Presentation on theme: "An infrared fuel saver that uses infrared to excite hydrocarbons for improved engine performance FIR Fuel Activator FIR Fuel Activator ® Aldi Far-IR Products,"— Presentation transcript:
An infrared fuel saver that uses infrared to excite hydrocarbons for improved engine performance FIR Fuel Activator FIR Fuel Activator ® Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (U.S.A.) Save fuel Save the Earth An invisible story
Introduction In this presentation, we will show you how infrared works to improve fuel combustion how the underlying science is testified by academic how the fuel saving effect is verified by accredited testing facilities, including an EPA-recognized lab and, last, but not least, Why you need the FIR Fuel Activator to save fuel and reduce Greenhouse gas CO 2 With all these scientific evidences, we hope to turn you from a skeptic to a believer.
Likewise, Dr. Wey invented IR Fuel technology in 1998, but no one could appreciate it …… An invisible story In 1900 Max Planck introduced the concept of “Quanta,” but no one would accept it until Einstein had proved it in It became today’s Quantum Mechanics. except a research team led by Professor Handy at Purdue University. It’s invisible, but present ……
IR-excitation effect on improving fuel efficiency is real and does exist! Acknowledgement Though being skeptical, Purdue research team took initiative to verify the underlying science of our IR technology in a scientific way, and found indeed As a result, they turn from a skeptic to a true believer. We really appreciate for their faith and support!
IR-Fuel Technology Review Technically speaking, we did not invent it, because all elements were already there: In Organic Chemistry HC molecules are IR-active and absorb 3 – 20 μm IR photons causing vibrations. In Photoselective Chemistry Lab dynamics studies have demonstrated increasing reactant vibrational energy is most effective at promoting reaction. Known IR-Technology IR-Emitters have been widely used for agricultural applications in Japan.
It’s no secret … HC Molecules are IR-Active and absorb infrared photons in μm wavelengths causing vibrations. Organic Chemists have been using IR-Absorption Spectral Analysis to identify unknown specimens for years. For example, if you give me a specimen with the following IR-absorption profile, I can tell you what the specimen is ……..
H–C sp3 stretching C–H stretching O–H stretching C 2 H 5 OH C–C stretching Wavelength, μm C–H bending –CH 2 bending –CH 3 bending The following spectral info is called “Infrared Finger Prints” Functional Groups Signature Zone 6 So, what is it? First, look at “Functional Group Zone”. It contains C-H bonds and O-H bond; it must be one of “alcohols” alcohol + ethane ethanol Now, look at “Signature Zone”. The -CH 3 bond and -CH 2 bond suggest it contains “ethane” So, it must be
From a Quantum Mechanic view it absorbs IR at 7.66 μm to jump to v 4 orbit, causing bending vibration, Molecular energy levels absorbing IR photon causes molecular vibration. Using methane as an example, Bending v 4 = 1305 cm -1 (7.66 μm) Asymmetric stretching v 3 = 3012 cm -1 (3.32 μm) and absorbs 3.32 μm IR to jump to v 3 orbit, causing stretching vibration. Energy level diagram
For your information Symmetrical Stretching Anti-symmetrical Stretching Scissoring WaggingRockingTwisting molecules vibrate in 6 ways:
The consequence of Vibrations Activation Barrier IR-Excited HC molecule Regular HC Molecule EiEi Reaction Rate: W = k e – E / RT Let’s recall some concepts in Quantum Mechanics ErEr With IR-excitation, HC molecule absorbs photons to increase vibrational states; It reduces the activation energy E r required for overcoming Activation Barrier so that the reaction rate W is increased. Therefore, IR-excitation can increase chemical reaction rate K: constant T: Temperature Reaction Profile
Summary of IR-Excitation Model As presented above, it is scientifically predicable that IR-excitation increases oxidation rate of HC molecules and thus improves combustion efficiency of HC fuels. “Where to find such an IR-excitation source?” Actually, IR-emitters (8 – 20 μm) have been widely used in Japan for heating and drying agricultural produces since 1960s. All we needed to do was tailoring Japanese conventional 8 – 20 μm IR-emitters to 3 – 20 μm for our applications. But, our next question is
Dual-band IR-Emitter approach Conventional Japanese 8 – 20 μm IR Emitter contains 2 MgO. 2 Al 2 O 3. 5 SiO 2 but, we add zirconia to make a new 8 – 20 μm far-IR Emitter We also add CoO to make a 3 – 14 μm mid-IR Emitter 8 – 20 μm far-IR Emitter 3 – 14 μm mid-IR Emitter We use a “dual-band” approach to cover the entire 3 – 20 μm range.
