Presentation on theme: "UNIT 4 Reference & Expletive Objectives: 1. To identify pronouns as references and to identify (an) other and others 2. To recognize expletive ‘There’"— Presentation transcript:
UNIT 4 Reference & Expletive Objectives: 1. To identify pronouns as references and to identify (an) other and others 2. To recognize expletive ‘There’ and ‘It’
1. Reference There are 8 types of pronouns: a. Subject pronouns b. Object pronouns c. Possessive adjectives d. Possessive pronouns e. Demonstrative pronouns f. Relative pronouns g. Reflexive pronouns h. Other References
Examples : 1. We are reading the books 2. We are reading them. 3. The teacher is talking to us. 4. Our books are here. 5. These books are ours. 6. Your classmates, whose experiences are different from yours, are eager to help and be helped. 7. A: How long does it take them to get used to eating American food? B: That depends on the student and where he is from.
Forwards reference word e.g. -“For the first time that they can remember farmers in Latin America are relieved of the constant fear of vampire bats.” Backwards reference word e.g. - “Computers have many uses today. They can solve difficult problems and control complex machines.”
Remember that ‘it’ is not always used as a reference word. Although it is difficult to say anything definite about events that took place so long ago, scientists have been able to suggest some dates for the main stages in the history of our planet.
Another, other and the other(s) a. Another ‘Another’ is used with singular nouns to talk about an additional person or thing. e.g. Could I have another cup of tea? ‘Another’ is used with singular nouns to talk about an additional person or thing. e.g. He opened another shop last month.
‘ Another’ is also used with a number and a plural noun to talk about ‘more people or things’. e.g.: - We need another two hours to complete this assignment. - I’ve got another three books to read. b. Other ‘Other’ is used with plural nouns. e.g. I’ve got other things to think about.
c. The other(s) ‘The other’ is used with singular or plural nouns. e.g.: We have two students. One is still here, but the other (student) is gone. We beaten three European countries in the football matches, but the other countries have beaten us. (but the others have beaten us).
2. Expletive ‘there’ and ‘it’. a. There e.g. ‘ I like Miami; there are many nice beaches there.’ b. It ‘It’ is used in statements about time, weather, distance and identification.
Time Is it late? No, it’s early What time is it? It’s two o’clock Weather Is it raining? No, but it looks like rain Distance How far is it to Ani’s school? It’s about three kilometers
Identification Someone is at the door. Who is it? I don’t know. There was a telephone call for you this morning. Who was it? It was Jack.