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Capitalization and punctuation By Cristian walle.

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Presentation on theme: "Capitalization and punctuation By Cristian walle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Capitalization and punctuation By Cristian walle

2 Capitalize 1. Capitalize the first word of a sentence 2. The first word of a sentence following a colon can begin with a small letter or a capital latter. Be consistent throughout your writing. 3. Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation that is a complete sentence, even if its is within another sentence.

3 Capitalize cont. 4. Capitalize the pronoun I and the interjection O. capitalize the word oh only when it appears at the beginning of a sentence. 5. Capitalize the names of specific persons, places, things, or ideas. Capitalize the adjective that are formed from proper nouns.

4 Capitalize cont. 6. Capitalize the first letter of last names after the prefixes D, L, O, Mc, and Mac. 7. Capitalize compass directions only when they designate a specific person directly. 8. Capitalize family relationships only when the designate a specific person directly.

5 Capitalize cont. 9. Capitalize every word in the titles of works of literature and film except articles ( a, an, the, ) prepositions, conjunctions, and the “to” in infinitives. Theses rules apply unless the above parts of speech are the first or last words in the title. 10. Capitalize every word that appears in an address. Capitalize all letters in address abbreviations. If a period follows the abbreviation, capitalize only the first letters.

6 Capitalize cont. 11. Capitalize the name of every month and day of the weed that appears in a date. Also, capitalize the word “day” if it appears after a holiday. However, do not capitalize the seasons. 12. Capitalize titles that come before a proper name

7 Capitalize cont 13. Capitalize the first word and every noun of salutations and the first word of closings of letters. 14. Capitalize the first word in every line where there is a numbered or lettered heading, such as am outline.

8 Commas 1. Commas separate independent clauses ( groups of words that form a coherent sentence ) only when they are joined by a conjunction ( words such as and, but, or, nor, yet, ) 2. Commas are used to set nonrestrictive elements off from the rest of the sentence. Nonrestrictive elements are clauses, appositive, and phrases that are not essential to the words they modify. Restrictive elements, on the other hand, are essential to the meaning of the words they modify and are set off by commas.

9 Commas cont. 3. Commas usually follow an introductory word phrase, clause, or expression. 4. Commas are used to separate items in a series of three or more words, and excelled in phrases. 5. Commas are used to set off added comments or information. Transitional expressions such as conjunctive adverbs are also set off with commas.

10 Commas cont. 6. Commas are used to set off direct address, tag question, interjections, and opposing elements. 7. Commas are used before and after quotations. Commas are not used when the quotations is a question, and interjection, an indirect quotation, or when the quotations includes the word that.

11 Commas cont. 8. Commas are not used after a quotation is an exclamatory statement or a question. 9. Commas are used between the date and year as well as after the year. 10. Commas are used after the street address of PO Box, city, and state in addresses. If the zip code is included, do not place a comma between the state and the zip code.

12 Quotation marks 1. Use quotation marks to signify a direct quotation. 2. Use quotation marks to signify a short work of literature or a speech. Also, use single quotation marks when the title of any short work inside a person quotation. 3. Do not use quotation marks for indirect marks for indirect quotations because they do not contain someone exact words. Conjunctions like that, if, who, what, and why often introduce indirect quotation

13 colons 1. Use a colon to introduce a list, series quotation, or formal statement. 2. Use a colon before a second independent clause which restates or explains the first clause. 3. Use a colon after a greeting in formal business letter. 4. Use a colon to separate chapters and verses in the bible and to separate hours and minutes.

14 Semicolons 1. Semicolons separate independent clauses that are not joined conjunction. Usually, semicolons are used in place of periods when the two independent clauses are closely related. 2. Semicolons separate independents clauses that are joined by sentence interrupters for instance, nevertheless, besides, moreover, instead, besides, ect.

15 Semicolons cont. 3. Semicolons are sometimes used to split independent clause when there are several commas inside the clauses. 4. Semicolons are used if a colon precede items in a series and if commas are part of the items.

16 Using apostrophes 1. Contraction are combinations of two words that leave out certain letters. The places for the missing letters are marked with apostrophes. 2. The words it and is are contracted as its. H however, if it acts as a possessive pronoun, the word changes to its.

17 Using apostrophes cont. 3. Apostrophe can signal omissions in phrases. 4. Apostrophes can be used to make the plural form of letters, symbols, numbers, and term words.

18 Hyphen 1. Word parts- use hyphen between a prefix and a proper noun or proper adjective. 2. Use hyphen to connect two or more nouns that are used as one word. 3. Use a hyphen to connect a compound adjective that comes before a noun. 4. Do not use a hyphen in compound word one of the words ends in ly or in a compound proper adjective.

19 Hyphen cont. 5. Use a hyphen when writing out the numbers twenty- one nine. A fraction used as an objective needs a hyphen. 6. Use a hyphen to show word has been broken into syllables and continued on the next line.

20 End punctuation 1. A period comes after a complete statement. 2. A question mark comes after any question. 3. An exclamation point follows an emotional or forceful statement.

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