2Definition of a Computer Information ProcessorInput and Output
3Definition of Modern Computer Inputs, outputs, processes and stores informationPhysical: Keyboard, monitor, etc. – are these necessary components?
4History of Computers - Long, Long Ago Abacus BCbeads on rods to count and calculatestill widely used in Asia!
5History of Computers - Way Back When Slide RuleSlide Rule 1630based on Napier’s rules for logarithmsused until 1970s
6History of Computers - 19th Century Jacquard Loomfirst stored program - metal cardsfirst computer manufacturingstill in use today!
7Charles Babbage - 1792-1871 Analytical Engine Difference Engine c.1822 huge calculator, never finishedAnalytical Engine 1833could store numberscalculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructionspowered by steam!accurate to six decimal places
8Vacuum TubesFirst Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum TubesVacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside.Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protects the circuitry.
9UNIVACfirst fully electronic digital computer built in the U.S.Created at the University of PennsylvaniaENIAC weighed 30 tonscontained 18,000 vacuum tubesCost a paltry $487,000
10Grace Hopper Programmed UNIVAC Recipient of Computer Science’s first “Man of the Year Award”
11First Computer Bug - 1945 Relay switches part of computers Grace Hopper found a moth stuck in a relay responsible for a malfunctionCalled it “debugging” a computer
12First Transistor Uses Silicon developed in 1948 won a Nobel prize on-off switchSecond Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956
13Second Generation –1956 – Computers began to incorporate TransistorsReplaced vacuum tubes with Transistors
14Integrated CircuitsThird Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips).Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip”
15Operating System Software – Instructions for Computer Operating system is set of instructions loaded each time a computer is startedProgram is instructions loaded when needed
17The First Microprocessor – 1971 Intel 4004 MicroprocessorThe 4004 had 2,250 transistorsfour-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s)108KhzCalled “Microchip”
18What is a Microchip? Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC) Transistors, resistors, and capacitors4004 had 2,250 transistorsPentium IV has 42 MILLION transistorsEach transistor 0.13 microns (10-6 meters)
194th Generation – 1971-present MICROCHIPS!Getting smaller and smaller, but we are still using microchip technology
20Birth of Personal Computers - 1975 MITS Altair256 byte memory (not Kilobytes or Megabytes)2 MHz Intel chipsJust a box with flashing lightscost $395 kit, $495 assembled.
22Evolution of Electronics Microchip (VLSIC)Integrated CircuitTransistorVacuum Tube
23Evolution of Electronics Vacuum Tube – a dinosaur without a modern lineageTransistor Integrated Circuit Microchip
24IBM PC - 1981 IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture First wide-selling personal computer used in business8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors4.77 Mhz processing speed256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standardOne or two floppy disk drives
25Apple Computers Founded 1977 Apple II released 1977 Macintosh (left) widely used in schoolsMacintosh (left)released in 1984, Motorola Microchip processorfirst commercial computer with graphical user interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse)
271990s: Pentiums and Power Macs Early 1990s began penetration of computers into every niche: every desk, most homes, etc.Faster, less expensive computers paved way for thisWindows 95 was first decent GUI for “PCs”Macs became more PC compatible - easy file transfersPrices have plummeted$2000 for entry level to $500$6000 for top of line to $1500
2821st Century Computing Great increases in speed, storage, and memory Increased networking, speed in InternetWidespread use of CD-RWPDAsCell Phone/PDAWIRELESS!!!
29What’s next for computers? Use your imagination to come up with what the next century holds for computers.What can we expect in two years?What can we expect in twenty years?
30Fifth Generation Computers ????Will be much smaller and faster than 4th GenerationGreatly increased data storage capabilityWill most likely have light, easily transportable display capabilitiesMay be built into clothing
31Fifth Generation Computers Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.
32Physical LimitsChip designers are running up against the laws of physics. Ten years from now, chips will run at 30 GHz and complete a trillion operations per second. Unfortunately, with today's design technologies, those chips would be putting out the same amount of heat, proportionally, as a nuclear power plant.
33Physical Limits & CPUsWe have “hit the wall” of physics in our CPU clock speedsIntel announced in 2004 that it would not attempt to make processors that run at speeds greater than 3.6 GHZFuture CPUs will have multiple “Cores” to increase performance and bandwidth
34Future ComputersFew argue that the next generation of computers will be nearly invisible, meaning that they will blend in with everyday objects. Flexible ink-like circuitry will be printed onto plastic or sprayed onto various other substrates, such as clothes.