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1 1 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Slides by JOHN LOUCKS St. Edward’s University

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2 2 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Chapter 10, Part B Inventory Models: Probabilistic Demand n Single-Period Inventory Model with Probabilistic Demand n Order-Quantity, Reorder-Point Model with Probabilistic Demand n Periodic-Review Model with Probabilistic Demand

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3 3 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Probabilistic Models n In many cases demand (or some other factor) is not known with a high degree of certainty and a probabilistic inventory model should actually be used. n These models tend to be more complex than deterministic models. n The probabilistic models covered in this chapter are: single-period order quantity single-period order quantity reorder-point quantity reorder-point quantity periodic-review order quantity periodic-review order quantity

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4 4 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Single-Period Order Quantity n A single-period order quantity model (sometimes called the newsboy problem) deals with a situation in which only one order is placed for the item and the demand is probabilistic. n If the period's demand exceeds the order quantity, the demand is not backordered and revenue (profit) will be lost. n If demand is less than the order quantity, the surplus stock is sold at the end of the period (usually for less than the original purchase price).

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5 5 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Single-Period Order Quantity n Assumptions Period demand follows a known probability distribution: Period demand follows a known probability distribution: normal: mean is µ, standard deviation is normal: mean is µ, standard deviation is uniform: minimum is a, maximum is buniform: minimum is a, maximum is b Cost of overestimating demand: $ c o Cost of overestimating demand: $ c o Cost of underestimating demand: $ c u Cost of underestimating demand: $ c u Shortages are not backordered. Shortages are not backordered. Period-end stock is sold for salvage (not held in inventory). Period-end stock is sold for salvage (not held in inventory).

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6 6 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved n Formulas Optimal probability of no shortage: P(demand < Q *) = c u /( c u + c o ) P(demand < Q *) = c u /( c u + c o ) Optimal probability of shortage: P(demand > Q *) = 1 - c u /( c u + c o ) P(demand > Q *) = 1 - c u /( c u + c o ) Optimal order quantity, based on demand distribution: normal: Q * = µ + z uniform: Q * = a + P(demand < Q *)( b - a ) Single-Period Order Quantity

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7 7 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: McHardee Press n Single-Period Order Quantity McHardee Press publishes the Fast Food Menu Book and wishes to determine how many copies to print. There is a fixed cost of $5,000 to produce the book and the incremental profit per copy is $0.45. Any unsold copies of the the book can be sold at salvage at a $.55 loss.

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8 8 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: McHardee Press n Single-Period Order Quantity Sales for this edition are estimated to be normally distributed. The most likely sales volume is 12,000 copies and they believe there is a 5% chance that sales will exceed 20,000. How many copies should be printed?

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9 9 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: McHardee Press n Single-Period Order Quantity m = 12,000. To find note that z = 1.65 corresponds to a 5% tail probability. Therefore, (20,000 - 12,000) = 1.65 or = 4848 (20,000 - 12,000) = 1.65 or = 4848 Using incremental analysis with C o =.55 and C u =.45, ( C u /( C u + C o )) =.45/(.45+.55) =.45 Using incremental analysis with C o =.55 and C u =.45, ( C u /( C u + C o )) =.45/(.45+.55) =.45 Find Q * such that P( D < Q *) =.45. The probability of 0.45 corresponds to z = -.12. Thus, Find Q * such that P( D < Q *) =.45. The probability of 0.45 corresponds to z = -.12. Thus, Q * = 12,000 -.12(4848) = 11,418 books Q * = 12,000 -.12(4848) = 11,418 books

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10 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: McHardee Press n Single-Period Order Quantity (revised) If any unsold copies can be sold at salvage at a $.65 loss, how many copies should be printed? C o =.65, ( C u /( C u + C o )) =.45/(.45 +.65) =.4091 C o =.65, ( C u /( C u + C o )) =.45/(.45 +.65) =.4091 Find Q * such that P( D < Q *) =.4091. z = -.23 gives this probability. Thus, Q * = 12,000 -.23(4848) = 10,885 books Q * = 12,000 -.23(4848) = 10,885 books However, since this is less than the breakeven volume of 11,111 books (= 5000/.45), no copies should be printed because if the company produced only 10,885 copies it will not recoup its $5,000 fixed cost.

