Presentation on theme: "Anka Kekez Koštro Faculty of Political Science University of Zagreb PUBLIC POLICIES AND POLITICAL PROCESSES Academy for Political Development."— Presentation transcript:
Anka Kekez Koštro Faculty of Political Science University of Zagreb firstname.lastname@example.org PUBLIC POLICIES AND POLITICAL PROCESSES Academy for Political Development
What are public policies? DIMENSIONS OF POLITICAL PHENOMENA POLICY The substantial action of the State Rational problem solving. POLITICS Structured power relations between political actors POLITY The system of rules and norms In political community
THOMAS DYE: „whatever governments choose to do or not to do” DEFINING PUBLIC POLICIES Policy domains and sectors Constituted by government's involvement Political decision making Goals and instruments Inaction, impact without action
DEFINING PUBLIC POLICIES Public policy may:: Regulate behavior Organize administration and partnership for service provision Distribute benefits or extract taxes Inform and educate POLICY INSTRUMENTS SUBSTANTIVE AREAS: Defense Energy Environment Foreign affairs Education Welfare Health Education Economic opportunity ........
Context of policy process Birači, interesne skupine, stranke Political system Policy input Policy output Budget; Decisions, Laws, Directives... Policy outcomes Results Environment Social and economic conditions Source: MAP Savjetovanja Voters, interest groups, parties
Dimensions and complexity of public policies Transformation of governing process: government to governance Vertical, but also horizontal dimension of policy process PUBLIC GOVERNANCE/PUBLIC MANAGEMENT Public policies are created by Government Experts Stakeholders 6
Decision makers Legislative executive Direct implementers - public administration Stakeholders– interest groups, experts, parties, International actors– EU, WB Governmental agencies Other level’s of government Oversight– judiciary branch and regulatory agencies Media and public Policy actors – vertical and horizontal dimensions
Policy cycle Agenda setting Identifying problems Defining main goals 5. EVALUATION AND CHANGE Assessment of achievements Recommendation for continuation, modification or termination 4. POLICY IMPLEMENTATION management and coordination monitoring 2. FORMULATION/POLICY DEVELOPMENT Identifying alternatives Assessing options Development of policy design (goal and instruments) 3. DECISION MAKING AND LEGITIMIZATION formation implementation
PHASES AND ACTORS 1.Agenda setting– large number of actors 2. Policy formulation– number of actors diminishing, growing importance of experts 3. Legitimization formal actors media also 4. Implementation – defined implementers, administration, but also partners from society- 5. Evaluation -. Number of actors is again increasing- public discussion Izvor: MAP Savjetovanja
POLICY INSTRUMENTS AND POLICY DESIGN M. Howlett, M. Ramesh, A. Perl, Studing Public Policy: Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems NODALITYAUTHORITYTREASUREORGANISATION Information collection and release Licenses User charges Subsidies Grants Loans Direct provision of goods and services and public enterprises Education and training RegulationTaxes and tax expenditures Use of family, community and voluntary organizations Campaign and persuasion Self-regulation Program funding Market creation
WHY STUDY PUBLIC POLICY? 3. POLITICAL PURPOSES Advocacy, persuasion and support to preferred policy solutions 1. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES DESCRIPTION AND EXPLANATION scientific methods for generating and testing hypothesis 2. PROFESSIONAL PRESCRIPTION Application of knowledge in the solution of practical knowledge Dye, 1987: 1-18
STUDDING POLICY ISSUES) STUDDING POLICY PROCESS STUDDING OUTCOMES PUBLIC POLICY EVALUATION EVIDENCE BASED POLICY MAKING PROCESS ADVOCACY POLICY ADVOCACY ANALYTICAL APPROACHES TO PUBLIC POLICY 12 2. POLICY ANALYSIS – prescription 1.POLICY STUDIES –description and explanation 3. POLICY ADVOCACY -Advocacy, persuasion Dye, 1987: 1-18 i Hill, 2010:1 -22
Policy analysis in policy cycle POLICY PROBLEM ANALISIS EX POST EVALUATION POLICY DESIGN and EX ANTE EVALUATION MONITORING AND MIDTERM EVALUATION ACTOR’S ANALYSIS formation implementation
National Mid-level - regional Local Family Centres Labour Offices and other de- concentrated state officees Social Welfare Offices Social institutions Social institutions Social institutions Social institutions Social institutions EXAMPLE OF ACTOR ANALYSIS: PARALLELISM IN CROATIAN SOCIAL POLICY Horizontal dimension Vertical dimension
WHERE IS THE MISSING LINK? – Social Welfare Offices? – Cities? – NGOs? – Users? – Counties? –..........
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