Presentation on theme: "Federalists Ascendant: John Adams’ Presidency"— Presentation transcript:
1 Federalists Ascendant: John Adams’ Presidency US History – Libertyville HS
2 Development of Political Parties Washington “above” politics, but a federalistFederalist party emergesJohn Adams, Hamilton, etcCharacteristicsPro industrial developmentPro BritishPro strong central government“Looser” interpretation of ConstitutionProminent Federalists
3 Development of Political Parties Democratic-Republicans (D-Rs)Thomas Jefferson, Madison, etcCharacteristicsPro agriculturePro revolutionary FrancePro “common” manPro States rights (vs. strong central government)Strict interpretation of Constitution
4 Election of 1796 First post-Washington election John Adams (F) – 71 EV Thomas Jefferson (D-R) – 68 EVThomas Pinckney (F) – 59 EVAaron Burr (D-R) – 30 EVPresident = John Adams (F)VP = Thomas Jefferson (D-R)
5 President, VP From Different Parties ConstitutionPresident to be person with most EVsVP to be person with second most EVsNo concept of “ticket” or pres, VP running togetherFounders did not anticipate rise of political partiesBecame big problem in Adams’ Admin.VP JeffersonPres. Adams
6 John Adams Born in Massachusetts Raised a “puritan-lite” Became a lawyerSecond cousins to Samuel AdamsJoined patriot cause after Stamp ActPopularized argument “no taxation without representation”Birthplace ofJohn AdamsYoung Adams
7 John Adams During Rev. War, served in Continental Congress Served on “Committee of 5”Looked to for advice on forming governments / writing constitutions
8 Adams in Europe 1777 – Adams sent to France as diplomat Sent back to Europe to negotiate peace treaty,Continued to serve as ambassador to Holland ( ), England ( )Portrait of Treaty of Paris negotiators(British refused to pose – portrait neverFinished)
9 "My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant Vice President AdamsCame in second in election of 1788, 1792 (second of revolutionary generation, only after Washington)Washington rarely asked Adams’ opinionAdams’ main job = president of SenateHis opinion on the Vice-presidency:"My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificantoffice that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived."
10 President Adams: Foreign Policy Continued neutralityAdams wanted to stay out of war between Britain, FranceProblem: Jay’s Treaty angered French, so they began attacking American shippingAdams sent diplomats to negotiate with French (Pinckney, Gerry, Marshall)French (in distance) bearing downon damaged American ship
11 John Adams: XYZ AffairThree French agents demanded $250k bribe, $12 million loan to help French fight wars and public apology just to let Americans see French foreign ministerAmericans went home, insteadAmericans (at left) facing Frenchrevolutionary demands, in USnewspaper cartoon
12 John Adams: XYZ AffairJefferson demanded to see reports from diplomats (Why?)Released to public, changing French agents’ names to X, Y and ZHuge public outcry: “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!”Token handed out during XYZ Affair
13 John Adams: “Quasi-War” Quasi-War: No declaration, but French, American warships attacked each other and merchant shipsAmerican negotiators offered French same terms as Jays Treaty, but French refused1800: Adams renegotiated treatyUS drops claim for damaged merchant shipsFrance released US from alliance of 1778Weakened US affection for FrenchUSS Constellation – active duringQuasi War
14 John Adams: Domestic Affairs Alien-Sedition Acts (1798)Alien Friends ActAuthorized the president to deport any resident alien considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States.”Aimed at French sympathizersAlien Enemies Act (still in effect)authorized the president to apprehend and deport resident aliens if their home countries were at war with the United StatesNaturalization ActExtended the duration of residence required for aliens to become citizens to 14 yearsSedition Actmade it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or its officialsFight in Congress during debateover Sedition Act, 1798
15 John Adams: Domestic Affairs Reaction to Sedition ActJefferson: Unconstitutional!!First AmendmentTenth AmendmentNo Judicial Review yet (M v M in 1803) – thus, exercise of “undelegated powers” by FedsTJ, James Madison introduce KY and VA ResolutionsCalled on states to nullify lawsCompact theory: US made up of voluntary union of states giving some power to central gov’t; but states do not give away their sovereigntyIf state’s sovereignty violated, then state had right to nullify Federal act or secede from union“Congress shall make no lawrespecting an establishment ofreligion, or prohibiting the freeexercise thereof; or abridging thefreedom of speech, or of thePress . . .”“The powers not delegated tothe United States by theConstitution, nor prohibited byit to the States, are reserved tothe States respectively, or tothe people.”
16 John Adams: Domestic Affairs Alien-Sedition Acts in ActionNo aliens deported (many fled)25 people, mainly D-R newspaper editors, arrested under Sedition Act (incl. 1 congressman!)11 tried, 10 convictedLed to end of Federalist PartyFederalists tossed out of officeAfter his election, President Jefferson pardoned all those convicted under Sedition ActThe power of the press . . .
17 The 1800 ElectionOne of the nastiest elections ever (slander, personal attacks)Jefferson v. AdamsCampaign destroyed friendship, for yearsJefferson, Burr tie; election goes to Federalist HouseOn 35 ballots, deadlocked 8 states to 8 statesOn 36th ballot, Hamilton convinced other Federalists to change vote to Jefferson (Burr was personal enemy)Jefferson (D-R) 73Burr (D-R) 73J. Adams (F) 65Pinckney (F) 64
18 1800 Election Aftermath 12th Amendment President, VP run as a ticketEach elector casts 1 vote for a president, & 1 vote for a VPPresident, VP must win absolute majority of EC votesDeadlocks go to House, where each state gets one vote for any of top 3 ticketsFederalists lose control of legislature, Fed bureaucracyAdams: Midnight appointments to judiciary (eventually leads to Marbury v. Madison)Boston Sentinel, 1801
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