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11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

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Presentation on theme: "11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall."— Presentation transcript:

1 11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

2 2 Technology in Action Technology in Focus: The History of the PC The History of the PC Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3 3 Altair 8800 The first microcomputer Sold as a kit Switches for input Lights for output Gates and Allen create a compiler for Basic. 4,000 orders for the machine Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

4 4 Apple I and Apple II Apple I built by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak in 1976, followed by Apple II in 1977 Used Motorola processor First fully contained microcomputer Highly successful Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

5 5 Early Competitors Commodore PET 2001 Radio Shack’s TRS-80 The Osborne Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

6 6 IBM PC IBM enters small- computer market in 1981 Uses open architecture Purchases operating system from Microsoft Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

7 7 Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) Revolutionized software industry Easily learned by beginners Key PC language Used by Gates and Allen to write the program for Altair Led to the creation of Microsoft Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

8 8 Advent of Operating Systems Steve Wozniak invented the floppy drive Disk Operating System (DOS): Operating system that controlled the first Apples Control Program for Microcomputers (CP/M): First operating system for Intel-based PCs Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

9 9 Advent of Operating Systems MS-DOS – –Operating system for IBM PCs – –Based on an operating system called Quick and Dirty Operating System (QDOS) – –Created by Bill Gates and Paul Allen – –All PCs using the Intel chip used MS-DOS Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

10 10 Software Application Explosion Electronic spreadsheets – –VisiCalc – –Lotus – –Microsoft Excel Word processing – –WordStar – –Word for MS-DOS – –WordPerfect Bricklin and Frankston VisiCalc screenshot Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11 11 Graphical User Interface (GUI) Xerox – –Alto: 1972 – –Introduced the What You See Is What You Get principle (WYSIWYG) Apple – –Lisa: 1983 – –Macintosh: 1984 Xerox Alto Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

12 12 The Internet Boom Mosaic: 1993 Netscape: 1994 Internet Explorer: 1995 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

13 13 Early Computer History Pascalene, 1624 – –The first accurate mechanical calculator – –Created by Blaise Pascal – –Used to add, subtract, multiply, and divide Jacquard Loom, 1820 – –Created by Joseph Jacquard – –A machine that automated the weaving of complex patterns – –Used holes punched in cards to automate the process Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

14 14 Early Computer History Hollerith Tabulating Machine, 1890 –Created by Herman Hollerith –Used punch cards to tabulate census data –Hollerith started the Tabulating Machine Company, which later became IBM Analytical Engine, 1834 – –Created by Charles Babbage, the father of computing – –The first automatic calculator – –Included components similar to those found in today's computers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

15 15 Early Computer History Z1, 1936 – –Created by Konrad Zuse – –A mechanical calculator – –Included a control unit and memory functions Atanasoff-Berry Computer, 1939 – –Created by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry – –The first electrically powered digital computer – –Used vacuum tubes to store data – –First computer to use the binary system Atansoff-Berry Computer Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

16 16 Early Computer History Harvard Mark I, 1944 – –Created by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper – –A computer used by the U.S. Navy for ballistics calculations – –Hopper’s contribution to computing was Invention of the compiler Coining the term “computer bug” Turing Machine, 1936 – –Created by Alan Turing – –Hypothetical model; defined a mechanical procedure or algorithm – –Concept of an infinite tape that could read, write, and erase was precursor to today’s RAM 1 st use of “computer bug” Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

17 17 Early Computer History ENIAC, 1944 – –Created by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert – –First successful high-speed electronic digital computer UNIVAC, 1951 – –First commercially successful electronic digital computer – –Used magnetic tape ENIAC Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

18 18 Early Computer History Transistors, 1945 – –Invented at Bell Laboratories – –Replaced vacuum tubes Integrated circuits, 1958 – –Invented by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments – –Small chip containing thousands of transistors – –Enabled computers to become smaller and lighter Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

19 19 Early Computer History Microprocessor chip, 1971 – –Created by Intel Corporation – –Small chip containing millions of transistors – –Functions as the central processing unit (CPU) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

20 20 Transistors and Beyond First-generation computers (1946–1958) – –ENIAC and UNIVAC – –Used vacuum tubes to store data Second-generation computers (1959–1964) – –Used transistors to store data Third-generation computers (1965–1970) – –Used integrated circuits Fourth-generation computers (1971–today) – –Use a microprocessor chip Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

21 Chapter 1Chapter 1 Technology in Focus 1 21 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


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