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8-1Inventory Management William J. Stevenson Operations Management 8 th edition.

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1 8-1Inventory Management William J. Stevenson Operations Management 8 th edition

2 8-2Inventory Management CHAPTER 8 Inventory Management McGraw-Hill/Irwin Operations Management, Eighth Edition, by William J. Stevenson Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 8-3Inventory Management Independent Demand A B(4) C(2) D(2)E(1) D(3) F(2) Dependent Demand Independent demand is uncertain. Dependent demand is certain. Inventory: a stock or store of goods

4 8-4Inventory Management Types of Inventories  Raw materials & purchased parts  Partially completed goods called work in progress  Finished-goods inventories  (manufacturing firms) or merchandise (retail stores)

5 8-5Inventory Management Types of Inventories (Cont’d)  Replacement parts, tools, & supplies  Goods-in-transit to warehouses or customers

6 8-6Inventory Management Functions of Inventory  To meet anticipated demand  To smooth production requirements  To decouple operations  To protect against stock-outs

7 8-7Inventory Management Functions of Inventory (Cont’d)  To take advantage of order cycles  To help hedge against price increases  To permit operations  To take advantage of quantity discounts

8 8-8Inventory Management Objective of Inventory Control  To achieve satisfactory levels of customer service while keeping inventory costs within reasonable bounds  Level of customer service  Costs of ordering and carrying inventory

9 8-9Inventory Management  A system to keep track of inventory  A reliable forecast of demand  Knowledge of lead times  Reasonable estimates of  Holding costs  Ordering costs  Shortage costs  A classification system Effective Inventory Management

10 8-10Inventory Management Inventory Counting Systems  Periodic System Physical count of items made at periodic intervals  Perpetual Inventory System System that keeps track of removals from inventory continuously, thus monitoring current levels of each item

11 8-11Inventory Management Inventory Counting Systems (Cont’d)  Two-Bin System - Two containers of inventory; reorder when the first is empty  Universal Bar Code - Bar code printed on a label that has information about the item to which it is attached

12 8-12Inventory Management  Lead time: time interval between ordering and receiving the order  Holding (carrying) costs: cost to carry an item in inventory for a length of time, usually a year  Ordering costs: costs of ordering and receiving inventory  Shortage costs: costs when demand exceeds supply Key Inventory Terms

13 8-13Inventory Management ABC Classification System Classifying inventory according to some measure of importance and allocating control efforts accordingly. A A - very important B B - mod. important C C - least important Figure 8.1

14 8-14Inventory Management Cycle Counting  A physical count of items in inventory  Cycle counting management  How much accuracy is needed?  When should cycle counting be performed?  Who should do it?

15 8-15Inventory Management  Economic order quantity model  Economic production model  Quantity discount model Economic Order Quantity Models

16 8-16Inventory Management  Only one product is involved  Annual demand requirements known  Demand is even throughout the year  Lead time does not vary  Each order is received in a single delivery  There are no quantity discounts Assumptions of EOQ Model

17 8-17Inventory Management The Inventory Cycle Figure 8.2

18 8-18Inventory Management Figure 8-3

19 8-19Inventory Management Total Cost Annual carrying cost Annual ordering cost Total cost =+ Q 2 H D Q S TC = +

20 8-20Inventory Management Figure 8-4

21 8-21Inventory Management Deriving the EOQ Using calculus, we take the derivative of the total cost function and set the derivative (slope) equal to zero and solve for Q.

22 8-22Inventory Management Minimum Total Cost The total cost curve reaches its minimum where the carrying and ordering costs are equal.

23 8-23Inventory Management Figure 8-5

24 8-24Inventory Management  Production done in batches or lots  Capacity to produce a part exceeds the part’s usage or demand rate  Assumptions of EPQ are similar to EOQ except orders are received incrementally during production Economic Production Quantity (EPQ)

25 8-25Inventory Management  Only one item is involved  Annual demand is known  Usage rate is constant  Usage occurs continually  Production rate is constant  Lead time does not vary  No quantity discounts Economic Production Quantity Assumptions

26 8-26Inventory Management Figure 8-6

27 8-27Inventory Management Economic Run Size

28 8-28Inventory Management Total Costs with Purchasing Cost Annual carrying cost Purchasing cost TC =+ Q 2 H D Q S + + Annual ordering cost PD +

29 8-29Inventory Management Total Costs with PD Figure 8.7

30 8-30Inventory Management Figure 8-8

31 8-31Inventory Management Total Cost with Constant Carrying Costs Figure 8.9

32 8-32Inventory Management Figure 8-10

33 8-33Inventory Management Figure 8-11

34 8-34Inventory Management When to Reorder with EOQ Ordering  Reorder Point - When the quantity on hand of an item drops to this amount, the item is reordered  Safety Stock - Stock that is held in excess of expected demand due to variable demand rate and/or lead time.  Service Level - Probability that demand will not exceed supply during lead time.

35 8-35Inventory Management Determinants of the Reorder Point  The rate of demand  The lead time  Demand and/or lead time variability  Stockout risk (safety stock)

36 8-36Inventory Management Safety Stock Figure 8.12 Safety stock reduces risk of stockout during lead time

37 8-37Inventory Management Reorder Point Figure 8.13

38 8-38Inventory Management Figure 8-14

39 8-39Inventory Management  Orders are placed at fixed time intervals  Order quantity for next interval?  Suppliers might encourage fixed intervals  May require only periodic checks of inventory levels  Risk of stockout Fixed-Order-Interval Model

40 8-40Inventory Management Figure 8-15

41 8-41Inventory Management  Tight control of inventory items  Items from same supplier may yield savings in:  Ordering  Packing  Shipping costs  May be practical when inventories cannot be closely monitored Fixed-Interval Benefits

42 8-42Inventory Management  Requires a larger safety stock  Increases carrying cost  Costs of periodic reviews Fixed-Interval Disadvantages

43 8-43Inventory Management  Single period model: model for ordering of perishables and other items with limited useful lives  Shortage cost: generally the unrealized profits per unit  Excess cost: difference between purchase cost and salvage value of items left over at the end of a period Single Period Model

44 8-44Inventory Management  Continuous stocking levels  Identifies optimal stocking levels  Optimal stocking level balances unit shortage and excess cost  Discrete stocking levels  Service levels are discrete rather than continuous  Desired service level is equaled or exceeded Single Period Model

45 8-45Inventory Management Figure 8-16

46 8-46Inventory Management Figure 8-17

47 8-47Inventory Management  Too much inventory  Tends to hide problems  Easier to live with problems than to eliminate them  Costly to maintain  Wise strategy  Reduce lot sizes  Reduce safety stock Operations Strategy

48 8-48Inventory Management Additional PowerPoint slides contributed by Geoff Willis, University of Central Oklahoma. CHAPTER 8

49 8-49Inventory Management Economic Production Quantity Inventory Level Usage Production & Usage Production & Usage

50 8-50Inventory Management Gortrac Manufacturing GTS3 Inventory/Assessment/Reduction

51 8-51Inventory Management Materials PS7 Washburn Guitars


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