Presentation on theme: "GROSS MOVEMENT OF THE YOUNG CHILD Jacqueline D. Goodway Jacqueline D. Goodway Crystal F. Branta Crystal F. Branta Peng Zhang Peng Zhang."— Presentation transcript:
GROSS MOVEMENT OF THE YOUNG CHILD Jacqueline D. Goodway Jacqueline D. Goodway Crystal F. Branta Crystal F. Branta Peng Zhang Peng Zhang
Motor development is a complex process that occurs over the lifespan.
Rudimentary movements: Postural reflexes and the rudimentary movements Constraints Newell (1984) : Task Environment Individual (both functional and structural)
Fundamental motor skills (FMS) Locomotors skills such as running, Manipulative (also called object control) skills such as throwing, Non-locomotor skills such as bending.
§8.1 MODELS OF MOTOR DEVELOPMENT Seefeldt (1980) proposed one of the earliest models shaped like a pyramid, and called the Sequential Progression in the Achievement of Motor Proficiency In his model, reflexes serve as the basis for all future movements while the FMS are a broad level of development built upon the reflex base.
“Hour Glass” (Gallahue and Ozmun (2006) ) The falling sands into the hour glass represent the development of motor skills as they are influenced by both heredity and environment. As the sands landed in the bottom of the hour glass, they build the phases and stages of motor development across the lifespan.
The Motor Development Mountain (Clark and Metcalfe (2002) ) Clark and Metcalfe proposed that progression up the mountain was specific to individuals and the constraints they experienced along the route. Therefore, individuals could go up different peaks of the mountain range depending upon their constraints.
Age is not a primary factor in their model as progression is determined by these individual experiences and not by how long an individual remains on the mountain.
§8.2UNDERSTANDING SKILL PATTERN DEVELOPMENT Two essential ways to understand the development of specific skill patterns in young children. Through identification of sequences of development Through the dynamical systems paradigm. we contend that much can be gained by combining the two approaches.
Sequences of Development The Total Body Approach whereby characteristics across body segments are identified as emerging in the majority of children fairly simultaneously The Component Approach specific characteristics are identified for a segment of the body such as arms, trunk or legs.
§8.3 Dynamical systems paradigm A framework of motor development that is non-linear is the dynamical systems paradigm. That means that pattern shifts are not thought of in linear terms such as immature to mature;
Shifts result in individuals performing in a variety of states commonly called attractors. Attractors are common forms of movement seen in specific situations and are typically comfortable ways of moving to which individuals gravitate as they practice moving.
§8.4 MANIPULATIVE SKILLS – PART I Manipulative skills are a sub-set of skills that involve manipulating or controlling objects such as bats and balls. There are many manipulative skills including throwing, catching, kicking, punting, striking, rolling, and bouncing/dribbling.
---Throwing Throwing is one of the most functionally useful fundamental motor skills as it is inherent in sports like baseball and softball and involved in sports such as basketball, soccer and cricket.
Development of the Overarm Throw Throwing is a complex gross motor skill that involves the interaction of different body parts coordinating with each other to apply sophisticated biomechanical principles in action resulting in the transfer of significant force to the ball.
Total Body Developmental Sequence of Overarm Throwing Fundame ntal Moto r SkillStage 1Stage 2Stage 3Stage 4Stage 5 Throw Chop Vertical wind-up "Chop" throw Feet stationar y No spinal rotation Sling Shot Horizontal wind-up "Sling shot throw" Block Rotation Follow- through across body Ipsilateral Step High wind up Ipsilateral step Little spinal rotation Follow-through across body Contralateral Step High wind up Contralateral step Little spinal rotation Follow-through across body Wind Up Downward arc wind up Contralateral step Segmented body rotation Arm-Leg Follow- through
第八章 第四节 Line Tracings of the Total Body Five Stages of Throwing
STEP ACTION COMPONENT S-1 No Step S-2 Homolateral Step S-3 Contralateral, Short Step S-4 Contralateral, Long Step Body Component Developmental Sequences for Throwing
FOREARM ACTION COMPONENT DURING FORWARD SWING F-1 No Forearm Lag F-2 Forearm Lag F-3 Delayed Forearm Lag
Product Measures of Throwing Distance thrown, accuracy of the ball thrown, and velocity or speed of the ball are common product measures used to evaluate overarm throwing proficiency.
