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DGP Thursday Notes Punctuation and Capitalization.

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Presentation on theme: "DGP Thursday Notes Punctuation and Capitalization."— Presentation transcript:

1 DGP Thursday Notes Punctuation and Capitalization

2 CAPITALIZATION 1.Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives 2.Capitalize the first word of each sentence.

3 SEMICOLON 1.Joins two clauses without a coordinating conjunction. He likes apples; she likes oranges. 2.Can be used in series with comma for clarity. We went to London, England; Paris, France; Madrid, Spain; and Rome, Italy.

4 APOSTROPHE 1.Us e apostrophes to make words possessive and to make contractions. 2.DO NOT use apostrophes to make words plural. 3.Possessive pronouns DO NOT use apostrophes. (hers, its, ours, yours, etc.) 4.Be sure you have a real word before your apostrophe: children’s toys, NOT childrens’ toys. 5.If the word is plural and ends in “s,” add apostrophe only: dogs’ owners. 6.Treat singular nouns ending in “s” just like any other singular noun: boss’s, Brutus’s.

5 UNDERLINING/ITALICISING 1.Underlining and italicizing are the same thing. 2.Underline or italicize titles of long things: newspapers, magazines, CDs, movies, novels, plays, musical compositions, etc. 3.Underline or italicize names of ships, planes, trains, and artwork. 4.Underline or italicize foreign expressions.

6 QUOTATION MARKS 1.Quote titles of short things; short stories, poems, songs, articles, episodes of TV shows, etc. 2.Quote dialogue and words copied from other sources. 3.Commas and periods that follow quoted words always go inside closing quotation marks. (I said, “Go home.”) 4.Colons and semicolons that follow quoted words always go outside closing quotation marks. (We’re “friends”; we don’t date.) 5.Use single quotations marks ONLY to enclose quotes within quotes. 6.Use double quotations marks in all other situations. (He’s a real “team player.”)

7 1. COMMAS Adverb dependent clause + Independent clause If it rains, we’ll go inside

8 COMMAS Adverb dependent clause = subordinating conjunction + subject + verb

9 COMMAS Common subordinating conjunctions: becauseafter until asthough so that sincewhenever before ifeven unless whileas if althoughwhen

10 2. COMMAS Independent clause No comma when “if” is used Adverb dependent clause We’ll go inside if it rains.

11 3. COMMAS Independent clause + cc Independent clause Joe likes pizza, but Fred likes tacos.

12 COMMAS Coordinating conjunctions FANBOYS for and nor but or yet so

13 4. COMMAS Subject verb cc Verb Joe likes pizza but does not like vegetables. (no comma is used)

14 6. COMMAS In troductory participial phrase Running down the hall, he tripped and fell.

15 7. COMMAS In troductory prepositional phrase After English class, we go to lunch.

16 8. COMMAS, nonessential appositive, We read The Great Gatsby, a novel, in class. We read the novel The Great Gatsby in class.

17 9. COMMAS, nonessential adjective clause, Jane, who drives a red car, is nice. All students who skip school should be suspended.

18 COMMAS Adjective dependent clause = relative pronoun + subject + verb

19 COMMAS Relative pronouns: that which who whom whose

20 10. COMMAS Items, in, series Please buy apples, oranges, and bananas. I like the warm, fuzzy blanket.

21 11. COMMAS, noun of direct address Tom, would you hand me the phone? Please don’t sit there, Sue.

22 12. COMMAS day of the week, month date, year, The baby is expected on Sunday, February 27, 2010, in Georgia.

23 14. COMMAS introductory word Well, I hope these notes come in handy. However, you must use them.

24 15. COMMAS, interrupter, These notes, I think, will help you if you use them.

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