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Revolution and Civil War in Russia

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1 Revolution and Civil War in Russia
Ch. 11 Section 5

2 Background 1913 marked the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty
In 1914, the Russian empire stretched from Easter Europe to the Pacific Ocean Russia was slow to industrialize Majority of the population lived in poverty In March 1917, the first of two revolutions would topple the dynasty and pave the way for more radical changes

3 The March Revolution Ends Tsarism
Unrest Deepens Tsar Nicholas II was a weak leader, relying on his secret police to impose his will Marxists tried to ignite revolution among the “proletariat” Impact of World War 1 The war fueled national pride and united Russia Their resources were quickly strained, and by 1915, soldiers didn’t have enough rifles or ammunition In 1915 alone, there were 2 million Russian casualties Tsar Nicholas II went to the front lines to ‘help’ leaving Tsarina Alexandra in charge Alexandra relied on Gregory Rasputin so much that nobles had him killed to protect the monarchy on 12/29/1916

4 The March Revolution Ends Tsarism cont.
The Tsar Steps Down By March 1917, the monarchy collapsed People rioted and marched in St. Petersburg and the troops refused to fire on them The tsar stepped down on the advice of military and political leaders A temporary government was set up and the began preparing a constitution for a new Russian republic Revolutionary socialists set up “soviets” Then, the Bolsheviks, led by V. I. Lenin took charge

5 Fun Fact The Russian revolutions of March and November 1917 are known to Russians as the February and October revolutions In 1917, Russia was still using an old calendar that was 13 days behind the modern calendar Russia adopted the western/modern calendar in 1918

6 Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov was born in 1870
Changed his name to Lenin when he became a revolutionary When he was 17, his brother was arrested and hanged for plotting to kill the tsar His family was labeled a threat, and he hated the tsarist government ever since As a young man, Lenin read Karl Marx, participated in student demonstrations, and spread Marxist ideas among the industrial working class Met Nadezhda Krupskaya, the daughter of a poor noble family In 1895, the pair were arrested and sent to Siberia. They got married and after their release, exiled to Switzerland and continued working towards spreading revolutionary ideas

7 Lenin’s View of Marx Lenin adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russian conditions Russia did not have a large force of rural workers “majority” even though they were a small percentage of socialists In March 1917, Germany helped Lenin return home in an attempt to weaken Russia

8 Bolsheviks Rise to Power
Lenin joined with other exiled activists and was appealing to a struggling country The Provisional Government’s mistakes Peasants wanted land and overpowered landlords Kept fighting in the war with mutinous troops Lack of supplies and morale By November 1917, the Bolsheviks were primed to make their move and seize power from the provisional government

9 The Takeover Red Guards - armed factory workers – joined with mutinous sailors and attacked the provisional government The Bolsheviks quickly seizes power in many cities Moscow fell in a week and became Bolshevik headquarters

10 A New Way The bolsheviks ended private ownership and distributed land to peasants Workers were given control of factories and mines A new flag: red with an entwined hammer and sickle People thought that they had gained control Actually Bolsheviks, renamed Communists, were now in control

11 Russia Plunges into Civil War
After the revolution, Lenin sought peace with Germany Signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 This changed the war for the Allies (Section 3) For 3 years, “Reds” fought “Whites” in a civil war Reds: Communists Whites: tsarist imperial officers, Menchaviks, democrats, etc Allies intervened

12 War Under Communism “Cheka” – secret police Forced labor camps
Took over banks, mines, factories, railroads Red Army used “commisars” By 1921, the Communists managed to defeat their foes

13 Building the Communist Soviet Union
Chaos in Russia Millions dead, from war,famine and disease New Government, Same Problems 1922 – Lenin forms USSR, or Soviet Union Communists created a constitution that claimed to: Seemed democratic and socialist, set up elected legislature, all citizens 18+ can vote, all political power, resources, and means of production belonged to the workers and peasants Not really though. The Communist Party was actually in charge

14 Building the Communist Soviet Union cont.
Lenin’s New Economic Policy Lenin retreated from “war communism” which almost collapsed the economy 1921 – adopts NEP, which allows some capitalist ventures Small business were allowed to reopen for private profit By 1928, food and industrial production were back to prewar levels and the standard of living improved

15 Stalin Takes Over 1924 – Lenin dies at age 54
Power struggle among Communist leaders Trotsky – Marxist, skillful speaker, architect of Bolshevik revolution. Wanted to use Communism against capitalism Joseph Stalin – not a scholar or orator, but a shrewd political operator and behind-the-scenes organizer. Wanted to build socialism at home before branching out Stalin isolated Trotsky and kicked him out of the party. Trotsky fled in 1929, was killed in Mexico in 1940 Lenin had been cautious of Stalin, and was right to, as Stalin used ruthless measures to win dictatorial power

16 Recap: [proletariat, soviet, Cheka, commissar] Tsar abdicated
Lenin and the Bolsheviks Russia did not have a large force of urban workers, so Marxism was adapted to fit them Bolsheviks took over from the provisional government that was set up after the war Lenin’s NEP of 1921 helped restore the economy, including letting small business reopen for private profit Stalin takes over after Lenin dies (uh-oh…)

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