Two major outcomes are known about these product measures of throwing: There are distinct gender differences in outcome measures of throwing There are age-related increases in outcome measures of throwing
Constraints in Throwing Motor performance is a product of the interaction between and among individual, task, and environmental constraints.
Each of these factors below causes throwing performance to vary in relation to the constraints operating on the system.
Stability and Variability in Throwing Performance Often, variability in throwing performance initially results in poor performance, but as patterns stabilize, new more proficient patterns of throwing emerge.
Learner Constraints -----Biological Factors -----Gender and Age
Task Constraints Task constraints are factors related to the goal of the activity. In throwing, the commonly investigated areas have dealt with throwing for accuracy versus force.
From a constraints perspective, the task or goal of the activity has a powerful influence on the pattern we demonstrate throwing. Throwing for distance/force versus throwing for accuracy only seems to influence the throwing patterns of more advanced performers.
Environmental Constraints Environmental constraints deal with those factors external to the individual. Environmental constraints include the manipulation of the throwing environment such as the distance to be thrown and the size of the target. It also includes the size of the ball and socio-cultural influences such as opportunities to practice throwing, and differential effects of instruction.
Socio-Cultural Factors Ball Mass Distance Thrown and Size of Target
The Influence of Instruction on Throwing Performance A significant environmental constraint is the influence of instruction on throwing performance. Highlights the need to develop teaching strategies for the overarm throw can help both boys and girls to improve their throwing performance.
Catching Catching is a commonly used skill in sports, games and lifetime activities. It is a manipulative skill where the goal of the activity is to retain possession of the object.
Inexperienced Catchers Often he/she turns the head to the side, closes the eyes, and leans away from the incoming ball for fear of being hit in the face. She/he does not track the balls flight and just responds at the last moment as the ball comes toward the body. The arms are often presented in front and the body and the arms and hands make little or no adjustments to the spatial characteristics of the ball.
第八章 第四节 Development of Two-Handed Catching Total Body Developmental Sequence of Two-Handed Catching
Kicking Kicking is a ballistic skill that is a form of striking with the foot. Regardless of the type of kicking, children need to possess eye-foot coordination, balance, and perceptual motor abilities.
Inexperienced Kickers Unlike skilled kickers that have preparatory, force production, and follow-through actions; inexperienced kickers tend to show a single motion that lacks the power producing aspects of the proficient kick. Less skilled kickers tend to stand behind the ball, pick their manipulative foot slightly off the ground, and push the ball forward with no observable rear leg swing.
There is little, if any, motion of the upper body and the arms tend to hang by their sides. When the foot makes contact with the ball the manipulative leg is often flexed, and once it has kicked the ball it often retracts.
第八章 第四节 Development of Kicking four stage sequence for the place kick using the total body approach.
PUNTING Proficient Punters
Inexperienced Punters The performance of an inexperienced punter is very similar to that of a poorly skilled kicker. Unlike proficient punters that have preparatory, force production, and follow-through actions, Inexperienced punters often toss the ball up and demonstrate a motion that lacks the power producing dynamics of proficient punters.
Less skilled punters will start from a stationary position. Rather than dropping the ball to their foot, as their manipulative leg is raised to punt the ball, their arms raise in tandem with the leg, and they toss the ball up into the air in a pattern coined “yoking” (Seefeldt & Haubenstricker, 1975). The timing of the toss is characteristically out of synch with the timing of the leg swing.
There is no rear leg swing, and the manipulation leg is “pushed” in front of the stability leg with the ankle at a right angle.
Due to the lack of forces generated, the poorly skilled punter does not require follow through movements, with little trunk action and the arms falling to the side once the ball leaves the hands.
Total Body Developmental Sequence of Punting
Ball-Release Phase: Arm Component Step 1- Upward toss. Step 2 - Late drop from chest height. Step 3 - Late drop from waist height. Step 4 - Early drop from chest. Component Developmental Sequence of Punting
Ball-Contact Phase: Leg Action Component Step 1 - No step or short step; ankle flexed. No step or one short step is taken. Step 2 - Long step; ankle extension. Step 3 - Leap and hop.