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11 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Reorder Point Quantity n A firm's inventory position consists of the on-hand inventory plus on-order inventory (all amounts previously ordered but not yet received). n An inventory item is reordered when the item's inventory position reaches a predetermined value, referred to as the reorder point. n The reorder point represents the quantity available to meet demand during lead time. n Lead time is the time span starting when the replenishment order is placed and ending when the order arrives.

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12 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Reorder Point Quantity n Under deterministic conditions, when both demand and lead time are constant, the reorder point associated with EOQ-based models is set equal to lead time demand. n Under probabilistic conditions, when demand and/or lead time varies, the reorder point often includes safety stock. n Safety stock is the amount by which the reorder point exceeds the expected (average) lead time demand.

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13 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Safety Stock and Service Level n The amount of safety stock in a reorder point determines the chance of a stockout during lead time. n The complement of this chance is called the service level. n Service level, in this context, is defined as the probability of not incurring a stockout during any one lead time. n Service level, in this context, also is the long-run proportion of lead times in which no stockouts occur.

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14 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Reorder Point n Assumptions Lead-time demand is normally distributed Lead-time demand is normally distributed with mean µ and standard deviation . with mean µ and standard deviation . Approximate optimal order quantity: EOQ Approximate optimal order quantity: EOQ Service level is defined in terms of the probability of no stockouts during lead time and is reflected in z. Service level is defined in terms of the probability of no stockouts during lead time and is reflected in z. Shortages are not backordered. Shortages are not backordered. Inventory position is reviewed continuously. Inventory position is reviewed continuously.

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15 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved n Formulas Reorder point: r = µ + z Safety stock: z Average inventory: ½ ( Q ) + z Total annual cost: [( ½ ) Q * C h ] + [ z C h ] + [ DC o / Q *] (hold.(normal) + hold.(safety) (hold.(normal) + hold.(safety) + ordering) + ordering) Reorder Point

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16 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved n Reorder Point Model Robert's Drugs is a drug wholesaler supplying 55 independent drug stores. Roberts wishes to determine an optimal inventory policy for Comfort brand headache remedy. Sales of Comfort are relatively constant as the past 10 weeks of data (on next slide) indicate. Example: Robert’s Drug

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17 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved n Reorder Point Model Week Sales (cases) Week Sales (cases) Week Sales (cases) Week Sales (cases) 1 110 6 120 1 110 6 120 2 115 7 130 2 115 7 130 3 125 8 115 3 125 8 115 4 120 9 110 4 120 9 110 5 125 10 130 5 125 10 130 Example: Robert’s Drug

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18 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: Robert’s Drug Each case of Comfort costs Roberts $10 and Roberts uses a 14% annual holding cost rate for its inventory. The cost to prepare a purchase order for Comfort is $12. What is Roberts’ optimal order quantity?

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19 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved n Optimal Order Quantity The average weekly sales over the 10 week period is 120 cases. Hence D = 120 X 52 = 6,240 cases per year; C h = (.14)(10) = 1.40; C o = 12. C h = (.14)(10) = 1.40; C o = 12. Example: Robert’s Drug

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20 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: Robert’s Drug The lead time for a delivery of Comfort has averaged four working days. Lead time has therefore been estimated as having a normal distribution with a mean of 80 cases and a standard deviation of 10 cases. Roberts wants at most a 2% probability of selling out of Comfort during this lead time. What reorder point should Roberts use?

