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Chapter 15 Cancer © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.1
What Is Cancer? Condition characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells Develops from a single cell that goes awry, but a combination of events must occur before the cell turns into a tumor Clonal growth: replication of a single cell that produces thousands of copies of itself in an uncontrolled manner © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.2
Leading Sites of New Cancer Cases and Deaths, 2011 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.3 Leading sites of new cancer cases and deaths, 2011 estimates.
Healthy Cell Growth Healthy cells have a complicated system of checks and balances that control cell growth and division Healthy cells divide when needed to replace cells that have died or been sloughed off Each time a cell divides, there is a possibility of mutation or an error in DNA replication Stem cells pose a risk for cancer but have a special protective mechanism Stem cells are located deep within tissues and are protected from factors that increases the risk of genetic mutation (exposure to the sun, chemicals, and irritation) © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.4
Cancer Cell Growth Cancer starts from a single cell that undergoes a critical mutation caused by: –An error in duplication –Exposure to a carcinogen (cancer-causing substance) –Radiation Oncogene: gene that drives a cell to grow and divide regardless of signals from surrounding cells Tumor: a mass of extra tissues that may form into either a benign (slow growth) or malignant (capable of spreading to surrounding tissues) tumor Metastasis: secondary tumor that appears when cancerous cells spread to other parts of the body © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.5
Classifying Cancers Cancers are classified according to the tissue in which they originate, called the primary site –Most common sites are brain, liver, bone marrow Cancer still at its primary site is localized When metastasized, it is invasive –Extent of metastasis determines prognosis Stage of the disease: how far it has spread –Stage 0: cancer in situ –Stage I: small and localized –Stages II and III: locally advanced, may involve lymph nodes –Stage IV: metastasized to distant sites © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.6
Types of Cancer Four broad types of cancer: –Carcinomas: arise from epithelial tissue (skin, lining of the intestines and body cavities, surface of body organs, outer portion of glands) –Sarcomas : arise from connective tissue (bone, tendon, cartilage, muscle, fat tissues) –Leukemias: cancers of the blood which originate in the bone marrow or the lymphatic system –Lymphomas: cancers that originate in lymph nodes and glands © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.7
Risk Factors for Cancer Family history –A family history of cancer alters some cancer screening recommendations –Genes interact with environmental exposures and lifestyle behaviors to alter risk Lifestyle factors –Tobacco use –Nutrition and physical activity –Overweight and obesity –Alcohol consumption © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.8
Risk Factors for Cancer Social and economic factors –Social determinants of health influence risk behaviors, access to health care, and quality of health care –Affordable Care Act of 2010 includes provisions to make cancer prevention tools more accessible Environmental factors –Sunlight and other sources of ultraviolet radiation –Other forms of radiation –Chemical and physical carcinogens –Infectious agents © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.9
Cancer Death Rates by Site © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.10 Cancer death rates by site,
Cancer Mortality and Risk Factor Disparities © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.11 Cancer Incidence and Death Rates by Site, Race, and Ethnicity, US, (Who’s at Risk?
Lung Cancer Leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Second most commonly diagnosed cancer Risk factors: –Use of tobacco products in any form –Exposure to carcinogenic chemicals, arsenic, radon, asbestos, radiation, air pollution, and environmental tobacco smoke © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.12
Lung Cancer Symptoms: –Coughing –Blood-streaked sputum –Chest pain –Difficulty breathing –Recurrent lung infections Prevention: remove exposure to tobacco smoke or other types of smoke Treatment: surgery, radiation, chemotherapy; radiation and chemotherapy combination © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.13
Colon and Rectal Cancer Third leading cause of cancer death Third most commonly diagnosed cancer Risk factors: –Age –Genetic and dietary habits –Personal or family history of colon polyps, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer –Smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet high in fat or red or processed meat, diet inadequate in fruit and vegetables © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.14
Colon and Rectal Cancer Warning signs –Change in bowel movements –Change in stool size or shape –Pain in the abdomen or blood in the stool Early detection: –Rectal exams, stool test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, double-contrast barium enema, CT colonography Treatment –Surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.15
Colonoscopy © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.16 Colonoscopy.
