Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Public Policy"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Public Policy Dr. Upul AbeyrathneDepartment of Economics,University of Ruhuna,Matara
2Relationship Between Public Policy and Politics The pioneers have distinguished between policy and policy implementation.Policy is a matter of value selection, a power struggle.Policy implementation is technical.
3Meaning of Public Policy “What Government do, why they do it and what difference it makes” (Thomas R. Dye ,1998, Understanding Public Policy)“A projected program of goals, values, and practice” (Harold Lasswell, 1979, Politics and economics of Public Policy)“ A selected line of action or declaration of intent” (cited in David Easton, 1965, A system analysis of political life)
4Meaning of Public Policy A purposive course of action followed by an an actor or set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concerned.”(Anderson, 1997, Public Policy Making )All of the above definition speaks of 1. A series of action 2. Public problem either real or perceivedThey are the outcome of deleberation of political authorities
5Meaning of Public Policy The public policies are subject to be changed on account of better information. This highlights the cyclic dimension.
6What does not grasp in the Above Definitions Past dimensionPresent DimensionFuture Dimension
7Features of Public Policies Goal orientedAre outcomes of Government’s collective actionsPublic policies depict the relationship a part of political system maintain with its specific environmentPublic policies may either be positive or negative (Action or inaction)
8Policy and decisionsPolicy is also a decision but it is more than a decision. It is broader.The core of a decision making is to make a choice from the alternative available in order to take an actionProgrammed and non-Programed decisionPublic Policies are broad directions that government lays down in order to take decisions . Policy involves a series of decisions
9Characteristics of Policy Making It is a complex process (Many actors connected through communication and feed back, some forces are observable. Some are hidden)It is a dynamic process (It is a continuing activity for sustenance within a structure. It requires continuous inputs of resources and motivation.)Policy Making Comprises various components
10Characteristics of Policy Making Policy Structures make different contributionPolicy making is a species of decision makingLays down major guidelinesResults in ActionsDirected at FutureFormulated by competent authorityAims at public interests
11Policy Analysis“Description and explanation of the causes and consequences of governmental activity” (Thomas Dye).He is in the opinion that public policy analysis should aimed at explanation rather than prescription.Accordingly the role of policy analyst is to attempt at developing and testing general propositions about the causes and consequence of public policy and to accumulate reliable research findings of general relevance.
12Policy AnalysisSome people like Grover Starling differs from the foregoing view. They think that policy study is interdisciplinary and should aim at facilitating to reach sound policy decisions.
13Types of Public Policies Substantive : They are concerned with general welfare and development of the society. They do not relate to any specific segment of society.Regulatory: There are sectors that need to be regulated to meet the requirments of public interests.
14Types of Public Policies Distributive : They are meant for specific segment of society. Health, education and poverty alleviation are some important areas in this regardRedistributive : Is concerned with fundamental re-arrangement of policies to make changes in the sphere of social and economic. It aims at avoiding disproportionate distribution of wealth and income.
15Types of Public Policies Capitalization Policies: Some times, government give subsidies to individuals and companies and they make no provision for public welfare.
16Scope of Public PolicyIt is dependent on the role assumed by the stateEven in this globalized capitalist minimal state, government has some inalienable duties (E.G. Husbandry and Midwifery Role etc)
17Two important Key Worlds None –programmed Decisions: Herbert A Simon distinguishes between Programmed and non-progrmmed Decisions. Non-Programme decision are new, novel and not structured. There is no ready made guidelines to make such decisions. They require innovation and creativityProgrammed Decisions: Have take according to the prescribed manner. They are routine.