Presentation on theme: "C ONFEDERATION TO C ONSTITUTION Chapter 8. E SSENTIAL Q UESTION How did the Americans create a national government that respected both the Independence."— Presentation transcript:
E SSENTIAL Q UESTION How did the Americans create a national government that respected both the Independence of states and the rights of individuals?
S ECTION 1 I MPORTANT TERMS Shay’s Rebellion: uprising of Massachusetts farmer who demanded debt relief. Northwest Territory: Land NW of App. Mts. Covered by the land ordinance of 1785 Articles of Confederation : plan for national government ratified in 1781. Confederation Congress: national legislative body formed by the Articles of Confederation. Land Ordinance of 1785: law that est. A plan for dividing the federally owned lands west of the App. Mts. Northwest Ordinance : law that described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed. Republic: state, country, or nation which people elect representatives to govern. Ratification: act of official confirmation Levy: impose or raise a tax Arsenal: place where weapons are stored
T HE C ONFEDERATION E RA After Revolutionary War – to have were economic hardships- states continue to have high taxes. Shay’s Rebellion: -uprising of farmers protesting against unfair taxation.
F ORMING A N EW G OVERNMENT People before opposed a harsh rule from a distance. Goal was to prevent governmental tyranny in a new nation. Agreed the new national to be a republic- a country in which people choose representatives to govern them. Property owners –white males who could vote African Americans and women could not vote.
S TATE C ONSTITUTION L EAD THE W AY Each state was to create their own government Farmers wanted to make colonial systems more representative Some states gave different powers to different parts of the government. Limited powers of Governors 1 st constitutional document – (Virginia’s Constitution of 1776) It protected Freedom of Press Freedom of Religion
Realized they had to form a United Government Diplomat John Dickinson- “By united we stand, by divided we fall.”
T HE A RTICLES OF C ONFEDERATION Delegates disagreed on how each state gets one vote or by population Disagreed on control of the Northwest Territory Congress agreed on a plan of Articles of Confederation National Government would be run by legislative Body called Confederation Congress
P OWERS OF C ONGRESS Wage war Make Peace Sign treaties Run Indian affairs Issue money or borrow money Each state had one vote in congress States Powers Set taxes Enforce National laws
Articles sent to Ratification (approval) But some states refused to sign because didn’t have land claims in Western Frontier. 1. sell lands to pay debts- disadvantages to small. Worried big states would become to powerful In 1781 finally ratified after states gave up claim from Western Lands
S TRENGTHS AND W EAKNESSES OF THE A RTICLES Realized Confederation Congress was to weak to deal with most national issues. Land Ordinance of 1785 To lay out land in a six mile square plot / townships/ lands Northwest Territory Ohio Indiana Michigan Illinois Wisconsin Minnesota
N ORTHWEST O RDINANCE Outlined how the Northwest territory was to be governed 60,000 people could apply to be a state Freedom of Religion Rivers open to all Trial by Jury Helped with orderly growth of the United States.
P ROBLEMS WITH B RITAIN AND S PAIN Britian competed against America fur trade. Britain banned American ships in British waters. Spain banned American ships in Carribbean Spain refused to allow Americans to use Mississippi River or deposit goods in New Orleans. Spain and Congress argued over boundary of Florida. Problems with foreign relations – revealed weakness in National government.
E CONOMIC P ROBLEMS AND S HAY ’ S R EBELLION Trade weakened – serious economic crisis Didn’t have power to levy or collect taxes- (national government) State sent little money could not afford (states and people) Hoped to solve problems by giving more power to national government.
S ECTION 2 Creating the Constitution o Call for a Constitutional Convention o 1786 Delegates from 5 states meet in Annapolis, Maryland. o 1. promote trade among states- “High tax amongst states o 2 creating a trade laws- National would help economics.