The key elements in IR-emitters Transition Metals When the excited electron returns to its initial level, it emits an IR photon in μm wavelength, depending on the elements used. The oxides of transition metals have such a unique property: Its constituent electrons can be thermally agitated to a neighboring higher energy level; No additional energy source is required and it lasts forever. As such, the IR-emitter absorbs radiation heat and converts the heat into IR photons.
The Innovative Concept Step 1: IR-Emitter absorbs engine heat. Step 2: IR-Emitter emits 3 – 20 μm IR. Step 3: IR excites HC molecules in fuel. Heat Energy Recycling IR-Emitter IR-excited fuel combusts Efficiently In cylinders In engine applications, It starts with placing IR-Emitters on a supply fuel line. IR-Emitter serves as an energy conversion system.
The “BIG IF” ……. Though the theoretical model sounds plausible, the key question often asked is …….. “How do I know if IR effect exists and works to improve fuel combustion efficiency?” Professor Handy and Purdue team suggested a foolproof, down-to-basics experimentation, using the well-studied Methane-Air Counter-flow Laminar Diffusion Flame analysis. It will be straightforward to demonstrate with this experiment IF …. IR-excitation really works on fuel. In October 2006, we took the challenge. if it can not be verified by experiment. A theory is incomplete
Experiments Of Combustion & Flame Science
Proving the Underlying Science Methane-Air Counter-Flow Flame Experiment Air Methane at Zucrow Lab, Purdue University Flow = 10 cm/s In the burner, Air flows from top duct, They meet at the center to form a laminar flame, when ignited. Air Methane Flame Laminar Flame and Methane from the bottom. X = 0
Experimental set-up Regular methane Methane to be IR-excited far-IR emittermid-IR emitter Laminar Flame Microprobe that can be moved across the flame to collect gas species samples for analysis Fuel supply path control the fuel supply is controlled to flow through either For demonstrating the IR-effect, Path 1: or Path 2: Burner
Gas Samples Analysis at Zucrow Lab, Purdue University Species concentrations for O 2, N 2, CH 4, CO, and, CO 2, across the flame were measured using gas chromatography. Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured using chemiluminescence analysis. The collected gas species samples were analyzed The measured results for IR-excited methane were compared to that of the benchmarking methane. The results and observations are presented as follows:
Observation (1): Faster combustion Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct N 2 Baseline N 2 IR-Excited CH 4 Baseline CH 4 IR-Excited flame occurs faster Regular X = 3 IR-Excited X = 2 Air Methane It reduces flame strain rate and lowers fuel flow momentum so that the flame is pushed down. Comparing the measured results for we found X = 0 What had happened was IR-Excitation makes fuel more combustible, burning faster and more completely;
Observation (2): Less Fuel used Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct CH 4 Baseline CH 4 IR-Excited The Fuel Consumption Rate can be calculated by the formula: L: distance between the ducts (15 mm) ω CH 4 : volumetric consumption rate, moles/cm 3 /sec the Fuel Consumption Rate for IR-Excited fuel is computed to be 8 % less Comparing the measured IR- excited result to the Baseline, than that of regular fuel.
