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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Table of Contents CD Chapter 19 (Inventory Management with Uncertain Demand) A Case Study for Perishable Products—Freddie the Newsboy (Section 19.1)19.2–19.3 An Inventory Model for Perishable Products (Sec.19.2)19.4–19.12 A Case Study for Stable Products—Niko Camera Corp. (Section 19.3)19.13–19.18 The Management Science Team’s Analysis of the Case Study (Section 19.4)19.19–19.32 A Continuous-Review Inventory Model for Stable Products (Section 19.5)19.33–19.42 Larger Inventory Systems in Practice (Section 19.6)19.43

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Freddie the Newsboy’s Problem Freddie sells a wide variety of newspapers and magazines. The most expensive of the newspapers is the Financial Journal. The day’s copies of the Financial Journal are brought to the newstand each morning. Any copies unsold at the end of the day are returned to the distributor the next morning. To encourage ordering a large number of copies, the distributor gives a small refund for unsold copies. Freddie pays $1.50 per copy delivered. Freddie sells it at $2.50 per copy. Freddie’s refund is $0.50 per unsold copy. Freddie sells 9 copies on 30% of the days, 10 copies on 40% of the days, and 11 copies on 30% of the days.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Applying Bayes’ Decision Rule to Freddie’s Problem

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Assumptions for an Inventory Model for Perishable Products Each application involves a single perishable product. Each application involves a single time period because the product can’t be sold later. However, it will be possible to dispose of any units remaining at the end of the period, perhaps receiving a salvage value for the units. The only decision to be made is how many units to order (the order quantity). The demand during the period is uncertain. However, the probability distribution of demand is known (or at least estimated). If the demand exceeds the order quantity, a cost of underordering is incurred. In particular, c under = decrease in profit from failing to order a unit that could have been sold during the period. If the order quantity exceeds the demand, a cost of overordering is incurred. In particular, c over = decrease in profit from ordering a unit that could not be sold during the period.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Applying Bayes’ Decision Rule to Freddie’s Problem

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Ordering Rule for the Model for Perishable Products Optimal service level Choose the smallest order quantity that provides at least this service level.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Applying the Ordering Rule to Freddie’s Problem c under = unit sales price – unit purchase cost = $2.50 – $1.50 = $1.00 c over = unit purchase cost – unit salvage value = $1.50 – $0.50 = $1.00 Optimal Service Level Service Level if order 9 copies = 0.3 Service level if order 10 copies = = 0.7 Service level if order 11 copies = = 1.0 The smallest order quantity that provides at least the optimal service level is to order 10 copies.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Excel Template for Perishable Products

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Graphical Application of the Ordering Rule

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., A Variation of Freddie’s Problem Freddie now wishes to find the optimal order quantity for another newspaper. This more popular newspaper has daily sales in the range from 100 copies to 200 copies, with roughly equal probabilities over this range. c under = $0.75 c over = $0.25 Optimal service level

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Graphical Application of the Ordering Rule

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Some Types of Perishable Products Periodicals, such as newspapers and magazines. Flowers being sold by a florist. The makings of fresh food to be prepared in a restaurant. Produce, including fresh fruits and vegetables, to be sold in a grocery store. Christmas trees. Seasonal clothing, such as winter coats, where any goods remaining at the end of the season must be sold at highly discounted prices to clear space for next season. Seasonal greeting cards. Fashion goods that will be out of style soon. New cars at the end of a model year. Any product that will be obsolete soon. Vital spare parts that must be produced during the last production run of a certain model of a product for use as needed throughout the lengthy field life of that model. Reservations provided by an airline for a particular flight. Reservations provided in excess of the number of seats available (overbooking) can be viewed as the inventory of a perishable product.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., The Niko Camera Corp. Problem Niko Camera is a Japanese company that specializes in producing high quality cameras. One of Niko’s newer models is an inexpensive disposable panoramic camera After the customer shoots the film, it is returned to the camera store, the film developed, and the camera sent to a American factory for recycling. Niko’s American factory has been selling an average of 8,000 of the recycled cameras per month to wholesale distributors. Distributors only submit purchase orders occasionally, leading to sales that fluctuate widely from month to month.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Monthly Sales for the Past Year

