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Capitalization and Punctuation

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Presentation on theme: "Capitalization and Punctuation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Capitalization and Punctuation
Chapter 13, pg 216

2 Why? Writers use capital letters and punctuation marks to help the reader better understand what is written.

3 1st word of every sentence
All sentences begin with capital letters. We enjoyed reading the book. Those girls finished cleaning the counter.

4 Specific things/places (proper nouns)
Proper nouns begin with capital letters. Mrs. Clark asked if Amy would help. Uncle Rob took us to Texas.

5 Capital Letters I don’t need your help.
The pronoun I is always capitalized. I don’t need your help. My aunt and I picked up the papers.

6 Capital Letters A capital letter begins the first, last, and any important word in the title of a book, magazine, song, movie, poem, or other work. Read the last chapter of Tom Sawyer. She saw Snow White when she was five years old.

7 To capitalize or not to capitalize
Do! Don’t Days of the week, months of the year, holidays Language, nationalities, races, religions, deities, sacred terms Titles: the first word and every important term First words of direct quotes Historical events, periods Brand names Seasons Common nouns that refer to religious places like “church” Titles: do not capitalize articles (the), prepositions (of, under, OVER), or short connecting words (or, and) Directions (north, south, east and west- unless used in a place name)

8 Practice, exercise 2 pg 219 Every tuesday, the general visits the hospital. On one level, the book the lord of the rings can be read as a fairy tale: on another level, the book can be read as a christian allegory. The golden gate bridge in san francisco may be the most beautiful bridge in the world. She is the sister of my french teacher. Tuesday, the general visits the hospital. The Lord of the Rings Christian allegory. Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco may French teacher.

9 Punctuation: Period A complete sentence that makes a statement ends with a period. It’s your birthday. You blow out the candle.

10 Punctuation: Comma He was silent, lonely, and afraid. Or
separate three or more items in a list or a phrase. He was silent, lonely, and afraid Or He was silent, lonely and afraid.

11 Punctuation: Comma Miami, Florida January 6, 2003
separates items in an address or date. Miami, Florida January 6, 2003

12 Punctuation: Comma My favorite, old, green coat.
Set off number of adjectives that modify a noun My favorite, old, green coat.

13 Punctuation: Comma To combine two simple sentences, use the comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) The house was on fire, but I was determined not to leave.

14 Punctuation: Comma Surrounding word/phrase when the idea interrupts.
Follow introductory words, expressions: In the beginning, I never thought I would. Surrounding word/phrase when the idea interrupts. Dave, who is a doctor, said to!

15 Punctuation: Comma Set off exact words in a dialog
In numbers of one thousand+ 1,001 Set off exact words in a dialog “I won’t,” he insisted, “do this!” When you need a short pause To John, Russel is the best!

16 Punctuation: Apostrophe
To form possessive The teacher’s pen To form plurals (prevent confusion) he writes a’s and o’s When one+ letters omitted Can’t, shouldn’t, She’ll

17 Punctuation: Quotation Marks
Quotation marks are used to identify the exact words of a speaker . President Bush said, “We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail.”

18 Punctuation: Quotation Marks
Quotes or Material copied word-for-word from a source Titles of short stories, one-act plays, poems, articles, songs, essays, chapters of books When terms are referred to in a special way.

19 Punctuation: Semi-Colon
To join 2 independent clauses He decided to use the map; she decided to ask. In front of adverbial conjunction to join 2 sentences He decided to use a map; however, she decided to ask. In a series of items when the items themselves have commas! I had lunch with Linda, my best friend; Mrs. Armstrong, my English teacher; and Jan, my sister-in-law.

20 Punctuation: Colon Before a list of items
Please order: five dozen pencils, twenty rulers, five tacks. In the salutation of business letter To whom it may concern: Indicating time 1:15pm Between title and subtitle of a book In Plain English Please: A Rhetoric

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