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Revolution and Civil War in Russia CH. 11 SECTION 5.

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1 Revolution and Civil War in Russia CH. 11 SECTION 5

2 Background  1913 marked the 300 th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty  In 1914, the Russian empire stretched from Easter Europe to the Pacific Ocean  Russia was slow to industrialize  Majority of the population lived in poverty  In March 1917, the first of two revolutions would topple the dynasty and pave the way for more radical changes

3 The March Revolution Ends Tsarism  Unrest Deepens  Tsar Nicholas II was a weak leader, relying on his secret police to impose his will  Marxists tried to ignite revolution among the “proletariat”  Impact of World War 1  The war fueled national pride and united Russia  Their resources were quickly strained, and by 1915, soldiers didn’t have enough rifles or ammunition  In 1915 alone, there were 2 million Russian casualties  Tsar Nicholas II went to the front lines to ‘help’ leaving Tsarina Alexandra in charge  Alexandra relied on Gregory Rasputin so much that nobles had him killed to protect the monarchy on 12/29/1916

4 The March Revolution Ends Tsarism cont.  The Tsar Steps Down  By March 1917, the monarchy collapsed  People rioted and marched in St. Petersburg and the troops refused to fire on them  The tsar stepped down on the advice of military and political leaders  A temporary government was set up and the began preparing a constitution for a new Russian republic  Revolutionary socialists set up “soviets”  Then, the Bolsheviks, led by V. I. Lenin took charge

5 Fun Fact  The Russian revolutions of March and November 1917 are known to Russians as the February and October revolutions  In 1917, Russia was still using an old calendar that was 13 days behind the modern calendar  Russia adopted the western/modern calendar in 1918

6 Lenin  Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov was born in 1870  Changed his name to Lenin when he became a revolutionary  When he was 17, his brother was arrested and hanged for plotting to kill the tsar  His family was labeled a threat, and he hated the tsarist government ever since  As a young man, Lenin read Karl Marx, participated in student demonstrations, and spread Marxist ideas among the industrial working class  Met Nadezhda Krupskaya, the daughter of a poor noble family  In 1895, the pair were arrested and sent to Siberia. They got married and after their release, exiled to Switzerland and continued working towards spreading revolutionary ideas

7 Lenin’s View of Marx  Lenin adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russian conditions  Russia did not have a large force of rural workers  “majority” even though they were a small percentage of socialists  In March 1917, Germany helped Lenin return home in an attempt to weaken Russia

8 Bolsheviks Rise to Power  Lenin joined with other exiled activists and was appealing to a struggling country  The Provisional Government’s mistakes  Peasants wanted land and overpowered landlords  Kept fighting in the war with mutinous troops  Lack of supplies and morale  By November 1917, the Bolsheviks were primed to make their move and seize power from the provisional government

9 The Takeover  Red Guards - armed factory workers – joined with mutinous sailors and attacked the provisional government  The Bolsheviks quickly seizes power in many cities  Moscow fell in a week and became Bolshevik headquarters

10 A New Way  The bolsheviks ended private ownership and distributed land to peasants  Workers were given control of factories and mines  A new flag: red with an entwined hammer and sickle  People thought that they had gained control  Actually Bolsheviks, renamed Communists, were now in control

11 Russia Plunges into Civil War  After the revolution, Lenin sought peace with Germany  Signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918  This changed the war for the Allies (Section 3)  For 3 years, “Reds” fought “Whites” in a civil war  Reds: Communists  Whites: tsarist imperial officers, Menchaviks, democrats, etc  Allies intervened

12 War Under Communism  “Cheka” – secret police  Forced labor camps  Took over banks, mines, factories, railroads  Red Army used “commisars”  By 1921, the Communists managed to defeat their foes

13 Building the Communist Soviet Union  Chaos in Russia  Millions dead, from war,famine and disease  New Government, Same Problems  1922 – Lenin forms USSR, or Soviet Union  Communists created a constitution that claimed to:  Seemed democratic and socialist, set up elected legislature, all citizens 18+ can vote, all political power, resources, and means of production belonged to the workers and peasants  Not really though. The Communist Party was actually in charge

14 Building the Communist Soviet Union cont.  Lenin’s New Economic Policy  Lenin retreated from “war communism” which almost collapsed the economy  1921 – adopts NEP, which allows some capitalist ventures  Small business were allowed to reopen for private profit  By 1928, food and industrial production were back to prewar levels and the standard of living improved

15 Stalin Takes Over  1924 – Lenin dies at age 54  Power struggle among Communist leaders  Trotsky – Marxist, skillful speaker, architect of Bolshevik revolution. Wanted to use Communism against capitalism  Joseph Stalin – not a scholar or orator, but a shrewd political operator and behind-the-scenes organizer. Wanted to build socialism at home before branching out  Stalin isolated Trotsky and kicked him out of the party. Trotsky fled in 1929, was killed in Mexico in 1940  Lenin had been cautious of Stalin, and was right to, as Stalin used ruthless measures to win dictatorial power

16 Recap:  [proletariat, soviet, Cheka, commissar]  Tsar abdicated  Lenin and the Bolsheviks  Russia did not have a large force of urban workers, so Marxism was adapted to fit them  Bolsheviks took over from the provisional government that was set up after the war  Lenin’s NEP of 1921 helped restore the economy, including letting small business reopen for private profit  Stalin takes over after Lenin dies (uh-oh…)

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