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Data for The Niko Camera Corp. Problem Because of sales fluctuations, the camera is only produced on a sporadic basis. The run size has been set at 20,000, which covers sales for 2.5 months on the average. Once the decision has been made to initiate a production run, the lead time for setup and production is about one month. Since average sales over the lead time of one month are 8,000, it has become routine to order another production run when the number of cameras in inventory drops to 8,000 Order quantity = 20,000 Lead time = 1 month Reorder point = 8,000

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Last Year’s Experience

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Inventory Level

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Management Concerns Several distributors have complained about delays in shipping. Complaints have been received from the production floor about frequent interruptions in the production of other models caused by setting up for a production run for the disposable panoramic camera every two or three months. Proposal: have much longer production runs much less frequently. –This would provide larger inventories to reduce delayed shipments. –This would substantially reduce setups and the associated disruptions. –However, the larger inventories come at a cost. What should be done?

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Probability Distribution of Sales During Lead Time P(stockout) = P(monthly sales > 8000) = 0.5

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Inventory Level Just Before Order Received Conclusion: Both the probability of a stockout and the maximum size of a stockout are too large.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Reorder Point Reset to 12,000 When reordering, a cushion of extra inventory (safety stock) needs to be provided in addition to the amount needed to cover the average sales during the lead time.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Inventory Level Even when the amount of safety stock provided still permits occasional short stockouts, this safety stock can dramatically improve the service to customers by greatly reducing both the number and length of the delays in filling customer orders.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Choosing the Amount of Safety Stock How important is it to reduce delays in filling customer orders? Considering that larger inventories would be needed to reduce delays, how would you compare the importance of reducing delays with the inportance of holding inventory levels down? Considering that unacceptably large inventories would be needed to completely eliminate any delays, what would you consider tolerable in terms of the frequency, size, and length of stockouts? Conclusion: Management feels that providing a safety stock of roughly 4,000 cameras is needed to provide an adequate level of service to customers. Considering the company’s just-in-time philosophy regarding the need to hold down inventories, management does not want the safety stock raised higher than this.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., The Cost Factors Acquisition Cost –This cost ($7 per camera) is irrelevant when choosing the order quantity. –The order quantity only affects the timing of production/acquisition cost. Setup Cost –The cost of setting up a production run is $12,000. –The order quantity determines how frequently the setup cost will be incurred. Holding Cost –The cost of space, record keeping, protection, insurance, and taxes is estimated 10¢ per camera per month. –The cost of capital tied up is estimated at 20¢ per camera per month. –Hence, it is assumed the total holding cost per month is 30¢ times the inventory level. Shortage Cost – Estimated to be about $10 per camera per month of delay.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., The Cost Factors for Niko’s Inventory Problem Type of CostSymbolValue Setup cost for a production runK$12,000 Holding cost per camera per monthh$0.30 Shortage cost per camera per month of delayp$10

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Choosing the Order Quantity The average monthly setup costs are decreased by increasing the order quantity because this decreases the average number of setups required per month. The average monthly holding costs are decreased by decreasing the order quantity, since this decreases the average inventory level. However, the average monthly shortage costs are decreased by increasing the order quantity because this decreases the average number of opportunities for stockouts per month. The EOQ model with planned shortages addresses these same tradeoffs.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Choosing the Order Quantity The EOQ model with planned shortages addresses exactly these same tradeoffs. The average monthly holding costs are decreased by decreasing the order quantity, since this decreases the average inventory level. However, the average monthly shortage costs are decreased by increasing the order quantity because this decreases the average number of opportunities for stockouts per month.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., The EOQ Model with Planned Shortages where D = annual demand rate, K = setup cost, h = unit holding cost, p = unit shortage cost Maximum inventory level = Q* – S*

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., The EOQ Model with Planned Shortages