Breast Cancer Second leading cause of cancer death in women Risk factors: –Early first menstruation –Late onset of menopause –Family history –Older age –Higher socioeconomic class –Women with no children or having children after 30 –Obesity after menopause –Hormone replacement therapy use –Drinking more than two alcoholic beverages a day © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.17
Breast Cancer Prevention: –Diet, exercise –Maintaining healthy body weight –Pregnancy and breastfeeding decisions Detection: –Breast self-exam –Mammography Treatment: –Lumpectomy –Mastectomy –Radiation and/or chemotherapy treatments © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.18
Prostate Cancer Second most common cause of cancer death in men Most commonly diagnosed cancer for men Risk factors –Age, family history –Race –High-fat diet Symptoms during the advanced stage –Difficulty urinating –Pain in the pelvic region –Pain with urination –Blood in the urine © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.19
Prostate Cancer Early detection –Digital rectal exam –Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screenings Treatment –Surgery –Radiation, sometimes in combination with chemotherapy –Hormonal medications © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.20
Cervical Cancer Risk factors: –HPV infection (cervical dysplasia), tobacco use, immunosuppression, multiple births, early sexual activity, multiple sex partners, socioeconomic status, and nutritional status Early detection through Pap test has significantly reduced the rates of cervical cancer and mortality Treatment: removal or destruction of precursor cells Invasive cervical cancer treated with combination of surgery, local radiation, and chemotherapy © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.21
Uterine Cancer (Endometrial Cancer) Risk factors: –Obesity, estrogen replacement therapy without progesterone, early menarche, late-onset menopause, irregular ovulation, infrequent periods Prevention: –Minimize high levels of estrogen and have regular physician care Treatment: –Hysterectomy; radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.22
Ovarian Cancer The leading gynecological cause of cancer death and the fifth overall cause of cancer death in women Risk factors: family history; personal history of breast, colon, or endometrial cancer Prevention: –Using oral contraception –Pregnancy, breastfeeding –Avoiding postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy, drug therapy © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.23
Skin Cancer Three forms of skin cancer: –Basal cell cancer: lesions and sores –Squamous cell cancer: raised bumps and sores –Melanoma: spreads quickly Risk factors –Severe childhood sunburn, chronic sun exposure during young adulthood, cumulative sun exposure –Large number of moles –Family history Prevention: reduce exposure to sun Treatment: surgery, local removal, chemotherapy, immunotherapy © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.24
The ABCD Evaluation of Moles for Melanoma © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.25 The ABCD evaluation of moles for melanoma.
Testicular Cancer Most common cancer for men aged 20–35 Risk factors: –Family history, personal history of testicular cancer in other testicle, abnormal development of the testes, history of undescended testicle, infertility or abnormal sperm Detection: –Self-exams –Medical exams Treatment: –Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.26
Oral Cancer Cancers that develop in the mouth or the pharynx Risk factors: –Use of cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and/or smokeless tobacco –High levels of alcohol consumption Early signs include: –Persistent sore in the mouth –Lump or bump that won’t heal –Patch of white or red along the gums or cheeks Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.27
Leukemia Group of cancers that originate in the bone marrow or other parts of the body where white blood cells form Involves the overproduction of one type of white blood cell and can lead to increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding Risk factors: –Cigarette smoking and exposure to chemicals –Ionizing radiation exposure –Infection with a virus Treatment: chemotherapy, possible bone marrow transplant © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.28
Lymphoma Cancers that originate in the lymph system, part of the body’s immune system –Hodgkin’s lymphoma; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Risk factors: –Infections, medications, or genetic change that weakens the immune system –Radiation, herbicides, insecticides, and some chemical exposures Treatment: –Often includes a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation –Can sometimes involve immunotherapy or bone marrow transplant © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.29
The Lymph System © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.30 The lymph system.
Cancer Screening Early detection is the key to successful treatment Screening tests are the key to early detection No test thus far has been shown to improve detection of some cancers, including lung and ovarian cancers, without increasing harm © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.31
Cancer Treatments Surgery: removal of tissue Chemotherapy: drug treatment that interferes with rapid cell division Radiation: destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding slower-dividing tissues Biological therapies: immunotherapy medications Bone marrow transplantation Gene therapy and genetic testing Complementary and alternative medicine Clinical trials © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.32
Living with Cancer If you or a family member is diagnosed with cancer: –Participate in decisions about treatment –Be an informed consumer –Consider how you will interact with others –Consider school or work obligations –Enlist support –Know what physical changes are likely to occur –Consider sperm or egg donation and freezing –Spiritual beliefs and practices can be important –Don’t think about cancer all the time © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.33
Chapter 15 Cancer 1 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill.
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