STRIKING Striking is a ballistic, propulsion skill that takes on many forms in many sports and is taught across the school-aged physical education curriculum. There are several forms of striking such as sidearm, underarm and overarm, one-handed and two-handed.
Inexperienced Strikers The unskilled performance of inexperienced strikers is very similar to the “chopping” motion of poorly skilled throwers. Low skilled strikers often face the object they are trying to strike, have an overarm pattern of chopping, and swing the implement from high to low with flexion and extension of the arm.
There is little or no backswing and often no step; if there is a step it is with the ipsilateral foot. There is also no trunk and hip rotation. The arms are often rigid along with a rigid wrist that is unable to change the angle of the racket or bat to the oncoming object.
第八章 第四节 Development of Two-Handed Striking (Batting) Total Body Developmental Sequence of Striking with a Bat
§8.5 LOCOMOTOR SKILLS Motor skills that allow individuals to navigate through space are referred to as locomotor skills. Running, galloping, hopping, skipping, and jumping are the most common forms of locomotion studied.
Running Running is a form of locomotion that involves projecting the body forward on alternating feet as the bases of support. An extension of walking, running incorporates an airborne phase during which both feet are off the ground.
Inexperienced Runners Less experienced runners keep their bodies in a vertical plane when running and utilize their arms more for balance than for contributing to the forward movement of the run. Novice runners will have wide stances and short, flat-footed strides;
They will lift their knees upward, and hold their arms in a high guard or middle guard position. These arm positions help to stabilize the trunk during the run and offer some degree of protection if the young runner falls forward.
第八章 第五节 Development of Running Total Body Developmental Sequence in Running
Leg Component L-1: Minimal flight, flat-footed. Feet toe out and swing leg curves outward. L-2: Flight time increases, often still flat-footed. Longer stride and recovery knee flexed to at least 90 degrees. Thigh has lateral swing causing recovery foot to cross midline of the body in the rear. L-3: Complete extension at take-off. Foot contact is heel or ball of the foot. Higher heel recovery in swing phase and knee lift in forward swing.
Arm Component A-1: High guard to middle guard. Do not contribute to the running action. A-2: Swing bilaterally to counter hip and leg swing. A-3: Opposition but swing across the body in oblique plane. Elbow flexion forward and extension backward. A-4: Opposition but arms driven in forward or backward plane with elbows flexed
Jumping Jumping is a body projection skill that involves a take-off and landing on both feet. As an explosive movement, jumping requires strength and dynamic balance in order to be executed correctly. Arms, legs, and trunk must be coordinated at take-off, repositioned in flight, and be ready to absorb the impact of landing.
Proficient Horizontal Jumpers
Inexperienced Jumpers They often fail to get airborne; or, they just clear the surface in a small jump up. Novice jumpers do not crouch with their knees flexed about 90 degrees and rarely extend the arms, body, and trunk simultaneously with force.
Because their timing, balance, leg strength, and coordination are not well established, young jumpers often fail to take-off from both feet at the same time. They exhibit extraneous arm motion that does not contribute to an effective, efficient movement and many times lose their balance upon landing.
Development of Horizontal Jumping 第八章 第五节 Total Body Developmental Sequence of Jumping
Leg Component L-1: One foot take-off. Little preparatory knee flexion. L-2: Knee extension begins prior to heel lift from surface L-3: Simultaneous extension of knees with heel lift L-4: Heels up first, knees extend next. Jumper appears to tip forward Body Component Developmental Sequence of Jumping
Arm Component A-1: No action or shoulder girdle retraction. A-2: Arms start out to side and swing forward or to the side A-3: Arms swing forward at take-off but do not fully extend overhead A-4: Arms extend overhead at point of take-off.
Vertical Jumping The primary difference in the vertical jump as compared to the horizontal jump is in body position, angle at take-off, and movement speed. In the horizontal position, the hips have to extend faster, while in the vertical jump the ankles and knees extend faster (Clark, Phillips, & Peterson, 1989).
In the vertical jump, the body must be lifted directly upward against gravity and necessitates a coordination and timing pattern that is slightly different biomechanically from the horizontal jump.
Developmental Sequence for Vertical Jumping
Hopping Hopping is another body projection skill that requires strength, timing, and balance. In this skill, children must take-off and land on the same foot; therefore, hopping is considered more difficult than jumping.