Observation (3): Less CO emission Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct CO IR-Excited CO Baseline CO 2 IR-Excited CO 2 Baseline CO is a precursor of CO 2 Methane combustion chain reaction : CH 4 + O → CH 3 + OH O 2 + CH 3 → CH 3 OO CH 4 + CH 3 OO → CH 3 + CH 3 OOH CH 3 OOH → CO + 2 H 2 + O 2 CH 4 + O 2 → 2 CO + 4 H 2 H 2 + ½ O 2 → H 2 O CO + ½ O 2 → CO 2 CH 4 + O 2 → CO + H 2 + H 2 O the peak CO & CO 2 emissions are 25 % less, Measured CO and CO 2 for The measurements showed because IR-Excited fuel combusts faster and more completely, compared to regular fuel.
Observation (4): Less NO emissions NO Baseline NO IR-Excited Fuel Duct ……....… X, mm ……....… Air Duct With a faster combustion, there is less time for NO to form. The emission index can be calculated by M J : molecular weight ω J : volumetric production rate The NO Emission index for IR-Excited fuel is computed to be 15 % less than that of regular fuel. The NO measurements for Thermal NO formation is slower than fuel combustion; It shows less NO emissions produced with IR-excited fuel.
Summary of Observations the IR-Excitation effect on Fuel is scientifically proven Less Fuel Consumption Rate Less CO and CO 2 emissions, and Less NO emissions IR-Excitation makes fuel combust faster and more completely the key effect of IR-excitation on fuel combustion is: that results in and can be explained by known science principles. The experimental results suggest Thanks to Purdue’s experimental verification,
Further Verification on Engines increasing fuel efficiency To confirm above findings and verify the effect of the IR-excitation on engine performance, namely numerous tests have been performed on various fuels and engines in labs, as presented in the following: reducing fuel consumption reducing CO & NO emissions
Engine Stand Tests
GM Quad-4 Gas Engine RPM Measured Specific Fuel Consumption (unit: lb/hp-hr) Baseline IR-Excited on a GM Quad-4, 4 cyl. 2.4 L gasoline engine Results: FIR reduced 6.2 % specific fuel consumption Change % % - 5.0% w/ FIR Baseline Tested at Engine Lab, Purdue University
NO & CO Emissions of Propane Speed, RPM Speed, RPM NO Measurement (ppm) CO Measurement (ppm) PowerTek Single Cylinder Dynomometer 13 in HP tested at Engine Lab, Purdue University Result: FIR simultaneously reduced CO and NO emissions average reduced 14.5% average reduced 10.2% Baseline with FIR Change % % -7.8 % Baseline with FIR Change -2.8 % % % on a single-cylinder enigne with propane fuel
Combustion Completeness on a Chrysler 2.5 L, 4-cyl. Engine Prof. Keshav Varde Baseline IR-excited Nicolet FT-IR Exhaust Emissions Analyzer Tested at the University of Michigan-Dearborn Result: FIR reduced CO 30 % (i.e. more complete combusiton) and A/F ratio maintained at 14.7:1 at 1,800 RPM with a 20 ft-lb load using CO as an indicator of combustion completeness CO counts (ppm) real time scan plot
Proposed Engine Application HC molecules traversing thru the fuel line are excited, raising vibrational states to lower activation barrier and increase combustibility. IR-Excited fuel increases power, with lower specific fuel combustion and less HC, CO, NOx, and CO 2 emissions. IR-Emitters are retrofitted to the supply fuel line, absorbing engine heat to emit IR photons. This is what we expect: IR-Excited fuel burns faster in cylinders, allocating more heat to do work and less heat loss to raise exhaust gas temperature (EGT).
