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UNIT 4 REFERENCE & EXPLETIVE Objectives: 1. To identify pronouns as references and to identify (an) other and others 2. To recognize expletive There and.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 4 REFERENCE & EXPLETIVE Objectives: 1. To identify pronouns as references and to identify (an) other and others 2. To recognize expletive There and."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 4 REFERENCE & EXPLETIVE Objectives: 1. To identify pronouns as references and to identify (an) other and others 2. To recognize expletive There and It

2 1. Reference There are 8 types of pronouns: a. Subject pronouns b. Object pronouns c. Possessive adjectives d. Possessive pronouns e. Demonstrative pronouns f. Relative pronouns g. Reflexive pronouns h. Other References

3 Examples 1. We are reading the books 1. We are reading the books 2. We are reading them. 2. We are reading them. 3. The teacher is talking to us. 3. The teacher is talking to us. 4. Our books are here. 4. Our books are here. 5. These books are ours. 5. These books are ours. 6. Your classmates, whose experiences are different from yours, are eager to help and be helped 6. Your classmates, whose experiences are different from yours, are eager to help and be helped 7. A: How long does it take them to get used to eating American food? B: That depends on the student and where he is from. B: That depends on the student and where he is from.

4 Forward reference word E.g. For the first time that they can remember farmers in Latin America are relieved of the constant of vampire bats. Backward reference word E.g. Computers have many uses today. They can solve difficult problems and control complex machines.

5 Note: It is not always used as a reference word. For example Although it is difficult to say anything definite about events that took place so long ago, scientists have been able to suggest some dates for the main stages in the history of our planet.

6 Another, other and the other(s) a. Another Another is used with singular nouns to talk about an additional person or thing. e.g. Could I have another cup of tea? Another is used with singular nouns to talk about an additional person or thing. e.g. He opened another shop last month.

7 Another is also used with a number and a plural noun to talk about more people or things. e.g.: 1. We need another two hours to complete this assignment. 2. Ive got another three books to read. Another is also used with a number and a plural noun to talk about more people or things. e.g.: 1. We need another two hours to complete this assignment. 2. Ive got another three books to read. b. Other b. Other Other is used with plural nouns. Other is used with plural nouns. e.g. Ive got other things to think about. e.g. Ive got other things to think about.

8 c. The other(s) The other is used with singular or plural nouns. Examples: 1. We have two students. One is still here, but the other (student) is gone. 2. We have beaten three European countries in the football matches, but the other countries have beaten us. (but the others have beaten us).

9 2. Expletive there and it. a. There E.g. I like Jogyakarta; there are many tourism areas there. b. It E.g. It is used in statements about time, weather, distance and identification. weather, distance and identification.

10 Time Is it late? No, its early What time is it? Its two oclock Weather Is it raining? No, but it looks like rain Distance How far is it to Anis school? Its about three kilometers

11 Identification A: Someone is at the door. B: Who is it? A: I dont know. A: There was a telephone call for you this morning. B: Who was it? A: It was Jack.

12 THANK YOU …


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