Nonspecialized: they do not carry out the functions of the tissues where they form. As a result the tissue loses its functioning power. Have abnormal nuclei, usually enlarged with mutated chromosomes displaying extra copies. Divide non stop and have the ability to form multiple layers, resulting in tumor formation. Do not undergo apoptosis and have mechanisms to resist immune system attack. May undergo metastasis (spreading out). May cause angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels). Characteristics of cancer cells. Have a much shorter cell cycle and enter mitosis more often.
Multiple mutations are generally needed for full- fledged cancer; thus the incidence increases with age. At the DNA level, a cancerous cell is usually characterized by at least one active oncogene and the mutation of several tumor-suppressor genes. Cancer and Aging
Carcinoma: Begins in the skin or in organ tissue. Makes up 80% of all cancers. Types of Cancer Lymphoma: Cancer of the lymphatic system. Melanoma: Cancer of the melanocytes (skin cells responsible for skin color). Leukemia: Cancer of blood-forming tissue in the bone marrow). Sarcoma: Cancer that starts connective tissue (fat, bone, muscle, cartilage..).
Pancreatic Cancer (Carcinoma) Probably the deadliest type of cancer due to its high mortality rate and low survival rate (1-year survival rate = 25%, 5-year survival rate = 6%, survival past the 5-year mark is extremely rare). “Silent killer” because early pancreatic cancer has no symptoms and tends to go undiagnosed until too late. Late cancer symptoms include abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea & vomiting, weight loss...
Surgery: If diagnosed early; requires preventive medicine. Examples: mastectomy, hysterectomy...) Treatment Chemotherapy: Drugs designed to arrest cell division or target fast-dividing cells. Many side-effects. Radiotherapy: Controlled doses of radiation designed to destroy cancerous tissue. Only possible for superficial cancers. Specialized treatments: Such as bone transplants for leukemia.