Heat Release in Cylinders Heat Release KJ / c.a. deg. Crank Angle, deg. regular diesel IR-excited diesel IR-excitation improves engine performance on the basis of that it changes heat allocation in engine cylinders. more heat is released within 15 o TDC to do mechanical work and less heat released in later cycle as heat loss for heating exhaust gas (EG) Result: increased power and reduced specific fuel consumption With IR-excited diesel,
Torque/Power Dyno Test 1900cc Multi-jet turbo-diesel 4 cyl., 110 rpm Odometer: 110,000 km at Carburatori Bergamo, ITALY on 7/20/2007 Result: FIR increased torque & power significantly Measured Power at 6 th Gear (ratio 0.614:1) with FIR Baseline 2004 Alfa Romeo 147 JTD
U.S. EPA Standard Test Test ItemHCCONOxCO 2 MPG Test ItemHCCONOxCO 2 MPG tested at AutoResearch Lab (Harvey, IL), an EPA-recognized Lab FTP– Federal Test Procedure (City Driving) HFET– Highway Fuel Economy Test on a V8, 4.6L Mercury Grand Marquis at 16,300 odometer mileage Result: FIR increased fuel economy and reduced all emissions Baseline Baseline With FIR With FIR Change % % % % % Change % % % % % Save Fuel Reduce CO 2
Diesel Emissions: NOx & Smoke Speed, km/h Avg. Speed, km/h Avg. (a) NOx Emissions, ppm (b) Smoke Emissions, % Opacity Iveco Motor Co. (Nanjing, China) 4.2 Ton Light-Duty Pickup 4 cyl. 2.8 L Diesel Engine (max. 78 KW) with a 60 Nm load Result: F IR simultaneously reduced smoke and NOx. tested at Shanghai Vehicle Performance Testing Center Baseline Baseline With FIR Change - 6.8% - 6.5% - 8.3% - 4.6% Change % % % - 9.1% With FIR % %
School Bus Road Tests FIR installed on 10/14/05 FIR removed on 5/8/ International School Bus CE VT365 diesel engine V8, 6.0 L with EVRT mpg 5.40 Result: FIR improved fuel economy 12 % Greenwood Community Schools (Indiana) The re-fueling records indicated Baseline
Diesel Trucks Fleet Test Test Tractor #:2066* Average or Total 2005 Kenworth T600A Tractor Cummins ISX L, 475 HP HD diesel engine 4 sets FIR installed Result: FIR saved 7.8% fuel, or 105 gallons per tractor per month Heritage Transport, LLC. (Indianapolis, Indiana) 5/12/07 Baseline MPG /13 – 11/9 w/FIR MPG Drive Distance, miles Fuel Used, gallons MPG Change % -2.5 % 7.9 % 7.9 % 10.6 % 4.0 % 8.4 % 7.8 % Fuel Saved, gallons no FIR Truck #2066 serves as Controller, no FIR installed
Your own test counts … We have many test results to share with you. Also, we have numerous satisfied users like Mr. Suma Orazio, a taxi driver in Milano, Italy. However, prove it to yourself, FTC Warning: FTC Act 15 USC §41 et seq. prohibits deceptive marketing practices, including false and unsubstantiated advertising. Our claims have been verified by FTC for compliance. your own test counts!
IR is a proven technology –I–IR-Excited fuels burn faster, resulting in reduced fuel consumption rate and less CO & NO emissions. Using IR photons shorter than 20 μm to excite hydrocarbons for improved combustion efficiency is scientifically predictable. We have developed IR-Emitters that absorb radiation heat and emit 3 – 20 μm wavelength IR photons. –I–Increased torque/power –I–Improved fuel economy (up to 20% ) –R–Reduced emissions (up to 46% ) The underlying science of IR-excitation effect on fuel is verified by methane-air counter-flow flame experiments Engine/vehicle test results have demonstrated the IR-Effect on increasing engine efficiency, with
Product Features Save fuel (8 – 10%) and reduce same % Greenhouse Gas CO 2 Reduce all tailpipe emissions (up to 40%) Increase power/torque (smoother engine) Easy installation in minutes Inexpensive one time investment and maintenance free Lower vehicle maintenance costs, due to less carbon deposits on engine parts and oil Imagine such a simple device can do so much for you and our environment?! Until you have tried it yourself. Then, you know it is true! Too good to be true?
Dr. Albert Wey (the Inventor) Aldi Far-IR Products, Inc. (USA) Thank You Please give infrared a chance to prove itself Contact Information: Can you ask for anything better than this? Together we can ease Global Warming. An Invisible Story