They would have to amend “Articles of Confederation” Because National Government had no regulations on trade among states. Alexander Hamilton- Convention in Philadelphia- all sent delegates (except Rhode Island)
C ONSTITUTIONAL C ONVENTION May 25, 1787- Convention Opened Delegates voted for George Washington (President of the Convention) James Madison – Virginia delegate – shaped the constitution. He took detailed notes –on ideas from the proceedings.
W HO W AS T HERE ? Constitutional Convention - 55 delegates Delegates known as Founders or Founding Fathers of the U.S. Popular Sovereignty- Is a government system in which people rule. Who was missing? Jefferson and Adams- oversees diplomat posts. Patrick Henry – refused to go –said, “He smelled a rat towards monarchy.”
Convention did not reflect on diversity of U.S. Population Native mericans African Americans Women In the future will give full rights to all American citizens
S OME C HALLENGES OF THE C ONVENTION People and states that have conflict need government order Government that protects people’s rights but does not oppress them.
D ISAGREEMENTS OVER R EPUTATION Two forms of New Government Virginia Plan – Edmund Randolph 1. executive branch---- enforce the laws 2. judicial branch----- interpret the laws 3. legislative branch---- Create the laws 1. Upper house 2. Lower House
Number of representatives based on population or its wealth Checks and balances- Controlling power of government New government designed to limit abuse Small states objected the plan Gave more power to larger populations
N EW J ERSEY P LAN William Paterson Like the Articles of Confederation Single House government Each state had a single vote The Great Compromise 1787 passed plan Roger Sherman –deal Great Compromise Each state had an equal number of votes House of Represenatives – it was based on population
C HALLENGES O VER S LAVERY House of represenatives based on population. How to decided about slaves. 3/5 Compromise Southern states had more slaves than the northern states. South- wanted slaves counted and disagreed on banning slavery North- Did not want slaves counted, only for taxation. They wanted slavery outlawed.
Compromised that 3/5 slaves would be counted. 1. Representation in legislation 2. taxation South Carolina and Georgia said they would not sign anything. The right to import slaves would be untouched. Congress agreed that they couldn’t ban slavery until 1808.
S ECTION 3 R ATIFICATION AND T HE B ILL OF R IGHTS Anti Federalists: People who opposed constitution Pamphlet: sent out by Mercy Otis Warren- concerns about people ruling the nation. Once the pamphlet was circulating the farmers wanted to ratify the constitution at once.
C ONCERNS OF THE F EDERALISTS Take too much power away from the states Federalism- is a system of government shared power by federal and state government. Federalist- people who supported the constitution. The Federalist Papers: Promoted and answered their critics about the Constitution. Writers: James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay Reasons why people should ratify constitution.
C ONCERNS OF THE A NTI -F EDERALISTS Too much power taken away from states. Didn’t guarantee rights to people. Strong President be declared king. Feared Senate to powerful, liberties be lost. Rural areas supported- Anti- Federalist – do to Tax Burden Large states and strong economies- Had more freedom under Articles of Confederation.
B ATTLE FOR R ATIFICATION Constitution had nothing to protect the Rights of People. Thomas Jefferson wanted to add Bill of Rights- A summary of Citizen’s Rights and Freedoms – set amendments to the Constitution.
C ALL FOR A B ILL OF R IGHTS Patrick Henry and George Mason- were ant federalist Wanted Guarantee that people would have Freedom of speech Freedom of Religion Freedom of Press Trial by Jury Right to Bear Arms
Federalists yielded to demand. Added the Bill of Rights Majority Rule
B ILL OF R IGHTS AND THE C ONSTITUTION Madison proposed ten amendments to constitution (Bill of Rights) Bill of Rights 1 st nine amendments – Basic individual Rights Government shall not favor one religion over another or interfere with anyone’s religious Freedom. 1 st amendment (separation of church and state) Protects people from government abuse
A MENDING THE C ONSTITUTION 2/3 of each house of Congress or State Legislative to propose a amendment To become a law ¾ approval of states Bill of Rights – 1 st ten amendments – 17 amendments have been added since.