The skill of hopping is initiated about 6 months to one year after the initial jumping pattern is begun Hopping is also an integral part of childhood games and dances.
Proficient hoppers demonstrate:
Inexperienced Hoppers Children with little experience in hopping maintain a more vertical body position, must rely on their arms to assist in the lift, and use the non support thigh for balance.
Novice hoppers will keep their thighs in the frontal plane of the body either in a horizontal or diagonal position. This position allows them to be able to step onto the non support foot if they lose their balance. They also execute small hops that are projected almost directly upward, covering little horizontal distance. The vertical movement allows them to keep the support foot directly under their bodies, assisting in maintaining balance.
Young hoppers often lose their balance easily and can only accomplish a few hops at a time without stepping onto the non-support foot, with few children who are younger than three being able to hop at initial levels or hop repeatedly (Bayley, 1969; McCaskill & Wellman, 1938; Haubenstricker, Branta, Seefeldt, & Brakora, 1989; Seefeldt & Haubenstricker, 1982).
Halverson and Williams (1985) reported that hopping on the non-preferred leg lagged developmentally behind hopping on the preferred side.
Development of Hopping Total Body Developmental Sequence in Hopping Leg Component L-1: Momentary flight with swing leg held in front or to the side. Body is pulled up rather than projected L-2: Fall and catch with swing leg inactive. Slight lean forward with small knee and ankle extension that helps body “fall” forward L-3: Projected take-off. Swing leg assists but stays in front of body L-4: Swing leg leads, full extension of support leg.
Arm Component A-1: Bilateral inactive. Arms usually held high with little action A-2: Bilateral reactive. Arms swing up, move to winging in reaction to loss of balance A-3: Bilateral assist. Arms pump up and down as a unit A-4: Semi-opposition. Swing leg and slight opposition of arm A-5: Opposing assist. Arms work in opposition to the support and swing legs and assist in the force produced.
Galloping and Sliding The skills of galloping and sliding are closely related. They both require a rhythmic step accompanied by a leap step to the other foot and use asymmetrical, or uneven, gaits. Galloping is the first asymmetric locomotor skill learned by children and has a forward orientation, while sliding uses a sideways orientation.
Inexperienced Gallopers Less experienced gallopers have more difficulty on several key aspects of the skill. They are unable to use both legs as lead legs, with performance on the non- preferred foot lagging behind that of the preferred lead leg.
Novice gallopers cannot maintain the step sequence and, therefore, have poor rhythmical flow. They often revert to a run during the attempts at performing the gallop. Inexperienced gallopers need to concentrate on their movement pattern often resulting in extraneous force with heavy landing or stepping.
Development of Galloping 第八章 第五节 Total Body Approach Sequence in Galloping
Skipping It is a combination movement sequence that requires individuals to execute a step-hop on one foot followed by a step-hop on the alternate foot. Skipping is the most complex of the locomotor skills as it requires two skills to be performed on the same leg before weight transfer occurs to the other lead leg. From initiation to maturity it develops in the shortest amount of time, from about ages 4 ½ to 6 ½ years
Proficient skippers demonstrate:
Inexperienced Skippers Inefficient skippers appear to be quite segmented in their approach to the skip. They have to use a lot of concentration in order to be able to sequence the step into a hop on the same foot and then repeat on the opposite side.
Novice skippers also will use exaggerated force and, therefore, tire easily as they are learning the skill. The arms do not contribute greatly to the execution of the skip in the earliest stage of the skip.
Development of Skipping 第八章 第五节 Total Body Developmental Sequence in Skipping
Body Component Developmental Sequence of Skipping Leg Component: L-1: Skip on one side only. The other side just steps. L-2: Alternating step-hop pattern with flat- footed landing L-3: Alternating step-hop pattern with landing on the ball of the foot
Arm Component: A-1: Bilateral assist. Arms pump up and down in unison, helping to lift the body on the hop. A-2: Semi-opposition. Arms move forward together at first, then break into semi-opposition. A-3: Opposition. Arms move in opposition to the non-support leg.
§8.6 FUNDAMENTAL MOTOR SKILL INTERVENTIONS When children receive instruction, there is a significant improvement in FMS development A critical task for the young child is developing competency in FMS that serve as the foundation for future sports, games, and lifetime activities.