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21 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: Robert’s Drug n Optimal Reorder Point Lead time demand is normally distributed with m = 80, = 10. Since Roberts wants at most a 2% probability of selling out of Comfort, the corresponding z value is 2.06. That is, P ( z > 2.06) =.0197 (about.02). Hence Roberts should reorder Comfort when supply reaches r = + z = 80 + 2.06(10) = 101 cases. The safety stock is z = 21 cases.

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22 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: Robert’s Drug n Total Annual Inventory Cost Ordering: ( DC o / Q *) = ((6240)(12)/327) = $229 Holding-Normal: (1/2) Q * C o = (1/2)(327)(1.40) = 229 Holding-Safety Stock: C h (21) = (1.40)(21) = 29 TOTAL = $487 TOTAL = $487

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23 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Periodic Review System n A periodic review system is one in which the inventory level is checked and reordering is done only at specified points in time (at fixed intervals usually). n Assuming the demand rate varies, the order quantity will vary from one review period to another. n At the time the order quantity is being decided, the concern is that the on-hand inventory and the quantity being ordered is enough to satisfy demand from the time the order is placed until the next order is received (not placed).

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24 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Periodic Review Order Quantity n Assumptions Inventory position is reviewed at constant intervals. Inventory position is reviewed at constant intervals. Demand during review period plus lead time period is normally distributed with mean µ and standard deviation . Demand during review period plus lead time period is normally distributed with mean µ and standard deviation . Service level is defined in terms of the probability of no stockouts during a review period plus lead time period and is reflected in z. Service level is defined in terms of the probability of no stockouts during a review period plus lead time period and is reflected in z. On-hand inventory at ordering time: H On-hand inventory at ordering time: H Shortages are not backordered. Shortages are not backordered. Lead time is less than the review period length. Lead time is less than the review period length.

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25 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved n Formulas Replenishment level: M = µ + z Order quantity: Q = M - H Periodic Review Order Quantity

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26 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: Ace Brush n Periodic Review Order Quantity Model Joe Walsh is a salesman for the Ace Brush Company. Every three weeks he contacts Dollar Department Store so that they may place an order to replenish their stock. Weekly demand for Ace brushes at Dollar approximately follows a normal distribution with a mean of 60 brushes and a standard deviation of 9 brushes.

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27 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: Ace Brush n Periodic Review Order Quantity Model Once Joe submits an order, the lead time until Dollar receives the brushes is one week. Dollar would like at most a 2% chance of running out of stock during any replenishment period. If Dollar has 75 brushes in stock when Joe contacts them, how many should they order?

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28 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved Example: Ace Brush n Demand During Uncertainty Period The review period plus the following lead time totals 4 weeks. This is the amount of time that will elapse before the next shipment of brushes will arrive. Weekly demand is normally distributed with: Weekly demand is normally distributed with: Mean weekly demand, µ = 60 Mean weekly demand, µ = 60 Weekly standard deviation, = 9 Weekly standard deviation, = 9 Weekly variance, 2 = 81 Weekly variance, 2 = 81 Demand for 4 weeks is normally distributed with: Mean demand over 4 weeks, µ = 4 x 60 = 240 Mean demand over 4 weeks, µ = 4 x 60 = 240 Variance of demand over 4 weeks, 2 = 4 x 81 = 324 Variance of demand over 4 weeks, 2 = 4 x 81 = 324 Standard deviation over 4 weeks, = (324) 1/2 = 18 Standard deviation over 4 weeks, = (324) 1/2 = 18

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29 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved n Replenishment Level M = µ + z where z is determined by the desired stockout probability. For a 2% stockout probability (2% tail area), z = 2.05. Thus, M = 240 + 2.05(18) = 277 brushes As the store currently has 75 brushes in stock, Dollar should order: 277 - 75 = 202 brushes The safety stock is: z = (2.05)(18) = 37 brushes Example: Ace Brush

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30 Slide © 2008 Thomson South-Western. All Rights Reserved End of Chapter 10, Part B

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