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Punctuation Terresa Fontana, BSEd., MAEd. High School English.

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Presentation on theme: "Punctuation Terresa Fontana, BSEd., MAEd. High School English."— Presentation transcript:

1 Punctuation Terresa Fontana, BSEd., MAEd. High School English

2 Road Signs in Writing

3 End Marks  Period  Question Mark  Exclamation Point

4 Period  Declarative Sentence  Gives a statement  Imperative Sentence  Makes a command End Marks

5 Write a declarative sentence. Write an imperative sentence. End Marks

6 Period  Indirect Question  Mentions asking someone else a ?  Polite Request  Command disguised as a question  Abbreviations  Organizations that are not well-known End Marks

7 Give an example of an indirect question. Give an example of a polite request disguised as a question. Name an organization whose abbreviations should have periods. End Marks

8 Question Mark  Interrogative Sentence  Asks a question Write an interrogative sentence. End Marks

9 Exclamation Point  Exclamatory Sentence  Surprise, fear, excitement  Strong command (imperative) Write two exclamatory sentences. End Marks

10 Commas To join independent clauses (one comma) To join independent clauses (one comma) WITH coordinating conjunctions WITH coordinating conjunctions and and but but or or nor nor for for so so yet yet

11 Commas Add commas as needed to the following sentences. 1) We are going to the mall but we can’t watch a movie. 2) I have to study so I can’t go to the party. 3) I am thirsty for I have been talking too much. 4) I study yet I don’t understand.

12 Commas To show words omitted (one comma) To show words omitted (one comma) Separate 3+ items Separate 3+ items words words phrases phrases clauses clauses

13 Commas Add commas and delete words as needed in the following sentences. 1) I have homework in English and Biology and Algebra and History. 2) I love to go shopping and to eat pizza and to ride my motorcycle to school. 3) Mom said that we have to buy school supplies then I have to do my homework and then I can go online to chat with my friends.

14 Commas Between 2+ coordinate adjectives before a noun (one comma) Between 2+ coordinate adjectives before a noun (one comma) coordinate = similar coordinate = similar happy, jolly elf cold, dark night damp, dank basement

15 Commas Add commas only between coordinate adjectives in the following phrases. steel gray pipe narrow winding road long tedious practice brown-haired blue-eyed child two oversized blueberry muffins

16 Commas To avoid misreading (one comma) To avoid misreading (one comma) Before we ate my brother John prayed. Let’s eat Grandma.

17 Commas To set off non-essential elements (pair of commas) To set off non-essential elements (pair of commas) Non-essential Non-essential If removed, sentence makes sense If removed, sentence makes sense Just gives extra info Just gives extra info If first/last in sentence, only one comma used (no pair) If first/last in sentence, only one comma used (no pair) Appositive (AP) = noun follows noun = explain/identify Appositive (AP) = noun follows noun = explain/identify Short = usually essential Short = usually essential Participial phrases Participial phrases Adjective clauses Adjective clauses Adverb clauses Adverb clauses

18 Commas Mrs. Fontana, my English teacher, has two children. (AP Phrase) My son Steffan teaches TaeKwonDo. (Essential AP) The boys, having finished their homework, went outside to play. (Part. Phrase) After I ran to the car, I realized I had forgotten my keys. (Adverb Clause)

19 Commas After a direct address After a direct address Person spoken to in sentence Person spoken to in sentence After beginning of sentence After beginning of sentence well, yes, no, etc. well, yes, no, etc. To set off parenthetical expressions To set off parenthetical expressions in fact, indeed, I think, in fact, indeed, I think, however, of course, etc. however, of course, etc.

20 Commas Add commas as needed to the following sentences. 1) Sara please set the table. 2) My sisters Carrie Sue and Maggie will be here for dinner. 3) I do indeed need to finish my homework. 4) Of course if you don’t study you’ll probably fail. 5) If you eat at Chili’s be sure to order the chips and salsa. 6) You’re doing fine Michael. 7) My daughter Morgan graduated last year. 8) Yes I do believe Jesus is my Savior. 9) Please Marcus read on page 9 of your book.

21 Commas After introductory phrases/clauses After introductory phrases/clauses Only if NOT used as the subject Only if NOT used as the subject Exercising regularly is good for your health. Exercising regularly, I improved my health.

22 Commas Separate parts of addresses / dates in a sentence Separate parts of addresses / dates in a sentence March 1994 = NO comma March 23, 1994 = one comma On March 23, 1994, Morgan was born. = 2 commas! No comma btwn state + zip code No comma btwn state + zip code Eugene, Oregon If no zip code, one comma after the state If no zip code, one comma after the state Eugene, Oregon, is a nice town.

