Presentation on theme: "A RTICLES OF C ONFEDERATION VS. U.S. C ONSTITUTION."— Presentation transcript:
A RTICLES OF C ONFEDERATION VS. U.S. C ONSTITUTION
N ORTHWEST O RDINANCE - 1787 Land would be divided up and occupied by American citizens Slavery would be banned in the Northwest Territory What problems would this cause?
The U.S. began trading with other countries, including Britain (in special circumstances) The federal government could not control trade within the states, so states would charge each other and other countries whatever they wanted to charge Each state was acting like an independent country
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress could not: Impose taxes Regulate trade Raise an army Have an executive Have national court system
The new government was in a recession – economic slowdown
S HAYS R EBELLION - 1787 Massachusetts government raised taxes to pay off its debts, which hit the farmers the hardest Former Continental Army Captain Daniel Shays was now a bankrupt farmer
Shays took 1,200 farmers to seize the state arsenal and march to Boston He was met by 4,000 state militia The whole rebellion was defeated and only four farmers were killed
This made the state and federal governments terrified of rebellion They realized that the Articles of Confederation made the federal government way too weak In 1787, they would hold a Constitutional Convention
C ONSTITUTIONAL C ONVENTION – M AY 1787 Every state except Rhode Island came Goal = balance states rights with the need for a stronger national government
Thomas Jefferson was unable to attend because he was serving as an American minister in France – called the meeting an assembly of demigods
T HE V IRGINIA P LAN Toss out Articles of Confederation Two house Congress Wanted the federal government to be in charge of the states and have the ability to tax Wanted executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government Wanted all state representation to be based on population
T HE N EW J ERSEY P LAN Modify Articles of Confederation One house Congress Federal government would have power to raise taxes and regulate trade Wanted all state representation to be equal
T HE G REAT C OMPROMISE (C ONNECTICUT C OMPROMISE ) – R OGER S HERMAN Ben Franklin (age 81) would oversee the debates Decided: 2-house Congress (bicameral) House of Representatives – based on population, chosen by eligible voters Senate – equal representation, chosen by state legislatures
3/5 C OMPROMISE The South wanted to count their slaves in population The North did not want to Decision – every five slaves would be counted as three free persons
I DEAS OF THE C ONSTITUTION – L IMITED GOVERNMENT Popular sovereignty- rule by the people Federalism – power divided between federal and state government
Separation of powers Legislative branch – make laws (Congress) Executive branch – enforce laws (President) Judicial branch – interpret/review laws (Supreme Court) Checks and balances – keeps each branch from becoming too powerful Amendment – change to the Constitution Veto – reject Impeach – formally accuse of misconduct
The Constitutional Congress ratified (passed) the United States Constitution Needed 9/13 states to pass it before it could become effective
F EDERALISTS VS. A NTI -F EDERALISTS Federalists – supporters of the Constitution Anti-federalists – opposed the Constitution because of states rights and it didnt have a Bill of Rights John Hancock Patrick Henry
T HE F EDERALIST PAPERS Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay Defended the Constitution and stressed the importance of what was needed The last state ratified the Constitution in 1790 George Washington became the first president of the United States of America in 1789.
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