions, ppm Speed, km/h 30 40 50 60 Avg. Baseline With FIR Change % % % % - 6.6% (b) Smoke Emissions, % Opacity Speed, km/h 30 40 50 60 Avg. Baseline With FIR Change % % % % - 23.7% Result: FIR simultaneously reduced smoke and NOx.

37 Result: FIR improved fuel economy 12 %
School Bus Road Tests Greenwood Community Schools (Indiana) 2004 International School Bus CE VT365 diesel engine V8, 6.0 L with EVRT The re-fueling records indicated FIR installed on 10/14/05 FIR removed on 5/8/06 6.23 5.67 mpg 5.40 Baseline Result: FIR improved fuel economy 12 %

38 Diesel Trucks Fleet Test
Heritage Transport, LLC. (Indianapolis, Indiana) Cummins ISX L, 475 HP HD diesel engine 4 sets FIR installed 2005 Kenworth T600A Tractor Truck #2066 serves as Controller, no FIR installed Test Tractor #: 2066* 2086 2246 2320 2325 2398 Average or Total 5/12/07 Baseline MPG 6/13 – 11/9 w/FIR MPG Drive Distance, miles Fuel Used, gallons MPG Change % % % % % % % 7.8 % Fuel Saved, gallons no FIR 2363 Result: FIR saved 7.8% fuel, or 105 gallons per tractor per month

39 Our claims have been verified by FTC for compliance.
Your own test counts … We have many test results to share with you. Also, we have numerous satisfied users like Mr. Suma Orazio, a taxi driver in Milano, Italy. However, prove it to yourself, your own test counts! FTC Warning: FTC Act 15 USC §41 et seq. prohibits deceptive marketing practices, including false and unsubstantiated advertising. Our claims have been verified by FTC for compliance.

40 Conclusion

41 IR is a proven technology
Using IR photons shorter than 20 μm to excite hydrocarbons for improved combustion efficiency is scientifically predictable. We have developed IR-Emitters that absorb radiation heat and emit 3 – 20 μm wavelength IR photons. The underlying science of IR-excitation effect on fuel is verified by methane-air counter-flow flame experiments IR-Excited fuels burn faster, resulting in reduced fuel consumption rate and less CO & NO emissions. Engine/vehicle test results have demonstrated the IR-Effect on increasing engine efficiency, with Increased torque/power Improved fuel economy (up to 20% ) Reduced emissions (up to 46% )

42 Product Features Then, you know it is true!
Imagine such a simple device can do so much for you and our environment?! Save fuel (8 – 10%) and reduce same % Greenhouse Gas CO2 Reduce all tailpipe emissions (up to 40%) Increase power/torque (smoother engine) Easy installation in minutes Inexpensive one time investment and maintenance free Lower vehicle maintenance costs, due to less carbon deposits on engine parts and oil Too good to be true? Until you have tried it yourself. Then, you know it is true!

43 Thank You Together we can ease Global Warming.
An Invisible Story Together we can ease Global Warming. Can you ask for anything better than this? Please give infrared a chance to prove itself Contact Information: Dr. Albert Wey (the Inventor) Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA)

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