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The History of Computers

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Presentation on theme: "The History of Computers"— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of Computers
Developments Leading up to the Stored-Program Computer of Today Designed by Mr. Wilhelmi

2 In The Beginning Early humans counted on their fingers – evolution of base 10 numbering system

3 Abacus Orient 3000 years ago First calculating mechanism
Beads represent digits Rods represent places – units, tens, hundreds, and higher multiples of ten

4 Blaise Pascal Invented the Pascaline in 1642
First mechanical adding machine

5 Gottfried Leibniz Invented Step Reckoner in 1671
Could add, subtract, multiply, divide, and evaluate square roots

6 Joseph Jacquard Jacquard’s Loom in 1810
Emphasized three computer concepts 1. Instructions - used punched cards 2. Simple Program - series of instructions 3. Automate job - because of program

7 Charles Babbage Father of Computers Invented Analytical Engine in 1832
5 characteristics of modern computer Input device – punch cards Processor – mill Control Unit Storage Facility – store Output device

8 Ada Augusta First Computer Programmer
wrote programs for the Analytical Engine Her notes on the Analytical Engine was used in the future development of computers

9 Herman Hollerith Invented Tabulating Machine for 1890 Census
First machine capable of processing statistical information from punched cards

10 Alan Turing Worked on Colossus computer in 1943
Used in World War II for cracking German codes (ENIGMA)

11 John Mauchly Presper Eckert
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator & Calculator) 1946 First electronic computer to go into operation

12 A moth got caught in the MARK II and shorted out a relay
Grace crawled in and removed it from inside the computer Popularized the term “bug” to signify any system failure The term “debugging” signifies solving a computer problem

13 John von Neumann “First Draft” – based on Input data Store data
his concepts, all computers process data by carrying out four specific activities: Input data Store data Process data Output data/results This initiated the modern computer era. EDVAC - first electronic computer to use stored-program

14 First Generation Computers (1951-1958)
Vacuum tubes for electronic circuits Punched cards for secondary memory/storage Speed – Milliseconds Thousands of operations per second Machine and Assembly languages

15 Vacuum Tube Provided the electronic circuits for computer
6000 circuits/cubic foot Konrad Zuse used it in instead of electromagnetic relays Large and bulky. Generated enormous amounts of heat Burned out frequently causing computer to be down for large amounts of time

16 Second Generation Computers (1959-1964)
Transistors electronic circuits Magnetic tape secondary memory\storage Speed – Microseconds millions of operations per second Programming languages COBOL, Fortran, Symbolic

17 Comparison of the vacuum tube with the transistor
Replaced vacuum tubes as electronic circuits in computers Developed by William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen from Bell Labs in 1947 Won the Nobel Prize in 1956 as a result 100,000 circuits/cubic foot Comparison of the vacuum tube with the transistor

18 Third Generation Computers (1965-1970)
Integrated Circuits (IC) electronic circuits Magnetic tape secondary memory\storage Speed – Nanoseconds Billions of operations per second Silicon Chip silicon crystal that IC is etched in

19 Integrated Circuit (IC)
Invented by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments in 1959 10 million circuits/cubic foot Won the Nobel Prize in 2000 as a result

20 Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present)
Personal micro-computer Microprocessor electronic circuits Magnetic disk secondary memory\storage Speed – picoseconds trillions of operations per second Virtual memory mimics behavior of primary memory

21 Microprocessor Invented by Ted Hoff of Intel in 1971
Very Large Scale Integration (VSLI) tens of thousands electronic components on each IC chip Over 500 billion circuits/cubic foot

22 Steven Jobs Steve Wozniak
Invented Apple Macintosh in First programmable computer available for personal use First computer to use Graphical User Interface

23 Fifth Generation Computers (Future)
Artificial Intelligence Computer learns from itself Natural Language Communicate with computer using everyday language Parallel Processing Ability to process millions of instructions simultaneously Speed – gigaseconds Quadrillions of operations per second

24 What will the future hold in the computer industry?

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