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Niko’s Inventory Level

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Niko’s Inventory Level with Q = 25,675 Recommended inventory policy: Whenever the number of disposable panoramic cameras in inventory drops to 12,000, order a production run of 25,675 cameras.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Additional Recommendations from the Team Acquire some additional production facilities that would be used solely for the production runs of the disposable panoramic camera as needed Provide a small price incentive to the company’s customers to place a standing order for regular monthly purchases. Develop a system of coordinating sales of the disposable panoramic camera as needed with the company’s divisions in other parts of the world. A study also should be conducted of the raw material inventories, including especially the returned reusable components.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., A Continuous-Review Inventory Model The model is for stable products (products that will remain sellable indefinitely) as opposed to perishable products (sellable for only a limited time). The model is a continuous-review model because it assumes inventory level is monitored on a continuous basis so that a new order can be placed as soon as the inventory level drops to the reorder point. This is as opposed to a periodic-review inventory system where the inventory level is only monitored periodically such as at the end of each week. The traditional method of implementing a continuous-review inventory system was to use a two-bin system. All the units would be held in two bins. The capacity of one bin would equal the reorder point. The units would be withdrawn from the other bin until empty, triggering a reorder. In more recent years, two-bin systems have been largely replaced by computerized inventory systems where each sale is recorded electronicaly, so that the current inventory level is always in the computer.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., A Continuous-Review Inventory System A continuous-review inventory system will be based on two critical numbers: –R = reorder point –Q = order quantity Inventory policy: Whenever the inventory level of the product drops to R units, place an order for Q more units to replenish the inventory.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Assumptions of the Model Each application involves a single stable product The inventory level is under continuous review, so its current value is always known. An (R, Q) policy is to be used, so the only decisions are to choose R and Q. There is a lead time (either fixed or variable) between when the order is placed and received. The demand for withdrawing units from inventory is uncertain. However, the probability distribution of demand is known (or estimated). If a stockout occurs before the order is received, excess demand is backlogged. A fixed setup cost (denoted by K) is incurred each time an order is placed. Except for this setup cost, the cost of the order is proportional to the order quantity Q. A certain holding cost (denoted by h) is incurred for each unit in inventory per unit time. When a stockout occurs, a certain shortage cost (denoted by p) is incurred for each unit backordered per unit time until the backorder is filled.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Choosing the Order Quantity The most straightforward approach to choosing Q is to simply use the formula for the EOQ model with planned shortages:

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Choosing the Reorder Point A common approach to choosing the reorder point R is to base it on management’s desired level of service to customers. Alternative measures of service level: –The probability that a stockout will not occur between the time an order is placed and the order quantity is received. –The average number of stockouts per year. –The average percentage of annual demand that can be satisfied immediately. –The average delay in filling backorders when a stockout occurs. –The overall average delay in filling orders (where the delay without a stockout is 0). The first measure is the most convenient, so we will focus on this case: –L = management’s desired probability that a stockout will not occur between the time an order quantity is placed and the order quantity is received.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Calculation of the Reorder Point when L = 0.75

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Calculating R for a Normal Demand Distribution LKLKL

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., General Procedure for Choosing R Choose L = probability that a stockout will not occur between the time an order quantity is placed and the order quantity is received. Solve for R such that P (demand ≤ R) = L.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Optimal Ordering Policy

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Optimal Ordering Policy with a Normal Distribution

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Larger Inventory Systems in Practice Multiproduct Inventory Systems –It is common to apply the appropriate single-product model to each product individually. –The ABC Control Method is commonly applied to divide the products into categories, where the A group must be monitored carefully while the C group need only be informally monitored. –It may not be appropriate to apply the single-product model if there are interactions between products. Multi-Echelon Inventory Systems –Inventory may be stored initially at the points of manufacture (one echelon), then at regional warehouses (a second echelon), then at field distribution centers (a third echelon), etc. –Some coordination is needed between the inventories at the different echelon. Supply Chain Management –A supply chain is a network of facilities that procure raw materials, transform them into intermediate goods and then final products, and finally deliver the products to customers through a distribution system that includes a (probably multiechelon) inventory system. –To fill orders efficiently, it is necessary to understand the linkages and interrelationships of all the key elements of the supply chain.

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