23 Commas After salutation (friendly letter) After salutation (friendly letter) Dear John, With love,

24 Semicolon Between IND clauses (that don’t have a comma + coord conj) Between IND clauses (that don’t have a comma + coord conj) With coordinating conj With coordinating conj Commas within clauses Commas within clauses Long clauses Long clauses With transitions With transitions

25 Semicolon Between items in a series that includes commas Between items in a series that includes commasExample: I have visited Atlanta, Georgia; Baltimore, Maryland; and Jackson, Mississippi.

26 Colon Before listed items Before listed items Esp after “follows” / “following” Esp after “follows” / “following” NOT before direct object, indirect object, or object of preposition NOT before direct object, indirect object, or object of preposition

27 Colon Before formally announced quotation Before formally announced quotation Between IND clauses Between IND clauses When 2 nd explains 1 st When 2 nd explains 1 st Between chapter/verse (Bible) Between chapter/verse (Bible) Between hour/minute Between hour/minute After salutation (business) After salutation (business) Dear Sirs: To Whom it May Concern:

28 Dash After a series / before a statement (opposite of colon) After a series / before a statement (opposite of colon) To show stutter / break in speech To show stutter / break in speech To show emphatic parenthetical element To show emphatic parenthetical element

29 Parentheses Brief confirming information Brief confirming information Confidential comments to reader Confidential comments to reader Explanatory info (for clarity) Explanatory info (for clarity)

30 Brackets Editorial comments Editorial comments As parentheses within parentheses As parentheses within parentheses

31 Quotation Marks Direct quotations (exact words of speaker) Direct quotations (exact words of speaker) Capitalize 1 st word of DQ Capitalize 1 st word of DQ If interrupted, don’t capitalize 2 nd part If interrupted, don’t capitalize 2 nd part

32 Quotation Marks Direct quotations (exact words of speaker) Direct quotations (exact words of speaker) Set off by punctuation Set off by punctuation, or. = inside =.” or,”, or. = inside =.” or,” ; or : = outside = ”; or ”: ; or : = outside = ”; or ”: ! or ? = depends ! or ? = depends DQ = inside = !” or ?” DQ = inside = !” or ?” Not DQ = outside = ” ! Or ” ? Not DQ = outside = ” ! Or ” Begin 1 st sentence / end last Begin 1 st sentence / end last sentence

33 Quotation Marks New quotations for each new speaker New quotations for each new speaker Titles of short works Titles of short works Poems Poems Stories Stories Songs Songs Chapters Chapters Articles Articles Single ‘quotation marks’ = quote within a quote Single ‘quotation marks’ = quote within a quote

34 Italics Titles of BIG works / things Titles of BIG works / things Books Books Magazines Magazines Newspapers Newspapers Plays Plays Art Art Paintings Paintings Sculptures Sculptures Long musical compositions Long musical compositions Trains Trains Ships Ships Submarines Submarines Air/Spacecraft Air/Spacecraft

35 Italics Words, letters, numbers = referred to as such Words, letters, numbers = referred to as such A’s A’s 3’s 3’s the words affect and effect the words affect and effect Foreign words/phrases (not common in English) Foreign words/phrases (not common in English) NOT proper names NOT proper names

36 Hyphens Divide word at end of line Divide word at end of line Compound numbers (twenty-one to ninety-nine) Compound numbers (twenty-one to ninety-nine) Fractions as adjectives Fractions as adjectives Two-thirds majority Two-thirds majority NOT two thirds of the class NOT two thirds of the class

37 Apostrophe Possessive case = Noun Possessive case = Noun = ‘s or s’ = ‘s or s’ NEVER with plural nouns NEVER with plural nouns Joint possession Joint possession Last word = ‘s Last word = ‘s Tom and Sue’s dog Tom and Sue’s dog Tom’s and Sue’s cars Tom’s and Sue’s cars Possessive case = indefinite pronouns Possessive case = indefinite pronouns anybody’s anybody’s someone’s someone’s

38 Apostrophe Show letters / #s omitted Show letters / #s omitted don’t don’t you’re you’re ’90s ’90s Pluralize letters/#s/signs/ words referred to as words Pluralize letters/#s/signs/ words referred to as words +’s-’sand’s but’s +’s-’sand’s but’s NOT for years = 1990s NOT for years = 1990s

39 Road Signs in Writing

40 Punctuation Terresa Fontana, BSEd., MAEd. Kearny Christian Academy


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