End Notes Periods Question Marks Exclamation Point
Semicolons Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses not joined by a conjunction. Clauses must directly relate to each other. – My mother works in a school; she does not teach. Can also be used to separate clauses that are joined by a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression – A cloudless blue sky dawned that morning; nevertheless, rain was expected. – We needed to fit the whole family around the dinner table; as a result, Dad pulled out the extra leaf.
Colon Used mainly as an introductory device before a list – I bought my father several gifts: a shirt, a tie, and a pair of shorts. Use to introduce a sentence that summarizes or explains the sentence before it. – His tuna casserole lacked one vital ingredient: He forgot the tuna! Use to introduce a formal appositive that follows an independent clause. – I missed one important paragraph lesson: writing a topic sentence.
Quotation Marks Use to show a direct quotation – Joey said, “I love ham and cheese sandwiches in the morning!” Use around titles of short works of literature (short stories, poems, etc.) – “Ambush”
Underlining Underline long written works, such as books, plays, periodicals, newspapers, and long poems – The Stranger – The New York Times Underline movies, t.v. shows, radio shows, paintings, sculptures, and other works of art Underline the names of individual sea, space, and land craft – USS Alabama
Dashes Used to indicate an abrupt change in thought – I cannot believe I missed that test- oh, I don’t even want to think about it. Used to set off interrupting ideas dramatically – The slam dunk-the most spectacular shot in basketball- makes a great addition to any highlight film. To set off a summary statement – To see his jersey hanging from the rafters- this is his greatest dream.
Parentheses Used to set off asides and explanations when the information is not necessary. – Nancy perfected her passing (only after years of practice) and will now begin the year as the starting point guard. Used to set off numerical expressions – John Smith (1875-1950) was a great teacher.
Hyphens Used to divide certain numbers and words – Ninety-nine – One-half – All-star – Senator-elect Used in compound words – Well-prepared – Jet-propelled
Apostrophe Used to show possession – Add an ‘s to the end of singular nouns- dog’s; Sarah’s; James’s – Add an ‘ to show possession at the end of plural nouns that end in s or es- moths’; cats’ Used in contraction – Used to show a missing letter or letters Are not- aren’t I am- I’m ‘03